INTERIOR DESIGN PDF

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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . In the following description of the major parts of the design process, the comments made earlier about its flexibility should be borne in mind; any or all. PREFACE Interior design is a fast developing discipline. Its importance lies in the fact that the interior use of an en.


Interior Design Pdf

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PDF | Limited space calls for professional help to make the living and 7 Interior Decoration. 8. Design: The design of the furniture should be. Taylor Interiors is established as one of the UK's leading and award-winning interior design practices; creating exquisite interiors and properties using the finest. ebook interior design free ebook interior design interior design interior 14 SketchUp for Interior Design_ 3D Visualizing, Designing, and Space Planning. pdf.

Grease trap can be a small cast iron or masonry chamber with a bent pipe as on outlet. The oily substances float to the surface to form a scum on top. The bent pipe allows the sewage to flow out while retaining the scum. This scum cari be removed out from the top. These particles need steep slopes and higher velocities. These should be trapped and removed in silt traps. These silt traps are required where extensive utensil washing is carried out like hotels and restaurants.

Silt and grease traps can be combined. Waste Water Disposal Waste water Disposal is done through inspection chambers or manholes, septic tanks and with proper ventilation systems.

It is provided at every junction or change of direction or gradient and at 30 m intervals in the long straight lengths. TIle drainage pipes are opened out in these chambers to form channels. The bottom is given steep slope towards the open channel in the centre of the chamber. This prevents blockages and deposits of soil in the pipes. The chambers are closed from top with cast iron covers to prevent escape of foul gases.

The size of the chamber depends on the underground depth and number of branches to be connected See Fig. This system is useful where municipal sewerage system is not available. In the septic tank lighter matter rises to the surface and form a thick layer called 'scum' while heavIer matter sinks to the bottom as 'sludge', The tanks are made air-tight, water-tight and excluded from light to help the sewage decomposition process. The layers of scum and sludge are not disturbed.

The size of a septic tank depends on the number of users. A septic tank should be initially filled with water and constructed far away from the house. The effluent may be disposed into a cesspool. The size of the cesspool depends on the absorption capacity of the soil and the number of users. A cesspool is constructed with bricks or stones with open joints below the level of inlet pipe.

The cesspool may be filled with gravel or brickbats at the bottom. It should not be located within 30m radius of a drinking water well or bore well. If the foul gases does not escape into the air, they may break the water seal of the traps. The ventilation ducts dilute the foul gases and their poisonous effects.

These fresh air inlets can be provided by an outlet pipe directly connected to the underground drain or over the manhole and rise above the roof level of the building. The fresh air inlet should be vertical, about mm diameter, atleast 3 m above ground level and with a slotted cast iron head on top.

A long 30 to 50 nun diameter cast iron pipe is used as an outlet pipe. In addition to this, ventilation system should be provided on every soil and waste pipe of every water closet and bath. When wc's of more than one floor are connected with the same soil pipe, an anti-siphonage pipe or vent pipe is fixed to the outlet side to both the traps to prevent siphonic action and emptying of the sealed traps in the lower water-closets when the upper water-closet is flushed.

The vent pipe can be taken up to the top of the soil pipe and provided with a wire globe. This vent pipe should be taken above the level of the building roof.

Sanitary appliances There are various types of sanitary appliances available in the market.. Most commonly used sanitary appliances are a Wash basins b Sinks c Showers d Bath tubs e Urinals j Flushing cisterns g Water closets a Wash basins - There are various types and shapes of wash basins for different uses.

They are made of cast iron, steel, porcelain and plastic materials. The standard wash basin consists of a bowl, soap tray and holes for tap and water overflow. TIley may be supported on cast iron brackets screwed to the wall or on a pedestal concealing the pipework. They 'are normally fixed at 0. There are three types of sinks. They are Belfast type, ordinary type and stainless steel type. The belfast type has water overflow which passes water to the waste pipe. A drain board may be fixed on either side of the sink or the drain can be integrated into the sink.

Ordinary sink is similar to Belfast type but it does not have proVision for water overflow. Stainless steel sinks have drain board on either side or on one side with single or double bowls as per the need.

It is more hygienic and takes less space and water. The mixer may be thermostatic or non-thermostatic. The shower tray is made of plastic and porcelain materials. The bore of the supply pipes is 13 mm and the pipes should be as short as possible to avoid frictional losses. The minimum height above the shower outlet should be 1.

In place of a shower tray, hU'ger tiled space is also used for taking shower on some occasions. Bath tubs are used for relaxed bathing. They are made of porcelain, steel and plastic materials. These tubs are provided with holes for hot and cold water pipes for mixing before taking bath.

Provision is also made for water overflow and waste outlet. These bath tubs can be made of different fancy shapes and sizes. Normally the length varies from to cm, width varies from 55 to 58 cm and depth 40 to 45 cm. The bottom of the tub is supported with short legs on the floor. Slab and stall type urinals are used in public toilets. The stall type consists of curved stalls with dividing pieces and glazed channel.

The foot rests should be non-slippery and sloping towards the channels. Ordinary brick walls with cement plastered surfaces are not suitable for urinals. They should be cladded with glazed tiles and joints should withstand the chemical reaction. The urinal waste pipes can be in plastic or lead with 50 mm diameter.

Not more than seven urinals should drain into one outlet. Urinals are normally made of glazed tiles. Flushing cisterns are made of cast iron, porcelain and plastic materials. There are two types of cisterns, the bell type and the disc type, which are most commonly used. The bell type of flushing cistern is noisy. The cistern is operated by pulling down the chain and lifting the bell. When the water runs down it takes away some air and it results in vaccum on the tDp of the bell.

The water gets empty within few seconds due to the syphonic action. The water to the cistern is supplied through ball valve arrangement. The disc type flushing cistern is commonly used in all types of buildings. The cistern is operated by a lever which lifts the piston and water is tlushed by siphon action. There arc other types of Ilushing cisterns like flushing trough and automatic flushing cisterns and valves. A flushing trough is used as an alternative to separate nushing cisterns for the flushing of more number of wc's.

Automatic flushing cisterns and valves are also used for similar purpose in puolic toilets. In Indian type of wc, squatting pan is used. There arc two types of flushing systems adopted. They are wash down type and syphonic type. In the wash down type a high level tlushing cistern ahove the door level is used for flushing.

In the syphonic type, a low level flushing cistern is used. The surfaces ofthe bowl are cleaned totally in this type. This is particularly used in western wc's. When the cistern is flushed the water flows through the outlet, which is designed to slow down the flow of water and the pipe is filled with water causing siphonic action. The siphonic wc's are comparatively quieter in operation. Table 4. Different sizes of pipes D.

Plumbing systems. There are four systems of plumbing for building drainage. In multistoreyed buildings the lavatory blocks on different floors are placed above one another so that the waste water from different units can be carried through common vertical pipes connected by short branch drains.

Thus only one main pipe. All traps of wc's and wash basins are completely ventilated whereas gully traps and waste pipes are not provided. There is only one soil pipe for colfecting the discharge from all water closets, baths, sinks and basins. A relief vent pipe for ventilating only the traps of wc's is provided.

The soil pipes are directly cOIlllected to the drain, whereas waste pipes are coIlllected through a trapped gully. All traps are completely ventilated. In India, the two pipe system is comparatively more convenient because close grouping of fixtures is not necessary. However in multistoreyed buildings one pipe system is preferable because close grouping of toilets is necessary for convenience and economy.

Residence drainage plan The Fig. It is assumed that the drainage and sewer lines are combined. Describe the water supply systems in multi-storeyed buildings? Describe various traps used in the sanitation of buildings? What are the different wa. Describe the important sanitary appliances? What are the various plumbing systems adopted in buildings? Ventilation means supply of fresh air and removing dust, heat and other pollutants for human comfort.

Natural ventilation is very important for healthy living. These poorly ventilated buildings' are not in city slums, but in densely built up areas, particularly in the centre of the city.

As an Interior Designer, it is essential to ensure good natural ventilation in any building interior. Natural ' ventilation helps in improving hygienic conditions. For any type of interior design and planning, it is important to create healthy living conditions otherwise there is no difference between old and new buildings. Everything stands next only to this primary concern. The following factors should be taken into consideration for natural ventilation.

AtIeast one window should be provided on the windward wall and another window on the opposite side of the wall. In case of a room with only one wall exposed outside, two windows are preferable' than a single window.. Windows located directly opposite to each other perform beUer.

Maximum air movemeIit is achieved by keeping the silI height at 0.

Verandah open on three sides increases air motion in an adjoining room. The average wind velocity inside a room may be around 27 percent of the out door air velocity. Openings of equal size are preferred in regions having fairly constant wind direction. Ventilation with fans Mechanical ventilation is necessary, where natural ventilation is not possible and to remove pollutants. The use of mechanical ventilation will allow for provision of air temperature control, humidity and purity.

Buildings of different use demand different quantities of fresh air for their occupants. It is expressed in terms of air changes per hour. For air motion, fans and exhaust fans are used. Fans should be chosen based on the area to be ventilated and not on the size of the room alone. They should be uniformly distributed for proper. The following table can be used as a thumb rule, but precise ventilation requirements should be calculated based on the activity performed in the room or building.

Table 5. Fans for rooms of different sizes Source: Central Building Research Institute, India. Ventilation with ducts While designing ducts for air, number of features should be incorporated. The duct should be smooth. The number of changes of directions of the duct should be minimised. Branches from main ducts should be made with a gradual curve and should not be sharp. Galvanised mild steel is the most widely used duct material. This may be pressed into rectangular sections and bolted or riveted.

Circular ducts can also be made with wrapped flat sheets. As the size of;the duct increases, there is a possibility of the wall vibrating due to the air movement. Efficient delivery of air to rooni spaces involves detailed calculation oeair flow velocities. At the points of delivery, the cross sectional profile of the duct may become smaller. Conical diffusers are best for efficient throw of air into the space. Dampers within the ducts will control the flow of air and resists spread of fire.

Ventilation ducts may extend to all areas of a building creating potential routes for noise transfer. Proper care should be taken to contain it. Bureau of Indian Standards, Air change per hour is the volume of outside air allowed into a room in one hour compared with the volume of the room. However, there is a scientific method of calculating the openings for permanent ventilation based on Bureau of Indian Standards, Openings of the size obtained by the following equation should be provided on wind facing wall and also on the opposite wall.

What are the guidelines for good natural ventilation? Describe the methods of mechanical ventilation? How do you calculate the size of openings for good natural ventilation?

Humidity The control of humidity in the air is very important.

Dry air puts strain on the nasal vassages of the nose making them dry and irritating. To avoid this moisture is added to the heated' air. This process is called 'Humidification', and it is done d;11fingthe winter season. The moisture is extracted from the cOOled air during summer. This process is called 'Dehumidification'. Normal relative humidity should be between 40 to 60 percent in the air. The desirable relative humidity for human comfort is 40 to 50 percent during summer and 50 to 60 percent during winter.

Apart from these, air can have suspension dust particles, bacteria etc. In winter the cycle involves. Both these operations should be done for a whole year use in the case of composite air conditiorring, The following filters are used for air cleaning. Impingement filters. The impurities in the air are trapped and retained in the filter element. The materials normally used are glass fibre, steel wool, bronze or copper wool etc. Dry strainer filters These fIlters have collecting surfaces made of cloth, felt, glass fibre etc.

Electrostatic precipitators These fIlters remove dirt by electrically charging the particles and then attracting them on to a plate. SteriUsation of air. Some organisms are removed by air washing. In, this process ultraviolet light is used for sterilisation.

This light is used on the air duct leading to the conditioned space. Odour control , The earlier method is by diluting with outdoor air. The present method is to use chemiCaldeodarants to reduce odour. All structural elements used in the buildings like floors, roofs and walls should offer enough resistance to the transmission of heat from outside. The foUowing cycle is involved in air-conditioning of any system a Sucking the outside air through a fIltering media.

Cleaning of air 2. Cooling or heating of air 3. Humidification or Dehumidification of air 4. Circulation of air tllfOUgh ducts 5. AC space 6. Foul air taken out by exhaust faDs 7.

Mixing of outside and used air B.

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The followingtenns are cODimonly used in air-conditioning systems: Complete air-conditioning is used where the temperature systems: The necessary equipment is assembled on the spot than in the factory.

The entire space to be air-conditioned is divided into different areas. The temperature and humidity can be adjusted according to the specific requirements of each area. This system is economical because one system serves. Smaller units are kept within the room and larger units are placed at a different place and connected by ducts. This system is designed for application in smaller establishments like shops, restaurants etc.

Most of them are air-cooled units to be placed on a window sill or near a source of outside air. Some of them are available for winter heating also. These units are self-contained. Sometimes a combination of the two systems is preferred. The major refrigeration methods used for. Mechanical vapour compression system B. Vapour absorption system A. Generally, if the pressure is increased then the transformation also increases quickly. The refrigerant at a pressure and temperature can be made to evaporate by allowing it expand to a lower pressure with the help of a throttle.

It will have to absorb heat from the surroundings. Through compression the heat is rejected. This principle is used in the vapour system In this process, the refrigerant used is water. Water absorbs heat while boiling. The evaporation is absorbed by a solution of lithium bromide. The weak lithium bromide solution is pumped into a generator where steam heats the solution. This heating bOils the lithium bromide solution giving away the water.

This principle is used in the vapour absorption system. Most commonly used equipment in refrigeration and air-conditioning system are compressors, evaporators, condensers, cooling towers, spray ponds, expansion valves, air handling units and dUCl-;.

Air-conditioning has become a specialised area requiring the services of a specialist for design, particularly for large spaces like cinema theatres, auditoriums, hospitals etc. In deciding the type of system for cooling, there arc many factors which should be taken into consideration like number of windows, occupants, floor level, building orientation etc.

The following. The following table should be taken only as a thumb rule for calculation. Table 6. What are Describe What are What are the atmospheric conditions required for human comfort?

What is the need for air-conditioning? Natural lighting is the light available in nature. We perform all our activities in this daylight. Daylight is nothing but sunlight on earth. Intensity of sunlight varies depending upon the atmospheric conditions. Sunlight is very bright in the morning and dull in the evening.

Its brightness is more in the afternoon causing glare, and we try to protect our eyes with a shade from this glare. When we construct buildings we try to make use of this daylight to perform our activities inside a sheltered space.

The availability of the daylight within a building will not be the same as it is outside because of the roof and walls of the structure. The admission of daylight into the building depends upon the number of openings provided in the building. If the building -isopen on all thefour sides then the daylight is not cut-off by any obstruction, but such a situation is uncommon in the densely populated areas 'Qfthe city.

In India, it is preferable to use as much daylight as possible to save energy. However, it is not possible on many occasions to provide totaldaylight'inside the building.

On such occasions, a combination of artificial and natural lighting is preferable. This will help to save energy without sacrificing lighting requirements.

It is difficult to measure the availability of daylight inside a building, but certain factors can be taken into consideration to measure it. This is called as 'Daylight Factor DF ', which is expressed in percentage. The daylight factor includes the following: Thus the daylight available inside a building is only filtered and reflected sunlight. The value of sky Component SC is zero, when there is a complete roof over a building.

Light coloured surfaces have high reflection factor and dark coloured surfaces have low reflectioh factor. The other parameters essential in interior daylighting design are outdoor atmospheric conditions. The required number of openings can be derived from the Fig. The following assumptions are made, forcalcu1ating the openings for natural lighting in the Fig. The ceiling of a room should be, preferably, painted in white colour to reflect more light. The corners of a roomcan be provided with windows to avoid dark corners.

Broad openings give better distribution of light Deep openings niinimise giare. What is daylight factor? What are the guidelines for good natUralligbting? Artificial lighting is necessary duIing the nights and also when natural lighting is poor.

Wide variety of lamps are used to enhance the design and appearance. There are many interior spaces without sufficient daylight and almost dark in many cases. Under such conditions, an Interior Designer is compelled to resort to artificial lighting. Apart from this, artificial lighting has become a fancy.

Keeping this in mind, different types af lighting arrangements are dis ''1lssed belaw: Direct lighting In direct lighting the SQurce af lighting is exposed 1bere are different types of direct lighting apart from direct exposure of the bulb..

It is a comfortable type af lighting because the light is actually directed towards the activity like reading or writing. The light is not directed towards the eyes, so. Even though the sources of light is nat seen, the light is projected dawnwards wherever it is needed to. Down lighters are useful for reading and othef'activities perf armed at a fixed place ina room.

It can light up dark areas of a room as it can be directed. It has greater flexibility and occupies less space. If it is used with discretion, it is very effective and dramatic..

A simple track is wired and fitted on the. The track is usually four feet lang and can take faurlights, which need not be af the same type.

Variaus types af lamps can be attached to the track at any point and directed towards the required side. Spotlights can be used to illuminate a painting or to get a special effect.

It can be fixed to. The light saurce is covered by a shade. It is f'txed and cannat be maved or directed towards any place. Sametimes it is anlvnossible to. Indirect lighting Indirect lighting is more flexible and less harsh than direct lighting but it gives less light. Some light is last because it is reflected from a surface. Lot depends an the nature af that surface. The reflector can be a wall ar part of the fitting.

The colour and texture af the reflector will affect the quantity and quality af light emitted. These type of f'tttings are good for general lighting and nat for warking.

It can be used in the rooms af a house where general lighting is needed for relaxing. Saftness and brightness can be achieved by reflecting the light from a wallar ceiling. Diffused lighting In this type of fittings, light is emitted through a diffuser such as glass, plastic and fabric. The shade gives the form af light. The quantity and quality af tight depends on the sharle.

They can be made to appear modem or ald. Old glass oil lamps and chandeliers are aften used as diffused glass shades.

Fabric shades can also be used. Composite lighting In camposite lighting several types af lighting are used. In the living room of a house saft relaxing indirect lighting is needed but at the same time it may require direct lighting for reading or working. The f'tttings like angular lamps and dawn lighters can be used fram electric sackets far such activities. Concealed lighting In cancealed lighting the fittings are hidden so that only light is seen.

This is dane with the help af fluarescent strips or spats or fIaads. When these are hidden behind a pelmet ar baffle, they can give good effect The curtain pelmet hides the strip light. Light is thrown an the material giving it a rich look. The pasitioning of such concealed f'tttings is very important otherwise they may nat give the desired effect. These are reduced by step-down transformers at sub- stations. These are further brought down by local transformers.

Bulk of the artificial lighting generated is alternating current AC. Alternating means that the current flow direction is constantly reversing at the rate of 50 times per second. A single phase supply is most commonly used for residential consumers. Industrial and commercial consumers may take the three phase supply.

In three phase supplies a fuse or circuit breaker is fitted to each phase. Electric lighting is distributed through. Lamps can be divided into three categories: Incandescent lamps. These are also known as tungsten lamps, which are most commonly used in homes. They consist of a thin filament of tungsten inside a glass bulb. When current is passed, heat is produced and the temperature of the filament rises.

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The filament is designed in such a way that it reaches a temperature generating light energy and heat, which means that the filament glows or it is incandescent, so the lamp is known as incandescent lamp. These type of lamps cannot give a daylight colour. Tungsten halogen lamps In a normal incandescent lamp the filament loses.

The inert gas inside the bulb reduces the rate of evaporation but it cannot prevent completely. Improvement can be obtained by adding halogen to the gas giving rise to a reversable chemical reaction. Tungsten evaporates from the filament and diffuses towards the bulb wall.

This makes it necessary for the filament to be at a higher temperature than in an ordinary tungsten lamp and the bulb should be smaller. It has longer life and a higher light output than an ordinary tungsten lamp.

It is useful for floodlighting and. It is most widely used in automobile headlamps.. Fluorescent lamps The fluorescent lamp depends on the discharge of a current through a gas or a vapour at a low pressure. A fluorescent lamp consists of a long glass tube containing a mixture of mercury vapour and argon gas at a pressure.

When the lamp is cold, the mercury is in the form of small globules on the surface of the tube. The argon gas is needed to start the discharge. The radiation emitted by the current discharge thr: Any colour may be used for the fluorescent coating.

So many fluorescent materials are available to obtain almost any colour, including daylighL The circuit includes a starter and a choke to regulate the passage of current. Fluorescent lamps have a lower surface brightness and higher efficiency in terms of light energy.

The production process is more difficult, so these tubes are more expensive. Mercury lamps Mercury lamps are discharge lamps which operate on the same principle as fluorescent lamps. At high pressure the radiation emitted by the mercury can be used without a fluorescent coating. It is converted into a visible red by a fluorescent coating on the inner surface, and the combined light from the arc tube and the coating has a colour which is considered acceptable for street, factory and warehouse lighting.

Sodium vapour lamps Sodium vapour lamps are similar to mercury lamps, but sodium is used for filling instead of mercury. The discharge which starts in the neon is of red colour. This warms the tube and gradually vapourises the sodium. After nearly twenty minutes. The sodium discharge lamp is the most efficient means of converting electric. High pressure sodium lamps give a sunny yellow light. High pressure sodium lamps have avery high efficiency and long life.

Two types of sodium vapour lamps are shown in the figure See Fig. Metal halide lamps The colour of a mercury lamp can be improved by the addition of another metal. This can be achieved by using the metal in the form of its halide salt. The general design of metal halide lamps is similar to that of mercury lamps. These lamps may have clear glass or fluorescent coating. These lamps have a better colour rendering than incandescent lamps. They are mostly used for official and commercial purposes.

Cold cathode lamps These lamps are used for illumination of cinema theatres and other commercial purposes like advertising. The advantage of cold cathode lamps is their long life. It also maintains better ,output during its life and starts instantly. Its 'life is not reduced by frequent switching. Like ordinary fluorescent tubes, it is available in wide variety of colours. The length of cold cathode tubes makes them suitable for bending into different shapes like letters, symbols etc.

Many colours can be obtained by the, use of different types of glass, which may be coloured or fluorescent coated. The first used gas was neon and 'Neon light' is a popular name for all advertisement lighting.

Proper care should be taken in its installation and maintenance to avoid the risk of fire.

H; FliCker All lamps, except the incandescent lamps, described so far go on and off times in a second while working. This is too rapid a flicker to be noticeable to the eye. However the flickering is possible with twin lamp luminaires. Theluminaire is made with one choke for each lamp but with only one capacitor. The two lamp currents are neither in step nor out of phase, and they go on and off at different instants. They are often required for factories and workshops.

Emergency lights Many buildings prefer to have some form of emergency lighting if the electric supply to the ordinary lights fail. Electric lighting for emergency use can be provided if the building has a stand by generator The distribution should be arranged in such a way that only a part with few lights within the building is fed by the generator.

There is no need for full lighting under emergency conditions, and lightiIlg in the main corridors and staircases is sufficient. Emergency lighting is very important fQr hospitals. Some offices, cinema theatres, schools and residentialtJatsalso need emergency lighting.

They are not iJltended to give full illumination, but sufficient lighHorpeople to perform their activities. These lights work on low voltage DC current and fed from a' battery. Thus as long as the main supply is healthy the battery'l ghting circuit is, kept open, but immediately once ti1emaifiSfail the relay contacts close and the emergency lights come on. It effectively houses a complete low voltage system to operate one light. Such fittings are known as accessories, because , they are accessory to tl e wiring.

The way these acce. They are. Standard boxes for recessing within a wall are 35 mm deep. The shallow boxes are 25 mm deep, WhIChcan be used over the surface of the wall. The older type of switch mechanism was dolly operated. At present, dolly operated switches have been superseded byr9Cker operated switches. When the front plateJs made as part of the switch, then it is called plate switch. T isolate power eqUipment, it is often desirable to use a double pole switch.

This is normally used for heaters, fridges etc. Sockets A socket outlet is popularly known as a power point. The arrangement of socket outlet is similar to switches. Plugs and sockets rated at 2 and 5 amps are available in both two and three pin versions, but 15 amps are available only with three pins. Two of the three pins are for the live and neutral wires, and the third one is for a separate earth wire. Unswitched sockets have contacts permanently connected to the wiring and the appliance to be connected is turned on as soon as the plugi,s inserted and turned off, when the plug is taken out.

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If a switch is incorporated in the socket outlet the switch must be put on before the line becomes connected to the supply. A further improvement to the socket outlet is the addition of an indicator light which shows when the socket is switched on.

Like switches, sOCket outlets can be recessed into a wall or they can be mounted on the surface of the wall. Fused connection units These units are used for connecting a single permanently fixed appliance to the wiring. They perform the same function like a socket and plug combination. The difference is that the two parts cannot be separated as plug and socket. The difference is the fuse connection which is accessable for replacement from the front.

Like socket outlets, fused connecting units can be switched or unswitched, and they can be with or without a neon light indicator. Boxes When wiring is done by pulling cable through conduit, access must be provided into the conduit for pulling the cable inside, and also where the paths of cables branch into two or more conduits must be connected together.

The type of box used is the same as that used for housing switches. The boxes have a number of circles on them for the electrician to remove anyone of them to make a hole in the box to accept standard electrical conduit. In addition to rectangular boxes, circular boxes are also made for general conduit work and terminating wiring at points to take light fittings. When boxes are used for joining conduits, they are covered with a blank plate. TV outlets Today many houses and flats have a television, which may require connection to an outdoor aerial.

It is becoming iQcreasingly common td provide a common aerial system serving all the flats of an estate. Thus it becomes necessary to run a television aerial cable from the aerial to an outle'. A television needs power supply, soan ordinary socket outlet is provided near the aerial outlet.

Lamp-holders In public buildings, the light fittings are fixed as part of the electrical installation. In houses and flats.. Plain lamp-holders are provided to fit in ordinary and watts, tungsten bulbs. They usually have a ring to which. The top of the lamp-holder screws down to grip the flexible wire 'cord on which it is suspended from. The insulated wire on which the lamp-holder is suspended performs two functions. It carries the current to the lamp and supports the wp-ight of the holders, lamp and shade.

Lamp-holders have protective shields to prevent accidental contact and dampness. Ceiling roses At the ceiling the wiring should be connected to'the flexible wire.

This connection is made by means of a ceiling rose.

It consists of a circular housing with a terminable block inside and an opening on the underside for the, flexible cable to come out of o,e rose. Where main wiring is inside the ceiling, this wiring enters the rose through the back or top of the rose. Where the main wiring runs exposed on the sutfaceof the ceiling, it enters the rose through a hole in the side of the rose.

Ceiling roses are made with either two or three live terminals in addition to an earth terminal. When a wiring system is installed on the surface of walls and ceilings where there is an off-set in the surface which the wirmg cannot follow then it has to be supported off the surface. Then it becomes necessary for some sort of distance piece to take up the gap between the fitting and the surface behind it.

These are known as 'pattresses'. The inclusion of the pattress makes it possible for the cables, to enter the socket outlet from the back, otherwise there , woUld be an untidy junction of the cOnduit with the bottom of the socket outlet. They arise from three kinds of faults.

They are short circuit, overloading and a fatilt to earth. Tne devices commonly used to overcome these faults are described below: Rewirable fuses The most commonly used protective device consists of a thin fuse wire held between terminals in, a porcelain or bakelite holder. The fuse is designed in such a way that if the current exceeds the rated current of the circuitthe fuse wire blowsand disconnectsthe circuit.

Cartridge ' fuses" ' ' The rewirable fuse has limited controlling capacity, so the cartridge fuse was developed. The fuse wire is mounted oetween two end caps which form the terminals of the complete fuse link. The wire is surrounded by a closely packed granular filler and closed in a solid casing. When the wire melts or blows-; the energy is absorbed by the granular filler.

These fuses are also known as High Rupturing 3. MCB has a rating similar to that of a fuse. When an overload occurs, the magnetic pull of the coil surrounding the tube increases and the slug moves through the tube. The speed of travel depends on the magnetic force arid on the size of the current. As the slug approaches the other end of the tube the air gaps in the magnetic circuit are reduced and the magnetic force is increased until it is great enough to trip the circuit breaker.

With this mechanism the time taken to trip is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the overload. The MCB has a toggle switch for operation. It is possible to dispense with a bank of switches if a distribution board with MCB's is placed. MCB This is a circuit breaker which detects a current leaking to earth and uses this leakage currentto operate the tripping mechanism. The primary function of both is to give protection against shock.

Circuit capacity protection There is no need to be worried about voltage drop, but high voltage current passage should be guarded. The cable must be rated at a little more than the current actually taken by the circuit. It is very important that every cable in a pennanent installation in a building must be protected. Atevery point where a smaller cable branches from a larger one there must be a protective device to safeguard the smaller cable.

This is provided by the use of switchgear and distribution boards, where a main divides into two or more s'ubmains, and the submain divides into a number of fmal circuits. Ideally, the protective devices should be graded so that the smaller fuse opens before the larger fuse when any fault occurs. Indirect contact with exposed metal parts of an appliance due to any fault will cau.

Protection is provided if the wiring is earthed. The household appliance should be preferably double insulated. Proper care should also be taken in using portable electrical appliances in factories and workshops. Periodic dirt collection on the luminaires and the interior suifaces.

Recommended levels of illumination Light given by a source or received by a surface is measured in lumen. Lumen refers to the luminous flux or light flow emitted within one solid angle by a point source having a uniform intensity. The density of luminous flux upon a surface is measured in lumen per square metre or lux: Guidelines for lighting design a Fluorescent lamps are more efficient than incandescent lamps.

Fluorescent lamps produce 50 to 60 lumens per watt, whereas incandescent lamp's produce 10 to 17 lumens per watl. The life of a fluorescent lamp is four times longer than the incandescent lamp. Tj'Ie most important activity performed should be considered for deciding. For example, in residences single point is sufficient upto 12 sq. The lumen method of lighting design The lumen method of design is the most widely used for the determination of lighting layout for providing illumination on the working plane from overhead lamps in a regular pattern.

An office 10 m x 5 m requires an illumination level of lux on the working plane. It is proposed to use 40 w. Assuming a utilisation factor of 0. Wiring process The wiring process consists of choosing a suitable type of cable giving adequate protection and putting it into the building.

The wiring should be durable, safe and good in appearance. All conductors should run along the walls and near the ceiling for easy access ability of inspection and repair. There are two types of wiring used at present for safety and security. They are conduit wiring and concealed conduit wiring. In conduit wiring, the wires are run in steel or PVC conduits for protection from injury or fire.

In concealed conduit wiring, the conduits are concealed in the ceiling or walls for appearance. Any joints should be made through junction boxes for easy inspection. A wiring diagram should be prepared before installation indicating clearly the main switchboard, mains and sub-mains, points and their control.

Graphical Symbols of Electrical Diagrams Source: Intcrnational Electrotechnical Cominission Docliment, Residence wiring diagram The following factors are taken into consideration in the preparation of the residence wiring diagram See Fig. Describe different types of lighting aJTangem: Describe various types of lamps used for lighting in buiJdings? What are the differentaccessoriesusedin lighting?

What are tl. How do you calculate the artificial lighting requirement? J Scientific study of sound is known as 'AC9usticS'. All human beings live with sound by birth.

It is a medium of communication, which includes speech and music. In interior design good hearing of sound is essential in auditoriums, theaters, schools, assembly halls and board rooms. The general requirements for good acoustics are: Even distribution of sound. Ooodacoustic conditions in an enclosed space are achieved when the sound rises to'the required intensity in all parts of an enclosed space without any echoes or distortions.

Sound requires a medium for transmission. This medium can be a solid, liquid or gas. Vibration of the air particles at the ear drum with a definite frequency and amplitude gives reception of sound near the ear. These air particles create vibration known as simple harmonic motion. Sound cannot be transmitted in vaccum as vibrating particles are necessary for sound transmission.

Sound waves. Sound is transmitted through air in the form cf waves moving at about meters per second at ordinary temperatures. This sphere expands to the limits of an! Thus the space is filled with rapidly moving spherical sound wave fronts. These sound wave fronts strike the walls, floor and ceiling, and then reflect; in various. The reflected sound waves create spherical wave fronts until they again strike the boundaries of the enclosure.

This process of reflection continues until all the energy of vibration imparted to the original waves has been absorbed and the sound dies away.

Wavelengths Wave motion means the ability to transfer sound from one place to another. All wave motions can be described in terms of wavelength, frequency and velocity. Wavelength is the distance between any two repeating points on a wave.

It is measured in ,meters. Frequency Frequency:: It is measured in 'hertz l1z ' as vibration cycles per second. If any object or surface vibrates times per second then the frequency of the sound waves produced will be Hz. Human hearing interprets frequency as pitch, which is heard as 'low' or 'high'. Pangil data yang sudah disiapkan Biasanya lebih mudah menggunakan Microsoft Exel 2. Pilih Prosedur yang akan digunakan 3. Pilih Otions untuk keluaran ok udah deh June 01, Japanese Modern Interior Design Construction download.

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This system is designed for application in smaller establishments like shops, restaurants etc. Lead pipes are not generally used for domestic water supply. If a switch is incorporated in the socket outlet the switch must be put on before the line becomes connected to the supply.

Rhythm - Rhythm is the movement of the eye' across a design. It's really helpful for student don't have so much money like me!

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