Learning Theory, Personality Theory, & Clinical Research: The Kentucky Allport, Floyd H. & Allport, Gordon W, Personality Traits: Their Classificiation. PDF | Trait theory is one of the major approaches to the study of human Download full-text PDF Gordon Allport was a pioneer in the study. PDF | Over the past 50 years, Gordon Allport's views of personality, and of personality psychology as a science, have had a guiding and Download full- text PDF. Content Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality Assessment.
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Report by Maica S. Pineda MA Clinical Psychology - AUF GS Overview Emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual Objection to trait and factor theories. Over the past 50 years, Gordon Allport's views of personality, and of personality Download to read the full chapter text . A socioanalytic theory of personality. Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, – October 9, ) was an American psychologist. 1 Biography; 2 Visit with Freud; 3 Allport's trait theory; 4 Genotypes and phenotypes; 5 Functional autonomy of .. 13; ^ "Book of Members, Chapter A" (PDF). . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Cabot, a wealthy Boston philanthropist, was also a professor of cardiology and social ethics at Harvard. Allport died in , 1 month shy of his seventieth birthday, leaving behind many unfinished books, articles, and two psychological tests. He was the first personality psychologist elected president of APA, and a survey placed him second only to Freud as a personality theorist whose work was directly applicable to clinical practice.
However, one award stood out for him, and it is the only one he mentions in his autobiography. At the XVII International Congress of Psychology, fifty-five of his former doctoral students gave him a two-volume set of their own writings, with an inscription thanking him for respecting their individuality. In that same autobiography, which was actually published after his death, he acknowledged a small number of personality theorists whom he felt were on the right path toward understanding human life, including Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Henry Murray.
In addition, because of his specific focus on personality itself, he is also viewed as the founder of personality psychology as a distinct discipline. His entire approach to psychology, and more specifically to personality, was born of his strong devotion to social ethics.
Because his psychology carried with it that devotion to social ethics, he wrote one of the most famous books on prejudice, in which he suggested that the future role of psychology in understanding this disturbing inclination of people everywhere must be based on values.
Since his approach to studying and teaching psychology emphasized the value and uniqueness of each person, he is considered to have been a humanistic psychologist, even though he is seldom grouped with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow instead, he is grouped with other trait theorists. Psychology, too, ordinarily treats him as something to be brushed aside so the main business of accounting for the uniformity of events can get under way…With the intention of supplementing this abstract portrait by one that is more life-like, a new movement within psychological science has gradually grown up.
It attempts in a variety of ways and from many points of view to depict and account for the manifest individuality of mind. This new movement has come to be known in America as the psychology of personality. What is Personality and What Are Traits?
Allport provides an interesting history of the use of the term persona, including a set of definitions written by Cicero B.
These and other definitions of persona represent a contradiction, that persona, or personality in psychological terms, is both something vital and internal and yet also something external and false. Thus, it is dynamic, not static. The systems include habits, attitudes, sentiments, and dispositions of various kinds. Most important, however, are the traits, which may be either latent or active.
The systems mentioned above can be viewed as determining tendencies.
Psychology & Psychiatry (mostly classical)
However, Allport mentioned this aspect in anticipation of his later discussion of individual vs. For humans, we are not simply reactive, as plants and animals are, because we can be spontaneous and creative. We can, and do, seek mastery over our environment both behavioral and geographic. Unfortunately, once again the possibility exists for maladaptive behavior that arises under abnormal conditions such as an abusive home environment. In , Allport wrote an updated and substantially revised version of his personality text entitled Pattern and Growth in Personality.
He made only one significant change to his definition of personality, which reflected a greater emphasis on cognitive processes. Thus, the human intellect is an important factor in the manner in which we seek mastery over our environment and, indeed, over our lives.
Allport viewed a trait as both a form of readiness and a determining tendency. There are a number of other concepts that share some similarity with traits, such as habits, attitudes, needs, types, and instincts.
We can even see that within our families. Even though we share many genes, we all have different personalities because we all possess these different traits. Well, let's get into what different theorists of the trait theory have to say in trying to describe traits.
So, a little aside over here, I found these personality tests to be so fascinating, like the Myers-Briggs personality type test. I don't know if you've taken it before. But basically, it gives you a set of four letters that categorizes you into one of 16 personality types.
And then within each one of those personality types, there's a set of traits and behaviors that you tend to dominate in your everyday life. So anyways, if you haven't checked those types of personality tests out, I highly recommend it.
I know a lot of companies use them for employment. And it's just a fun way to get to know yourself and your tendencies a little better.
I'm always curious. So individual trait theories differ in terms of whether or not they believe that all individuals possess the same traits. And I'll get into that in a little bit. And you'll see why I say that. So let's go through the first theorist. His name was Gordon Allport. So what Allport said is that all of us have different traits.
He didn't believe that all individuals have the same traits. He said that they could differ amongst individuals. And he actually came up with a list of 4, different descriptive words to describe traits. And that wasn't the original list. Apparently, the original had over 10, That's crazy. So anyways, from those 4,, he was able to come up with three basic categories of traits. And the first one are our cardinal traits. The second one are our central traits. And the last are our secondary traits.
Now of these three, the cardinal traits are the characteristics that direct most of a person's activities.
So these are the dominant traits, the ones that lie in the cardinal category. For example, one person may have a cardinal trait of selflessness, or power motivation, but Allport says that not all individuals have selflessness or power motivation. So that's the key right there. Individuals have some subset of traits from a universal possibility of traits.
But not all individuals have the same traits. We mix and match. We all possess different ones.
Now these cardinal traits influence all of our behaviors, including the central and the secondary traits, or dispositions, which influence behavior to a lesser degree.
So these are dominant, and these are expressed at a lesser degree.
So an example of a essential trait is honesty or sociability or shyness, which are less dominant than these cardinal traits.
And a secondary trait is something like a love for modern art or a reluctance to eat meat. And these are more preferences, or attitudes.
Let's go to the second theorist. Secondary trait - These are characteristics seen only in certain circumstances such as particular likes or dislikes that a very close friend may know. They must be included to provide a complete picture of human complexity. Genotypes and phenotypes[ edit ] Allport hypothesized the idea of internal and external forces that influence an individual's behavior. He called these forces Genotypes and Phenotypes. Genotypes are internal forces that relate to how a person retains information and uses it to interact with the external world.
Phenotypes are external forces, these relate to the way an individual accepts his surroundings and how others influence their behavior. These forces generate the ways in which we behave and are the groundwork for the creation of individual traits.
The Problem with this hypothesis is that it cannot be proven as they are internal theories, influenced presumably by the outer environment.
Functional autonomy of motives[ edit ] Allport was one of the first researchers to draw a distinction between Motive and Drive. He suggested that a drive forms as a reaction to a motive, which may outgrow the motive as the reason for a behavior.
The drive then becomes autonomous and distinct from the motive, whether the motive was instinct or something else. The idea that drives can become independent of the original motives for a given behavior is known as "functional autonomy.
His original motive may be a sense of inferiority engrained in his childhood, but his diligence in his work and the motive it acquires later on is a need to excel in his chosen profession, which becomes the man's drive.
Allport says that the theory Learning brings new systems of interests into existence just as it does new abilities and skills. At each stage of development these interests are always contemporary; whatever drives, drives now. Functional autonomy is thought to underlie obsessions and compulsions. The Psychologist's Frame of Reference[ edit ] Allport gave a presidential address at the 47th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Berkeley, California, on September 7, on The Psychologist's Frame of Reference, a piece of literature he and his colleagues collaborated on addressing the changing culture of psychological writing from as early as to in America.
He began his address by simply asking, "First, what it is that competent psychologists in America have been making of our science in the past fifty years? More than sixteen hundred articles in total were analyzed.
Allport first points to the decline in "facultative" treatment of mental functions. As the pre-existing model for treatment drop off in the years to follow, modern facultative treatment risen and with it, different terminology, but "kindred in spirit". Allport later points out that studies related to the higher mental processes, such as language behavior that involved learning, reasoning, and concept-formation began declining, but experimental studies, however, were slowly on the rise.
Using rats and doing maze learning in animals and studies using men who were rendered speechless steadily increased from on. Other findings point out that the literature examined that related to applied psychology and social betterment was steadily declining as well.
Allport suggests that psychologists were turning to specialized journals not included in his survey and that some welcomed the change while others did not.Rothbart Eds. Becoming: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Personality. Let's go to the second theorist. We all possess different ones. Family vacations were rare, and his father liked it that way.