PDF | Numerous explanations, classifications, theories and definitions about leadership, exist in the contemporary literature. Substantial effort. to create a broader understanding of the different perspectives on leadership. In the second part of the Chapter, some of the well-known leadership theories will. Apply leadership theories to a simulated clinical setting. □. □. Advanced nurses will be able to: Teach at least three advanced nursing students about four.

Leadership Theories Pdf

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Keywords Education, Leadership, Theories, Styles, Principles, Methods, Management, Policies and enior-Level%20Managers%%bestthing.info [6] Bass. Theoretical perspectives on leadership behavior: 1. General psychology, ex. cognitive theories, information processing theories, motivational theories, affect. Leadership Theories and Models from the Perspective of Western Scholars. Ezad Azraai Jamsari. siti tibek. Wan Mujani. Professor Dr Noor Inayah Yaakub.

Several factors encourage the employee to stay with the Worker expects more from their leaders and just viable leader organisation. Among these factors, leaders are one of the satisfies employee desires.

In like manner, the variables that essential factors that cannot be ignored in employee retention. Thus, Leaders role and their leadership style are A leader who received respect from his subordinates essential in employee retention Ngethe, Similarly, Leadership was described as a guidance relationship The leader who had both qualities and knowing when to among leaders and employees who intend real changes and use each leadership style in a given situation was considered outcomes that reflect their shared purposes Daft, As a rule, when people entered a Leadership helps to transform potential into reality Barnard, position, employees had the desire of getting along with his or Leadership develops employee morale as a positive her leader and the two developed a working relationship attitude toward organisational goals.

Employee expects more from their attempt and "ride out the tempest" before exposing themselves leaders and only effective leader fulfils employee IJISRT18NV www. Likewise, the factors that drive employee Blanchard, Tate, A leader must have several qualities which must differentiate them from their subordinates.

Early leadership B. Path-Goal theory theories focused on such leadership qualities while subsequent Path-Goal theory depends on Vroom's theories focused on skills.

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Leadership theories can be expectation hypothesis. A man will act dependent on the classified into eight major types such as autocratic, craving that the demonstration will be taken after by a given bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, outcome and on the connecting with the nature of that participative, situational, transactional, and transformational outcome to the individual. The path-goal theory was first leadership Mosadeghrad, Different styles were needed presented by Martin Evans and created by House for different situations, and each leader needed to know when In this research, the author discussed four leadership leaders energies and bolster their adherents in accomplishing theories to study how leadership theories influence employee the objectives they have been set by making the way that they retention.

House and Mitchell characterized four sorts of leader styles: Directive, Supportive, A. Contingency Theory Participative and Achievement Fiedler talked about the possibility hypothesis.

The possibility approach Organizations require dynamic administrators and endeavours to contextualize the different HRM rehearses in employee to accomplish their targets. A leader creates confidence prepared with human connections. Preparing expands among his subordinates. Leader clarifies the path by removing execution.

The substance of Fiedler's hypothesis leader's the roadblocks and help his followers to remove the bigger viability relies upon a blend of two powers: blocks. According to the path-goal model, there is one right method for accomplishing an objective and that the leader can Possibility demonstrates it measures leader esteem and understand the way and the devotees cannot. This gives the feels independent of their supporter's observation. A leader's leader a job as the knowing individual and the supporter as essential leadership considers the accompanying segments into penniless.

As the leader kept on following a way of the record, which impact the choice: situational factors acknowledgement and reward with the subordinate, the affecting the leader, individual properties of the leader, conduct of the leader impacted the likelihood the subordinate leader's behavior, organizational viability and situational would accomplish his or her objectives House, ; Vroom factors influencing the organization Johnson and Blanchard, and Jago, The way objective hypothesis can best be Trait theory Hershey and Blanchard suggest four principal The trait leadership theory trusts individuals are either leadership styles: conceived or made with specific characteristics that make them shine in leadership positions.

Trait theory distinguishes Telling: This style alludes leader to instruct individuals leaders from a common man based on some primary and how to do. The leadership among leaders and adherents. Leaders "pitch" their thoughts traits and characteristics have been categorized by Jago and messages to assemble individuals.

Besides, Trait bearing and enables individuals from the gathering to play a model of leadership assumes that leadership is based on the more dynamic job in concocting thoughts and deciding.

Moreover, it describes behaviours and hands-off way to deal with the administration. Gathering individuality associated with leadership traits.

Similarly, Trait individuals grade to settle on a large portion of the choices theory helps to identify traits and disposition needed to lead and take the vast majority of the duty. On the other hand, trait theory attempts to classify what personal characteristics such as physical, personality, and The correct style relies upon the capacity of the person.

Hershey and Blanchard's hypothesis distinguishes four unique dimensions of development. They can understand the strength and weakness finish the assignment. To be viable, they need to demonstrate their capacity to impart a dream, and through Hershey-Blanchard show recommends that the systems administration, utilize political and social aptitudes to accompanying authority styles are the most proper realize the average change West, Gandhi and development levels: Roosevelt are good examples of trait leadership.

Locke embody the trait theory. The situational hypothesis depends on a fitting confidence or, as such energetic relentlessness , scholarly appraisal of conditions in a given circumstance. A mono style limit, and learning of the business Vector Study, way to deal with authority is not adequate in tending to the dynamic, multidimensional, and complex nature of social D.

This model expects adaptability of situational leadership theory. According to Hersey and style in the leader, their conduct aptitudes and also the Blanchard, not one single "best" style of leadership fit for all capacity to analyse the circumstance and the style that is condition.

Trait Theory of Leadership and Its Key Characteristics

Thus, Leaders are those who can become required their capacity Gill, In this way, the style to execute a specific assignment. Moreover, Successful appropriate initiative is necessary to accomplish high worker leaders change their authority style dependent on the adherents degrees of consistency Spinelli, So also, Leaders depict the best Contingency theory requires different styles of approach to complete a specific errand.

Leaders must spotlight leadership to tackle the different condition to ensure high on relationship instead of course to guarantee high retention retention rates. The success of the leader was based on the level.

Contingency theory of IV. Numerous researchers judge the work RETENTION by Fielder, and his partners was a shared commitment that roused thought of individual and situational viewpoints in Employee retention is a critical competitive parameter in leadership.

Leadership theories conclude that an effective leader increases employee morale which turns as Path-Goal theory describes that the leader specifies the high motivational level and impacts employee job satisfaction path for the follower to achieve the organisational goal.

An organisation's structure, structure, activity Leaders motivate effort towards the task.

An accompanied style, and methodologies set the tone for specialist satisfaction task gives a satisfied mind and turns into retention. This theory and spirit Houghton and Yoho, Worker work identifies four types of leader behaviour: Supportive, directive, fulfilment relies on the administration conduct of directors participative and achievement oriented.

The leader directs Sikandar, Studies have demonstrated that distinctive follower behaviour by changing the follower's perception. Leaders conduct Yarmohammadian, The utilisation of specific initiative diminishes uncertainty; elucidate the connection between conduct by chief influences both occupation fulfilment and devotee exertion and real fulfilment and connection supporter efficiency of the employees Sikandar, Today's labour market is fast changing in nature, and it requires a different kind of leadership style to meet the Trait theory separates leaders from adherents, viable innovations.

Finding people with perfect leadership style is a from insufficient.

The hypothesis fixates exclusively big challenge in every organisation. Leadership theories play concerning the leader in power and like this has possessed the an important role in employee retention. A good leader can be capacity to supply a more critical and more perplexing a good boss, but a good boss may not be a good leader.

Also, private hypothesis shows the path how it has to be done.


Boss use people, but a centres solely on the job of the leader and consequently has leader develops people. In this manner, the study developed possessed the capacity to give a more profound and more the following framework to demonstrate the impacts of many-sided comprehension of how the leader and his or her leadership theory on employee retention.

The qualities of Trait hypothesis looks for leaders have superhuman capacities. Remembering those proposed attributes and capacities, a leader ought to have one must be god-like with the end goal to be a successful and moral leader Grint, Leader's accomplishment can be empowered with his adherents and swings into retention.

A National Study. Administration in Social Work, 32 3 , Fiedler, E. F A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. Mcgrew Hill. New York. Gill, R.

Basically, a leader needs to have an understanding of human nature such as their needs, emotions and suitable motivation. A leader has to have an honest understanding of himself, of who he is, what he knows and what he can do. In addition, a leader has to remember that it is followers who determine whether a leader is effective or not. If a leader is unreliable and followers lack confidence in him, then the followers will not be motivated to do their job.

Hence, to excel as a leader, he must inculcate honesty in himself and convince the workers to carry out their tasks.

However, much of existing communication is no more oral. The leader is an example for the followers. What and how a leader communicates will determine whether it will strengthen or break off relations between a leader and his workers.

Each person is different, what a leader does in a given situation will not always be the same in another situation. A leader has to use proper consideration in deciding the best action and the most effective leadership style for every situation. A leader may have used an unsuitable leadership style with a particular worker and if this results in conspiracy, then he has to act quickly to control the situation to ensure that his followers remain on the right track according to organisational goals.

Top-Down Leadership Model: This model is pyramid-shaped and points to the direction of power flow from up to down, that is, from the highest authority to the workers below. It clearly shows the flow of directives and authority from top management to the middle, down to the implementer of directives. In this situation, the directives come from only one source and workers execute them quite unquestioningly.

This model can be seen in organisation charts which have a clear hierarchy in the organisation, particularly in government organisational charts. In an organisation, the head is the most powerful person, for example, in a university administration, the Vice- Chancellor is the highest authority, followed by the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and so on. The shortcoming of this model is that all directives which need implementation must go through various levels, whereby the process of directives from top management to the workers who implement them, must pass via many layers of management, which is time-consuming.

The descent of directives from one layer to another layer not only takes time, it may also cause the directives to become flawed and incomplete. This model is more bureaucratic in nature with much red tape to reach a decision.

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Bureaucratic leadership is not very good, but it is still used in many government organisations. The advantage of this leadership pattern is that it does not bend to personal problems, has clearly-set tasks and functions and avoids wastage due to change in top leadership. The implementers of directives do not usually question top management directives because they regard the directives as coming from policy-makers which must be implemented.

However, the effectiveness of directives is difficult to monitor by top management because in a bureaucracy exist many levels of management, particularly in a big organisation. If a particular directive needs a certain interpretation, it is possible that various versions of implementation will occur causing the objectives or goals to be missed. Generally, this model resembles autocratic leadership because a directive given comes from top to down, one-way and no questions asked.

Views and opinions are only from the top management and policy-makers, similar to an autocratic adminstration. For example, in the education system of Malaysia, the Ministry of Education directed schools to implement teaching of Science and Mathematics in English language. Even though this was opposed by many parties, schools are as if forced to do so by policy-makers.

Nevertheless, this model is very suitable in new and immature organisations probably because the staff is still new, less knowlegeable and less experienced in the situation and thus need to be directed by top management.

Transformation Model: According to J. Burns , transformational leadership is one based on transaction or exchange between the leader and the worker. This exchange is based on discussion between the leader and related parties to determine the consideration or reward for the worker if he meets or achieves the conditions set by the leader. Transformational leadership involves dramatic changes in an organisation such as creating and implementing a vision, responsibility to make workers or followers aware of the organisational norms and values and giving space to and encouraging changes, internal and external.

Seven characteristics possessed by transformational leaders are: The pattern of leader-worker relationship in transformatonal leadership is as follows: So it was with the development of transformational leadership, which was introduced by J. Burns in the year These views reflect that transformational leadership requires very exceptional leadership capacity, whereby the leader is able to raise the awareness of followers towards realizing changes for the organisational interest, in addition to helping them explore and rise above their personal interest.

Leadership theories

It can be concluded that there are 4 main characteristics in transformational leadership: Idealized influence is behaviour which results in a high standard of behaviour, provides vision and awaareness of it, shows confidence, gives rise to respect, builds commitment, leads to better work performance and increases worker morale. Inspirational motivation refers to a highly motivated attitude in the leader which in turn makes workers motivated.

Bass states that a leader who is motivated will show behaviour which will arouse a worker to achieve the best performance in his career development, inspires and guides his worker to achieve a better future, works hard to achieve targets, works optimally, directs potential as a whole and encourages worker to work more than usual.

A leader provides specific attention to individual worker problems in his achievements and development as his trainer or mentor. A leader also shows appreciation for each improvement in worker performance.

This attitude enhances worker potential and influences job satisfaction and productivity. Intellectual stimulation refers to the process of increasing understanding in the stimulation of new ideas for dealing with problems, thinking, imagining and setting belief values.

It also relates to logic, anlysis, rationale and using an approach acceptable to workers. By this method, a leader may stimulate the growth of innovation and creativity in problem-solving. A transformational leader has exceptional ability in giving speeches, persuasion and high conceptual and technical skills such that workers will make a leader their model example to emulate and they are willing to defend him if he is threatened.

In the transformational leadership concept, workers need to play their role in being willing to make changes when requested and to be confident in the benefit of such changes for them and the organisation as a whole. In addition, other skills required of a leader are making anticipations, persuasion and comparison, understanding value changes as well as the ability to understand the needs and wishes of workers.

Leadership Functional Model: The Functional Leadership Model is not only suitable for use in business, it may also be applied in school and educational organisations. Field Marshall William Slim had introduced the Military Leadership Model because he believed that it could be implemented in the business world. He asserted in his book Defeat into Victory, that the spirit ia an important source of energy to achieve success, whereby spiritual strength gives rise to mental, intellectual and material strength.

The management functions such as planning, initiating, controlling, supporting, informing and evaluating progress are very important in achieving leadership effectiveness.

This model is also based on the Action-Centred Leadership concept, which is widely developed and publicly accepted. Among the studies which use this model are those by William , Mat and Mohd Yusof Leadership Skills: Conceptual Skills: A leader needs to have the ability to analyse, think logically and be creative in giving ideas and opinions as well as solving problems.

Technical Skills: Technical skills are related to methods, procedures and techniques related to specific instruments used in carrying out tasks and activities.

Communication Skills: An effective leader requires communication skills vis-a-vis workers under him. Communication skills are closely linked to other people, particularly with their feelings and attitude.

In addition, a leader needs to clearly and effectively convey instructions regarding tasks to his workers. Leadership is a process whereby a leader influences workers under him to follow in executing tasks willingly to achieve organisational goals. Leadership is closely linked to the rise and fall of an organisation. Each leader must have followers. His success or otherwise in influencing his followers depends on his way of using his intelligence in applying suitable leadership theories and models in different situations.

A leader must be able to influence and motivate his followers. An effective leadership is leadership which may bring changes in an organisation and the behaviour of workers. It is not easy to be a leader who can really influence his subordinates to be loyal followers.

A leader requires mastery of certain skills and behaviour styles to suit circumsatnces. Thus, a leader needs to always learn how to be a better leader because leadership has to be learnt from knowledge and experience. References Bass, B. Leadership and Performance beyond Expectation. Free Press. Bass, B.

M, From Transitional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision. Organizational Dynamics Winter: Blake, R. Shepard and J.

Mouton, Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Gulf Publishing.

Burns, J. Coffey, R. Cook and P. Hunsaker, Management and Organization Behavior. Bur Ridge. Fiedler, F. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. Horner, M.M, If a leader is unreliable and followers lack confidence in him, then the followers will not be motivated to do their job.

The Path-goal theory explains 4 types of leader behaviour: Robbins, S. Cook and P.

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