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The Dorling Kindersley illustrated family encyclopedia Heimsins lond Dorling Kindersley book Путеводитель Дорлинг Киндерсли (Dorling Kindersley). This Eyewitness ® Guide has been conceived by Dorling Kindersley Limited and Editions This book explores the world of the seashore and describes how its. This Eyewitness ® Guide has been conceived by Dorling Kindersley Limited and A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
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Shells of the shore Eight jointed shell plates O n the seashore many of the animals that live inside shells are mollusks.
They are commonly known as shellfish. Mollusks are an enormous and varied animal group, with over , species worldwide.
On the shore the shells has made them favorites for jewelery and for gifts such as group includes gastropods snailthe decorative shell boxes sold by the little girl in the picture. Most of the edible mollusks are bivalves, which have two parts, or valves, to the shell. These include cockles, mussels, scallops, clams, oysters, razor clams, and ship worms.
Tusk shells, chitons, sea slugs, squid, and octopuses also belong to the mollusk group. These relatives of top shells and limpets graze on algae and are themselves eaten as a seafood delicacy, especially in western North America where this species comes from and the South Pacific. Its tiny teeth are capped with a hard substance that contains iron and keeps them from wearing down.
This species lives in the Red Sea and grazes on algae on the lower shore. It crops small algae from the rocks and the outer edges of coral reefs, where the surf breaks. This Japanese woodcut print shows oyster fishermen at work near the sacred twin rocks in Ise Bay.
Top shells belong to the gastropod group of mollusks. These gastropods are herbivores plant eaters ; they scrape tiny algae from rocks, roots, and large seaweeds. To get at the flesh, the shells must be pried open with a knife. Oysters are often eaten raw in their natural juices, straight from the shell.
This one, the rock oyster, cements itself to the rock, usually by its right-hand shell. Like many of its bivalve relatives, the oyster is a filter feeder.
It draws in a current of seawater, filters out tiny floating food particles, and passes these into its digestive system, using tiny beating hairs called cilia. This species comes from the Indo-Pacific region, where it feeds on worms on the lower shore. This species is found in Southeast Asia. Mussels are collected for food and bait.
These crustaceans p. Once people believed that these barnacles hatched into geese - perhaps because their frilly limbs looked like feathers, or maybe to explain the mysterious disappearance of the geese in winter. If dislodged, it flexes its body Mollusks such as limpets have low, and rolls its jointed volcano-shaped shells that present shell plates into a ball. Another aid to survival is a good grip. Foot The five-rayed symmetry evenness of the common sea urchin shows that it is a cousin of the sea star.
It is protected by sharp spines that can be tilted on ball-and-socket joints at their bases. It uses its long tube feet to anchor itself to the rock, drag itself along, seize bits of food, and get rid of debris. Like its land relation, the snail, the periwinkle moves on a muscular, fleshy foot lubricated by a film of mucus.
When not walking, it often nestles in a crack or gully and seals the gap between its shell and the rock with mucus. Muscles pump fluid from the reservoir into the tube foot to extend it. However, the flexibility of their arms is shown when a wave flips them over: The great 19th-century English naturalist Philip Gosse studied shore life in Devon, in southwest England.
A wide range of plants is found here, from the film of microscopic algae coating almost any bare surface, to wracks and other large seaweeds. These plants capture light energy from the sun and obtain nutrients from seawater. They provide food for periwinkles, limpets, and other plant eaters. Flesh-eating animals such as sea stars, small fish, whelks, and other creatures eat the plant eaters. And then there are crabs, prawns, and other scavengers that eat both plant and animal material. Filter feeders such as barnacles and mussels consume tiny particles of floating food, which may be miniature animals and plants, or bits of long-dead larger organisms.
The sea hare is not considered a true sea slug, since it has a thin, flexible shell under the folds on its back. Sea slugs like land slugs are mollusks without shells. It feeds on crumb of bread sponges p. The bright colors of many sea slugs warn potential predators that they taste horrible.
The great black-backed gull prowls among tide pools, stabbing with its strong bill at anything possibly edible. A common sea star holds up the light-sensitive tips of its tentacles p. A velvet swimming crab huddles among boulders that have collected in a scooped-out portion of rock. It tries to remain unnoticed as it searches through settled debris for food. Long, ribbon-like tide pools such as this may form where a soft layer of rock is sandwiched between harder layers.
Closed beadlet anemones A gem anemone prepares for low water by folding in its 48 vulnerable tentacles Blenny p. At the time many naturalists were also artists, and Gosse illustrated his book with drawings of the specimens he collected from Devon shores. Cushion star p. These limbed crustaceans look very similar. In general, shrimps have fatter bodies and blunt claws on only the first pair of limbs, and they live mostly in sand.
Prawns shown here are thinnerbodied, have small, narrow pincers on the first two pairs of limbs, and live in pools and among seaweed. Tide-pool fish Life for small animals such as the tiny fish that live in tide pools is full of danger. If it rains heavily, the seawater in a small pool is greatly diluted, so that for a few hours the fish and other inhabitants must adjust their body chemistry to cope with the lower concentration of salt.
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The falling tide may maroon them in a shallow puddle, so that they have to wriggle across bare rock to the safety of a deeper pool. In an hour, the sun can turn a cool pool into a warm bath, causing animals to leave A FLICK OF THE FINS There are about 1, species the water and find refuge under a cool, in the goby family, most of them moist rock rather than suffer a form small, flat, tough-looking shore dwellers.
At low tide, gulls feed which can cover themselves in Many shore creatures are so well on tide-pool inhabitants; on sand with a flick of their fins. Fish predators are a constant threat: The fish shown here have to be hardy creatures to survive the constantly changing conditions and physical threats in the miniature habitat of the tide pool.
Like many of its neighbors, it makes a home for itself under stones or in cracks, by wriggling its body to push aside fragments of weeds and rocks. This enables them to watch for predators from above, such as sea birds.
Large individuals reach about 8 in 20 cm in length. It lives on North Atlantic shores, from the U. Its common name comes from the feel of its slimy, slippery body. Like many shore fish, it has rubbery, scaleless skin. At low tide their natural behavior is to retreat into cracks and holes. At high tide they come out to feed, but they are extremely wary. The sea scorpion, in contrast, has frilly fins. They are hollow, jelly-like animals belonging to a group called the coelenterates or cnidarians, which also includes jellyfish and corals.
The prey is then pulled toward the mouth p. Like flowers, anemones have evolved many colors, from salmon pink to emerald green and jet black. In many there is great color variation even within the same species. Another remarkable feature is that many can move, if only slowly, sliding their muscular bases along the rock surface. Certain species burrow in sand and gravel; others slide their bodies into crevices in the rocks so that only their tentacles show.
As the tide ebbs most anemones on the shore pull in their tentacles and become jelly-like blobs to avoid drying out. When the tide recedes, they fold in their tentacles, looking like overgrown gumdrops scattered on the rocks. When fully grown they have about tentacles. The warts can be seen on the closed wartlet anemone on the opposite. Beadlets can survive being out of water for some time and can live very high on the shore.
The plumose or frilled anemone is brown, reddish, or white and may grow up to 1 ft 30 cm tall. Its feathery tentacles catch very small bits of food and waft them down to the mouth by the beating action of tiny hairs called cilia.
The pinktipped tentacles do not withdraw in this species even when it is out of water. Corals are similar to anemones and are members of the same group, the coelenterates cnidarians. This cup coral lives alone, unlike its tropical reef-building cousins. Strings acontia of stinging cells The giant green anemone of tropical waters is one of the largest anemones in the world. It may grow to more than 3 ft 1 m across. Encrusted remains of barnacle shells Coiled, chalky remains of tube worm 37 c Dorling Kindersley.
Fan worms see opposite page live inside protective, chalky tubes. Some species live buried in the mud; others attach themselves to rocks, like this one. Look to the left - can you spot another small fan worm on the opposite corner of this stone? Tentacles and stings Gray snakelocks anemone The coelenterate cnidarian animals jellyfish, anemones, and corals are the stingers of the shore. These creatures do not not have brains or complex sense organs such as eyes and ears.
Unable to move quickly, they cannot escape from predators or pursue prey. Instead, they protect themselves and capture food with tiny stinging cells in their tentacles. As is often the case, the fable has some basis in fact. The coiled thread. In some species these are kraken looks suspiciously like the squid, a member of the mollusk barbed, in others they contain venom.
Atlantic giant squid have Triggered by touch or by certain been recorded up to 50 ft 15 m long, including tentacles, and chemicals, the threads flick out and then weighing two tons.
Their remains are either the barbs hold on to the prey, or sometimes found washed up on the shore p. Then the animal drags its victim into the digestive cavity within the body. Some jellyfish have extremely powerful venom that can cause great pain to swimmers who brush against them.
Their nematocysts remain active for a while even after the animal is washed up and dies on the shore. The best known jellyfish is the Portuguese man-of-war. This is not a true jellyfish, but a colony of small animals from the same group.
A swimmer may be stung without ever seeing the creature responsible, since the tentacles trail in the current several yards behind the floating body.
The ring of tentacles surrounds a mouth that leads to the digestive cavity inside the body. Prey is pushed into the cavity, digested, and absorbed, and any remains excreted through the mouth. When the cell is triggered by touch or certain chemicals, its internal fluid pressure quickly increases.
Some filaments are barbed; others contain venom. The barbed stinging cells in the tentacles help to paralyze the prey. They form a furry coating on submerged seaweeds, rocks, and wood.
Each individual has a stalk about as thick as cotton thread. Green snakelocks anemone Anemone ejects strings acontia of stinging cells from its mouth to defend itself c Dorling Kindersley. In this relative of the sea star, the arms are tentacles around the mouth end. Sea stars that are not spiny are protected by an exoskeleton outer skeleton of hard, chalky plates embedded just under the tough skin.
Although there are more than 6, species of echinoderms - 2, more species than there are within the mammal group - these creatures are sea dwellers, so they are unfamiliar to most people.
There is no front end: Whether this is a natural cycle or the result of pollution is not clear. If an arm is crushed by a boulder or torn by a predator, it can be cast off and a new one grows.
In fact, as long as most of the central disk is intact, one remaining arm can grow four new ones. The arms really are brittle and easily broken, but the brittle star is able to grow new ones. This common sea star preys on mussels and other mollusks.
Stiff and muscular, the spiny sea star is one of the larger seashore species. Each calcareous chalky spine is surrounded by tiny pincer-like organs pedicellariae. It uses these to rid itself of parasites, small hitchhikers, and other debris. This sea star feeds on bivalve mollusks. Those washed up by stormy seas and stranded out of the water may not survive until the tide returns.
Color variation is frequent among these creatures. Like the goosefoot sea star, it will eat other echinoderms such as the common sea star.
Borers and builders On the coast of California in the late s, steel girders and piles were installed for a seaside pier. About 20 years later, the. Sand by the sea, scouring the rock still more. In these ways, rock-boring urchins and mollusks and mud, softer than solid contribute to the erosion of the shore.
A razor clam is said to burrow as fast as a human can dig down after it. They include the piddock which, as it wears away the surface layer of its shell by drilling, moves its body over the worn area and lays down a fresh layer of hard, chalky shell. Pieces of wood riddled with long holes some. These are the work of shipworms, which despite their appearance are not worms but bivalve mollusks p.
Here two small specimens have bored into limestone. Instead of physically drilling into the rock like the piddock, these mussels secrete chemicals which dissolve the chalky stone. Terebella left moves tiny particles with its tentacles and glues them together with a sticky body secretion.
Serpula center makes a chalky, trumpet-shaped tube. Fan worms right make tubes that protrude above lower-shore sand. This mollusk twists and rocks the two parts valves of its shell in order to drill itself a hole in solid rock. Two long, fleshy tubes called siphons reach up through the hole. Seawater is drawn in through one tube to supply the animal with oxygen and food; waste and rock debris are passed out through the other. Their feathery tentacles collect tiny bits of food from seawater.
The rockboring or burrowing purple sea urchin moves its strong, stout spines back and forth and gradually rasps its way into the rock. As it grows and burrows, it may be unable to escape from its tunnel and becomes dependent on capturing food with its tube feet p.
Small parts of the sponge project above each tunnel. They have either one large hole pore through which waste water passes out, or several smaller sieve-covered holes through which water is drawn in p. Shell of flat oyster 43 c Dorling Kindersley.
Hard cases Some of the most curious looking creatures of the shore are crabs, prawns, and lobsters. They are members of a large and varied group of animals called the crustaceans. In the same way that insects swarm on land, so crustaceans teem in the sea.
Both groups are arthropods, or joint-legged animals. Crustaceans usually have jointed limbs up to 17 pairs in some species , two pairs of antennae, and a hard shell, or carapace, that encloses and protects much of POTTED CRAB Crabs have long been caught, cooked, and eaten by the body.
However, the animals themselves vary people. Crab pots are filled with rotting fish flesh as enormously.
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They range from microscopic creatures bait; once the crab has entered, it is unable to climb out. Crabs are also eaten by shore birds and that make up a large part of the floating plankton the mammals, by fish such as bass, and by octopuses. Some of the most surprising members of the crustacean group are the barnacles cirripeds.
These animals begin life as tiny, free-swimming larvae. The crustaceans most familiar to us are the decapods, which include shore creatures such as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, hermit crabs, prawns, and shrimps.
Four pairs are for walking or swimming, and there is one pair of handlike pincers. Accidents like this often happen to crabs on rocky shores. However, this individual is not disabled by the loss and displays a variety of postures: This brilliantly colored species has bright red limbs and a sky-blue underside.
Eye Four pairs of walking limbs Stump of missing limb Pincers poised in mock attack Small flaplike abdomen folded under carapace 44 c Dorling Kindersley. There is a special breaking point near where the limb attaches to the body, along which the tissues are arranged to minimize bleeding. The pincers contain the prized white meat; the shell body contains the dark meat.
These are also used for picking up and tearing apart food. Even though they are armed with such threatening weapons, many of these sturdy-looking crustaceans are eaten by octopuses. On North American shores hordes of them come into the shallows in the breeding season to lay their eggs.
Underside of horseshoe crab Crab ready to curl up in defense 45 c Dorling Kindersley. Like other crustaceans, they have the characteristic hard and heavy carapace. In the past, when far fewer European lobsters above were caught for food, massive individuals over 3 ft 1 m long and weighing 13 lb 6 kg were sometimes found. The even larger American lobsters have been known to reach 44 lb 20 kg ; these creatures are probably over 50 years old.
Lobsters usually hide in crevices and holes during the day, emerging at night to feed on dead or dying prey. They crush prey with the larger front claw and pick off bits with the smaller one. Their bodies are flat so they can hide in cracks and crevices. When disturbed, they can jump backward, by flapping their abdomen. Stalked eye European lobster Narrow pincer for slicing fish flesh Mouthparts Antennae sense food and danger Heavy pincer with bumps for crushing shellfish First two pairs of walking legs end in small pincers 46 c Dorling Kindersley.
Cancer is also the fourth sign of the zodiac, with the sun passing through from about June 21 to July Growth of bryozoans, a colony of tiny anemonelike animals p.
Unusual partnerships There are many types of relationships in the animal world. A very familiar example is when one animal hunts and eats another. This is the predator-prey relationship. Yet nature is not always so cut and dried. This does not happen by Hermit crabs do not have shells of their own, so they hide their soft bodies in the shells of dead chance - there is a reason. Scientists have different animals.
Sometimes an anemone is attached to names for these relationships. In the relationship the shell. As the crab grows and moves to a larger shell, it often takes the anemone along with it. Some shore crabs are host to Sacculina, a strange creature related to the barnacles. This parasite gets food while disabling the crab. Another type of relationship, in which both partners benefit, is called symbiosis. The hermit crab and the calliactis anemone live in this way. The calliactis is sometimes called the parasitic anemone, but it does not harm its hermit host.
The hermit crab is a crustacean p. The anemone is a coelenterate cnidarian p. The shell once belonged to a whelk, which is a sea snail and member of the mollusk group p. In its defensive position, the hermit crab pulls itself deep inside the shell. In this example the pincer is missing; it may have been bitten off by a predator or squashed by a boulder.
When it grows too big for the shell, it looks for another, larger shell. The two back pairs of legs are small and adapted for hanging on to the inside of the shell. Like its crab cousins, the hermit crab is a scavenger and feeds on plants and bits of dead and dying animals - in fact on almost anything edible. A dying animal on the shore is soon surrounded by many crabs picking and pulling at its flesh.
This Pacific flat hermit crab is occupying an empty omaria cone shell. Cone shells are tropical mollusks; some species are extremely venomous. Clown fish these are tomato clowns live among the stinging tentacles of anemones. The fish develop special defenses on their bodies to prevent them from being stung. It is believed that both partners benefit from this arrangement in various ways. The anemone may, in turn, be cleaned in the process and eat food dropped by the clown fish.
It is also possible that the brightly colored clown fish attract predators, which the anemone then seizes. The underside, flat against the seabed, has no need of special coloring, so in many species it is white or pale. But wait patiently, sitting low and still to avoid being seen, and watch carefully.
A dark patch of rock may suddenly glide forward: A slightly hazy-looking area of sand walks away: A patch of gravelly bottom ripples of sea horse. Its loose lobes of skin resemble the seaweed fronds in and two eyes appear: All these creatures use camouflage to help conceal themselves. Looks are not everything, though - behavior is important too. The eel-like pipefish p.
A well-draped urchin can be difficult to spot. These are green sea urchins, which are found on the lower shore and inshore waters.
Some minutes earlier, this young dab was a light sandy color. It soon became several shades darker when placed on selected dark pebbles. The marks on its upper side became almost black. The largest dabs reach about 16 in 40 cm long. It lives near the shore for the first few years of its life, and then migrates to deeper water. It may grow up to 2 ft 60 cm long. The scalloped edge of its carapace shell gives it away. A stonefish, which resembles a gnarled lump of rocky coral, may suddenly raise the deadly spines on its back if stepped on.
Its poison can be fatal. Small shore fish such as the goby left and blenny right remain motionless on the rocks for long periods, only darting off to chase prey or avoid predators. On cliffs they form breeding colonies which may number tens of thousands of birds.
Each female lays a single egg. Coastal cliffs, rocky islets, and isolated islands can be reached only by flight and so make safe nesting places for birds. Here they are out of reach of all but the most agile ground-based predators, such as snakes and rats, and just beneath the waves there is a rich source of food.
The sight of more than 50, gannets nesting on an offshore island is breathtaking. The impression is of a blizzard of large white birds coming and going, wheeling on their 6 ft 1. The colors have faded slightly. They dig their own holes in soft soil or take over an old shearwater or rabbit tunnel.
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Puffin eggs are white because, since they are hidden, they have no need of camouflage. Herring gulls are noisy and aggressive. The squawks and screams coming from their nesting colonies are deafening. The average clutch consists of three eggs. Mining guano was a world trade in the last century; most of it came from South American and African coasts and islands, and was shipped to Europe and North America for use as a fertilizer.
Common or great cormorants are the largest of the 29 species in the cormorant group and are found almost worldwide. They swim and dive after crabs, fish, and other aquatic prey. Afterward they stand in a typical pose with wings outstretched to dry them. Why cormorants have not evolved water-repellent oils, like many other sea birds, is a mystery. Both cormorant parents build their nest from sticks, seaweed, and other locally gathered plant material.
The parents take turns incubating their three to five eggs for about one month until the chicks hatch. All four toes are webbed, enabling the cormorant to swim well c Dorling Kindersley. Feeding by the sea F ish are wriggly, slippery creatures.
Fish-eating Herring gulls have broad bills, capable of mammals such as seals have many small, pointed teeth for handling all kinds of prey including the contents of rubbish dumps. Fish-eating birds are generally equipped with long, sharp, dagger-like bills beaks , and the bills of cormorants and many of the gulls also have a downcurved tip that prevents fish from slipping out of the end. Gulls are a familiar sight along the coasts of the Northern Hemisphere.
Like many other cockles, oysters, and other shellfish. This bird also uses its bill to fight enemies and to stab at those who intrude into its nesting space. They feed on surface-dwelling fish and their beaks are hooked at the end. They have prominent tubelike nostrils lying along the top or sides of the bill.
On the island of St. Kilda, off the northwest coast of Scotland, this practice continued until the s. Birds flying past an outcrop were caught in a net; eggs and nestlings were collected by hand. Gannets, fulmars right , and various auks were the main victims. A collar and lead is put on the bird so that it can catch fish but not swallow them. The bird is then pulled back to the boat by the lead. This bird lives throughout the North Atlantic. This is a young herring gull with mottled plumage.
Adult birds have white bellies. Its legs are positioned far back along its body so that it swims efficiently, but on land it waddles rather than walks, with an upright, penguin-like stance. It also uses its feet to cover and help incubate the egg. Females come ashore to lay eggs in shallow holes in the sand. They tend to use the same breeding places, or rookeries, year after year - making it easy for hunters to capture them and steal their eggs. It is sometimes called the edible turtle, and in former times it was hunted mercilessly for its flesh, oil, skin, and shell.
Today it is officially listed as an endangered species. Marine turtles crawl onto land under cover of darkness to lay their eggs in the warm sand. Seals sunbathe, and sometimes the bulls males fight each other for the right to mate with a harem of females. In Antarctica, penguins gather by the millions to rest and breed.
However, some visitors to the shore come by accident. The strandings of schools of live whales have long puzzled scientists. Such stranded individuals are probably injured, ill, or already dead when swept in by shore-bound currents. Giant squid are the largest of all invertebrate animals those without backbones. They grow to more than 50 ft 15 m in total length and weigh up to 2 tons.
It feeds on sea urchins, crustaceans, and shellfish, and will use a stone as a tool to crush the hard shells of its prey. This is the heaviest of the 12 otter species, sometimes weighing as much as lb 45 kg. The sea otter became extremely rare, as it was hunted for its fur, but in an international agreement one of the first of its kind rescued it from extinction.
As is usual with this species, it has greatly changed the habitat. Nowadays, beaches are crowded with its family groups, while the inshore waters are congested with its brightly colored toys, such as yachts and windsurfing boards. Seals haul themselves out of the water to bask on rocks and sand-banks, or to give birth.
Harbor seals live in coastal waters in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Recently a viral illness has killed many thousands of those living in the North Sea. In the past people made a living by collecting and selling curios, food, and other objects found on the shore.
Today not all shores are suitable for beachcombing, as many are strewn with man-made litter, and inshore waters are often polluted. This is the strandline, a ribbon of objects left stranded high and dry. It is a treasure trove for the nature detective.
Stones, shells, and wood have often animals p. For some coastal peoples they are a good source rocks and split open. Large-scale ocean currents such as Seaweed also has medical applications: Certain plants use the sea to spread effective. The familiar nut itself ripens inside an even larger husk of stringy gray fibers the coir, which is woven into rough mats and ropes encased in a brownish leathery skin.
In this way coconut palms have spread to fringe tropical shores around the world. Air bladder Rockweed, which grows in large quantities on sheltered rocky shores, becomes green-black when dry. It has large air bladders which enable the weed to float at high tide. These primitive animals p. A 19th-century engraving entitled Common objects at the sea-side Gradually they are ground down and worn away, and the substances from which they are made are returned to the sea.
The reed is the tallest grass in Europe reaching 15 ft 5 m high, and is often planted as a windbreak in coastal areas of the Mediterranean. It is also used for making canes, baskets, and fishing rods.
The scouring action of small sand grains gives a high polish. The tiny, coiled, chalky tubes were made by small marine worms that died long ago. These mollusks may live for more than 15 years. The pattern of bumps, hollows, and tiny holes held the spines and tube feet in life, and the large hole contained the anus.
All the major body organs were enclosed in and protected by the test. They included the gonads reproductive parts and the roe eggs or sperm , which people in some areas collect and eat. Broken parts of ribs The skeletons of bony fish such as cod and bass are sometimes cast up on the shore. This incomplete example of a fish shows the rear of the skull and the vertebrae, or backbones, of the neck and main body.
These sorts of remains may be the work of fishermen who throw young fish back into the sea. Some are from dead birds, but many are simply lost during the normal plumage molt. The main organs are contained in the central part of the body. Two large chambers on either side house the gills, with which this crustacean absorbs the oxygen dissolved in seawater. Muscle meat in pincer already partly eaten by scavengers 60 c Dorling Kindersley. Cast-up and dried-out young dogfish Shark in the shallows The lesser-spotted dogfish, often simply called the dogfish, is a type of shark.It did not offer much protection in the fight.
Vote DK Eyewitness Books. Linda Gaylard. Previously, cumbersome electron tubes in radios and television sets generated a lot of heat and had to be housed in large containers. From the s onward, French architect Le Corbusier developed a vision of a new kind of city for the modern age.
It was made by blowing a bubble of experience and practice to see what glass into a mold. The statue shows Mithras slaying the legendary bull whose flowing blood gave life to the universe. Foamed metals are full of holes, so they use less material to fill the same space.