The digital image processing deals with developing a digital system that performs .. descriptor of a random variable is its probability density function (PDF) Pr(r). Digital Image Processing (CS/ECE ). Lecture 1: Introduction to Image. Processing and ImageJ. Prof Emmanuel Agu. Computer Science Dept. Worcester . LECTURE NOTES Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing”, 2nd available, estimate the PDF function of the noise from small.

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fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing, Components of an Image processing system, elements of Visual Perception. 6 Hours. UNIT - 2. Image Sensing. Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Main Lecture Notes: Introduction Linear Image Processing and Filtering [pdf] [ code] Feature-based Methods for Image Matching [pdf] [code].

In this format, 0 stands for Black, and stands for white, and stands for gray.

Digital Image Processing

It has 65, different colors in it. It is also known as High Color Format. In this format the distribution of color is not as same as Grayscale image. A 16 bit format is actually divided into three further formats which are Red, Green and Blue. That famous RGB format. Image as a Matrix As we know, images are represented in rows and columns we have the following syntax in which images are represented: The right side of this equation is digital image by defition.

Every element of this matrix is called image element , picture element , or pixel. The variables must be a letter as same as other programing languages. It mainly deals with image size or resolution. Autonomous segmentation is the most difficult task in Image Processing. According to block 2,if input is an image and we get some kind of information or description as a output, then it is termed as Computer Vision. According to block 3,if input is some description or code and we get image as an output, then it is termed as Computer Graphics.

Hook, around Inventor of optical microscope is not known. Credit for the first microscope is usually given to Dutch from other sources, Middleburg, Holland spectacle-maker Joannes and his son Zacharios Jansen.

While experimenting with several lenses in a tube, they discovered around the year that nearby objects appeared greatly enlarged. That was the forerunner of the compound microscope and of the telescope.

The father of microscopy, Anthony Leeuwenhoek of Holland , started as an apprentice in a dry goods store where magnifying glasses were used to count the threads in cloth. He taught himself new methods for grinding and polishing tiny lenses of great curvature which gave magnifications up to , the finest known at that time. These led to the building of his microscopes and the biological discoveries for which he is famous.

He was the first to see and describe bacteria, yeast plants, the teeming life in a drop of water, and the circulation Microscope of Hooke R. Hooke, of blood corpuscles in capillaries.

Micrographia, Robert Hooke, the English father of microscopy, re-confirmed Anthony van Leeuwenhoek's discoveries of the existence of tiny living organisms in a drop of water. Hubble space telescope: Talbot, First public report was presented by F.

Arago, Nieps, ; J.

Daguerr, ; W. Talbot, The first method of light writing was developed by the French commercial artist Louis Jacque Mande Daguerre The daguerrotype was made on a shhet of silver-plated coper, which could be inked and then printed to produce accurate reproduction of original works or scenes. The surface of the copper was polished to a mirrorlike brilliance, then rendered light sensitive by treament with iodine fumes. The plate was removed from the camera and treated with mercury vapors to develop the latent image.

Signals and systems

Finally, the image was fixed by removal of the remaining photosensitive salts in a bath of hyposulfite and toned with gold chloride to improve contrast and durability. Color, made of powdered pigment, was applied directly to the metal surface with a finely pointed brush. Arago recommended that the French government compensate Daguerre for his considerable efforts, so that the daguerreotype process could be placed at the service of the entire world.

The French government complied, and the process was widely publicized by F. Astronomers were among the first to employ the new imaging techniques. In , John W. Draper, professor of chemistry at New York University, made first photographs the moon in first application of daguerreotypes in astronomy.

The photoheliograph, a device for taking telescopic photographs of the sun, was unveiled in In optical means used to reduce daguerreotype exposure times to min. In William Henry Fox Talbot patents a new process involving creation of paper negatives. By the end of th century, photography had become an important means for scientific research and also a commercial item that entered people every day life.

It has been keeping this status till very recently. Image formation and image display were separated.

It had played a decisive role in yet another revolutionary discovery, the discovery of radioactivity. In , Antoine Henri Becquerel accidentally discovered radioactivity while investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts.

This discovery eventually led, along with other, to new imaging techniques, radiography Antoine Henri Becquerel Modern gamma-camera: Collimator separates rays from different object points. An important step: Petersburg, Russia: The principle of active vision was invented and implemented: Bracewell, Two-dimensional Imaging, Prentice Hall, Electric Receiver Oscillator Piezo-electric transducer niobium Sapphir i Al2O3 rode Movable specimen immersed in a li id A monochromatic sound pulse can be focused to a point on the solid surface of an object by a lens sapphire rode , and the reflection will return to the lens to be gathered by a receiver.

The strength of the reflection depends on the acoustical impedance looking into the solid surface relative to the impedance of the propagating media.

If the focal point performs a raster scan over the object, a picture of the surface impedance is formed.

Digital Image Processing Notes(1).pdf

Acoustic impedance of a medium depends on its density and elastic rigidity. Acoustic energy that is not reflected at the surface but enters the solid may be only lightly attenuated and then reflect from surface discontinuities to reveal an image of the invisible interior.

With such a device, an optical resolution can be achieved. A major application is in the semiconductor industry for inspecting integrated circuits. The idea of focusing an acoustic beam was originally suggested by Rayleigh.

The application of scanning acoustic microscopes goes back to A scanning optical microscope can also be made on the same principle. It has value as a means of imaging an extended field without aberrations associated with a lens. SPP- microscopes work by measuring a local property - such as height, optical absorption, or magnetism - with a probe or "tip" placed very close to the sample.

The small probe-sample separation on the order of the instrument's resolution makes it possible to take measurements over a small area.

To acquire an image the microscope raster-scans the probe over the sample while measuring the local property in question. Scanned-probe systems do not use lenses, so the size of the probe rather than diffraction effects generally limit their resolution Tunnel microscope th; The Nobel prize Schematic of the physical principle and initial technical realization of Scanning Tunnel Microscope.

The solid of silicon surface. The image shows circles indicate atoms, the dotted lines electron density two single layer steps the jagged contours. The path of the tunnel current is given by the interfaces separating three terraces. The tip left Because of the tetrahedral bonding appears to touch the surface right.

The area pictured is 30x30 nm Binning, H. With applied bias voltage typically between 1mV and 4V , a tunelling current typically between 0.

Digital Image Processing Pdf Notes – DIP Pdf Notes

By using a piezo-electric drive system of the tip and a feedback loop, a map of the surface topography can be obtained. The exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the tip- to-sample spacing has proven to be the key for the high spatial resolution which can be achieved with the STM.

Therefore, STM can provide real-space images of surfaces of conducting materials down to the atomic scale. Wiesendanger and H. The atomic force microscope is one of about two dozen types of scanning probe microscopes.

AFM operates by measuring attractive or repulsive forces between a tip and the sample. In its repulsive "contact" mode, the instrument lightly touches a tip at the end of a leaf spring or "cantilever" to the sample.

As a raster-scan drags the tip over the sample, some sort of detection apparatus measures the vertical deflection of the cantilever, which indicates the local sample height. Thus, in contact mode the AFM measures hard-sphere repulsion forces between the tip and sample.


In noncontact mode, the AFM derives topographic images from measurements of attractive forces; the tip does not touch the sample. AFMs can achieve a resolution of 10 pm, and unlike electron microscopes, can image samples in air and under liquids.

To achieve this most AFMs today use the optical lever. The optical lever Figure 1 operates by reflecting a laser beam off the cantilever. Angular deflection of the cantilever causes a twofold larger angular deflection of the laser beam. The reflected laser beam strikes a position-sensitive photodetector consisting of two side-by-side photodiodes. The difference between the two photodiode signals indicates the position of the laser spot on the detector and thus the angular deflection of the cantilever.


Image acquisition times is of about one minute. Atomic force microscope, University of Konstanz May The ability of AFM to image at atomic resolution, combined with its ability to image a wide variety of samples under a wide variety of conditions, has created a great deal of interest in applying it to the study of biological structures.

Images have appeared in the literature showing DNA, single proteins, structures such as gap junctions, and living cells. Due to the synchronous movement of the X-ray source and X-ray sensor, certain plane cross-section of the object is always projected in the same place of the sensor while others are projected with a displacement and therefore will appear blurred in the resulting image.

The detector moves synchronously to the source in such a way as to secure that a specific object layer is projected on the same place on the detector array for whatever position of the source.

Therefore if one sums up all projections obtained for different positions of the source, projections of the focal plane layers will be accumulated coherently producing a sharp image of this layer while other layers projected with different displacement in different projections will produce a blurred background image. The more projections are available the lower will be the contribution of this background into high frequency components of the output image.

They produce images that can be directly viewed by eyes. In transform imaging, image information retrieval and image formation reconstruction for display are essentially separated.

Digital Image Processing (IT6005) Notes Download | Anna University

Probably, the very first example of indirect imaging method was that of X—ray crystallography Max Von Laue, , Nobel Prize In Max von Laue and his two students Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping demonstrated the wave nature of X-rays and periodic structure of crystals by observing the diffraction of X-rays from crystals of zinc sulfide. This discovery ended up in crystallography as a new imaging technique.

In crystallography, geometrical parameters and intensity distribution of the pattern of diffraction spots is used for calculation of spatial distribution and density of atoms in crystals.

Discovery of diffraction of X-rays had a decisive value in the development of physics and biology of XX-th century. One of the most remarkable scientific achievements that is based on X-ray crystallography was discovery by J.When H is in this sector. Seldom are there requirements for image display applications that cannot be met by display cards available commercially as part of the computer system.

We know that. In Section 4. The reason for this is that the pixels in these small areas have negligible influence on the computation of a global transformation.

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