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To live life without veal or chicken stock, fish cheeks, sausages, cheese, or organ meats is treasonous. These people have obviously never visited a poultry farm. Most chefs believe that supermarket chickens in this country are slimy and tasteless compared with European varieties.
Pork, on the other hand, is cool. Pork tastes different, depending on what you do with it, but chicken always tastes like chicken. Another much maligned food these days is butter. In almost every restaurant worth patronizing, sauces are enriched with mellowing, emulsifying butter. Pastas are tightened with it. Meat and fish are seared with a mixture of butter and oil. Shallots and chicken are caramelized with butter. But during the hours of service gloves are clumsy and dangerous.
Finding a hair in your food will make anyone gag. I run a scrupulously clean, orderly restaurant kitchen, where food is rotated and handled and stored very conscientiously. Recently, there was a news report about the practice of recycling bread. By means of a hidden camera in a restaurant, the reporter was horrified to see returned bread being sent right back out to the floor.
It makes more sense to worry about what happens to the leftover table butter—many restaurants recycle it for hollandaise. What do I like to eat after hours? Strange things. Oysters are my favorite, especially at three in the morning, in the company of my crew. Focaccia pizza with robiola cheese and white truffle oil is good, especially at Le Madri on a summer afternoon in the outdoor patio.
Frozen vodka at Siberia Bar is also good, particularly if a cook from one of the big hotels shows up with beluga. At Indigo, on Tenth Street, I love the mushroom strudel and the daube of beef. At my own place, I love a spicy boudin noir that squirts blood in your mouth; the braised fennel the way my sous-chef makes it; scraps from duck confit; and fresh cockles steamed with greasy Portuguese sausage.
I love the sheer weirdness of the kitchen life: Most of us who live and operate in the culinary underworld are in some fundamental way dysfunctional. Being a chef is a lot like being an air-traffic controller: Live Cabaret!
Free Shrimp! However, the fusion did not happen in a vacuum: socioeconomic hierarchies and the subordination of the islands as European overseas colonies were structuring constraints. For all the peoples involved, this culinary fusion has been a process of transculturation, defined as a process that includes the partial loss of a culture, the partial acquisition of another culture, and the eventual creation of a new one Ortiz , pp.
This is an ongoing process that continues today most notably with the incorporation and transformation of processed and fast foods. Before the arrival of Europeans, Caribbean aboriginal diet was based on fish and shellfish, small game, tropical fruits, yucca, sweet potatoes, corn, beans, peppers, squashes and avocado. When the Spanish arrived, they tried unsuccessfully to cultivate their staple foods wheat, olives and grapes but they were extremely successful with the introduction of hogs.
Some of the Lesser Antilles became mostly populated by wild hogs as the native peoples were wiped out by slave catching expeditions Watts, , p.
For some time colonists depended on imports and on the Indian conucos, or cultivation plots, for their food. However, hogs eventually destroyed the conucos and with the extermination of the native population that way of cultivation almost disappeared. Yucca is the ingredient that survived the longest and remained as a staple for a long time. They also brought ingredients from Europe that originally came from Asia garlic, rice, eggplant, onions, citrus fruits, spices, apples, peaches, lettuce, cucumber, carrots and ingredients from Africa that originally came from Asia as well sugarcane, coconuts, bananas, cambur.
In the nineteenth century additional ingredients were brought from Africa akee, breadfruit and Asia mango, nutmeg, tamarind Lovera Thus, ingredients from all over the world constitute the base of traditional Caribbean cuisine since its early beginnings.
Who was doing most of the cooking and under what conditions? Out of necessity both groups ended up trying, adapting and liking unfamiliar foods. During the early phase when the colonists depended on indigenous conucos for their survival their taste was partially transformed. In free settlements of surviving indigenous peoples and free or escaped Africans some of the aboriginal cooking knowledge was probably acquired by the Africans. The first cooks in the Caribbean kitchen were the indigenous peoples and their cuisine survived their extermination in the food habits of the rest of the population.
The next important group in charge of cooking, and therefore with the most impact in shaping the cuisine, were primarily Africans. In the plantation system slaves were to a surprising degree in charge of food supply.
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They were assigned a ration of food normally consisting on manioc flour, rice or corn, and salt cod or beef. By the s subsistence plots had become a space of relative slave autonomy in many islands. Some slaves produced a surplus to take to the market and colonies like Martinique became dependent upon slave produce for a substantial portion of their food Tomich Plantation agriculture, geared towards export, left the production of food for local consumption mostly in the hands of slaves.
It follows that Caribbean eating patterns were to some extent determined by what slaves were able and willing to produce. Fruits and vegetables were understandably more common than seafood given that slaves had limited access to the sea which would have provided them with opportunities to escape. This would explain why a great number of traditional Caribbean dishes feature salt cod, which was standard food in the transatlantic voyage and part of the ration, rather than fresh fish.
Slaves were also in charge of food preparation working as cooks in the plantations. However, cooks had a certain level of space for creativity applying what they remembered from African cooking and inventing new recipes. Diasporic peoples carry taste memories of dishes they have eaten but not necessarily know how to prepare them. Even in the case of those with cooking knowledge there were serious limitations because not all ingredients were available to reproduce the remembered dishes.
Caribbean cuisine was invented primarily by African cooks who made choices in terms of how to recreate and create dishes and techniques based on a considerably large but new pool of ingredients and a number of imperfectly remembered traditions.
Cuisine as performance is an attempt to cope with unspeakable loss. The creation of Caribbean cuisine was a first step in the quest for freedom. As Sidney Mintz , p.
It is possible to talk about a cuisine shared by the whole Caribbean region in spite of the obvious and meaningful differences according to patterns of colonization, immigration and national histories. Mintz , pp. He explains that the combined effects of these points have been somewhat different and therefore he conceived the various societies of the Caribbean in terms of a continuum rather than in terms of a single abstract model.
Such cultural continuum has been observed by scholars of Caribbean music and languages. Kenneth Bilby has explained the Caribbean as a musical region which emerges in the middle ground between African and European cultures. Each island stands at a different point in the continuum, some closer to European music and some closer to African music, but still sharing some common characteristics.
Mervin Alleyne illustrates the point in the case of the linguistic landscape of the Caribbean. The region presents a wide range of ways in which European and Creole languages are related, from islands that are multilingual, bilingual or monolingual to those characterized by diglossia and by the existence of different graded levels of language between Creole and European languages.
There are a few techniques that give Caribbean cuisines a sense of unity. One of them is the generalized use of a paste of ground seasonings like sofrito in the Spanish speaking Caribbean and the marinades of the English speaking islands. The use of the African grinding stone to make dough from plantains and root vegetables is another technique central to the cuisine. In the areas that received a large number of Indian immigrants a distinctively Caribbean curry powder has been developed.
What all these techniques have in common is that they ensure a consistency in the taste of the final dishes even when the ingredients are varied according to availability or preferences.
As new ingredients and dishes as diverse as pasta and processed meats are incorporated into the Caribbean diet, the use of these techniques in their preparation gives them an unmistakable Caribbean character.
Probably the most salient Caribbean culinary technique is improvisation just like in salsa or jazz. Such music balances a fixed structure with an open one which is completed with individual and collective improvisation. Recipes for Caribbean dishes can only provide a basic structure that allows for considerable changes and substitutions. Caribbean cookbooks seem more arbitrary than cookbooks for more codified and standardized cuisines like the French or Chinese because they attempt to reproduce a performance which was already an attempt to recreate a memory.
In Caribbean cooking, like in performance art, to repeat dishes in exactly the same way is not highly valued: fluidity, flexibility and creativity are defining characteristic of this culinary culture. The ideal proportion between these ingredients has never been established and is subject to much discussion among proud cooks who claim their version is the best. The filling is equally variable and can be made with pork, chicken and more recently canned corned beef.
Pasteles can finally be wrapped in plantain leaves, paper or aluminum foil, and boiled in a pot or in the microwave oven. The origin of such openness comes from the need to cook with whatever is available, yet all different versions of pasteles are recognizable as such.
The openness of dishes like pasteles has been embraced as an opportunity for experimentation and innovation. The radical variability of a single dish can also be observed across the Caribbean. Differentiation comes from the kind and proportion of flavorings and from the use or exclusion of leavening agents.
In spite of the wide range of differences they all are still identifiable as Caribbean salt cod fritters. The transformation of salt cod from basic ration food into a beloved snack is remarkable. The recurrence of salt cod in fritter form rather than in a stew or some other preparation makes one wonder what previous dish it was meant to replace. Creatively designed to cope with the loss of culinary knowledge and ingredients, and to provide consistency even in cases of scarcity and unpredictable availability, cuisine provided Caribbean peoples with the first shared language across cultures.
I would argue that fusion cuisine was the founding stone on which Caribbean cultures were built. Caribbean fusion cuisine enables the creativity of all cooks and its development contributed to the creation of a free Caribbean by providing the opportunity to practice freedom.
In contrast, metropolitan restaurant fusion while constituting a tasty cuisine is also reinstating the hierarchies that have relegated the Caribbean to a position of subordination. The following examination of the definition of fusion given by experts and practitioners allows us to see the colonialist presuppositions of the fusion cuisine that is practiced today.
In the Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, Julie Locher defines contemporary fusion cuisine as different from the historical combinations of cuisines characterizing the former as proactive and the latter as reactive. This is a false opposition. On the one hand, it reduces the fusion cooks of the past to passive subjects that merely reacted to changes brought about by forces alien to them. In the case of the Caribbean I have explained that, even in the case of the slaves, cooks managed to create opportunities for creativity to the point that letting the initiative of the cook run free became a landmark of the cuisine.
In spite of the resources of metropolitan upscale restaurants the creativity of the chef is limited by the only slightly adventurous palate of most customers, their misconceptions about regional cuisines and the bias in favor of French technique.
Bibliografia Gastronomia Cozinha Fria
Another problem with the above definition of fusion is that it inserts cuisine into a narrative of progress in which the new is more highly valued than the old. This comment takes the point of view of those who ignore the global wealth of ingredients and techniques, assumes that immigrant and minority chefs cannot cook cuisines other than the one of their countries of origin and takes for granted that ethnic and regional cuisines are essentially of low status without acknowledging the role of global relations of power in that hierchization.
Restaurant fusion is supposed to rescue ethnic cuisines from their low position by inserting them into the matrix of French cuisine which is uncritically considered the highest form of culinary expression. Subordination to metropolitan taste and denial of the value of their culinary systems is the price so-called ethnic cuisines are paying to be known outside of their communities. Another telling definition of culinary fusion comes from Norman Van Aken, an award-winning Florida chef and cookbook author.
Van Aken c. This implies that Caribbean cooks have not developed the cuisine in centuries as if they were stuck in the past and not active agents in the constant reinvention of the cuisine. The presupposition of this statement is that regional cuisines lack their own techniques. The recipes produced by Van Acken and other fusion chefs more often than not consist on the application of French technique to a Caribbean dish or the addition of Caribbean ingredients to a continental dish.
What is rarely seen is the application of a Caribbean technique to a continental dish. The role of the Caribbean in metropolitan restaurant fusion cuisine seems to be limited to the contribution of ingredients and of a few dishes in need of improvement. This hierarchization is reminiscent of the one that has relegated the Caribbean to a source of primary materials in the world economy. In both cases the Caribbean is valued for its raw nature while its culture is consistently undervalued.
Many metropolitan restaurant fusion chefs have a more personal relation- ship to the different culinary traditions that feed their fusion. However, they are also reinforcing the same old hierarchies whether they realize it or not. The above examples illustrate how metropolitan restaurant fusion treats the Caribbean as a source of underdeveloped ingredients and ideas, and does not consider Caribbean chefs as creators.
This is no small irony considering that, as I have argued, cuisine was one of the first domains in which Caribbean peoples asserted their agency and exercised freedom. Dussel , p. Such a project should include a fusion cuisine different from the currently dominant one. It would value all culinary epistemologies equally, making French cuisine lose its privileged position. More importantly, it would allow all cuisines to develop according to their own logic and to challenge and transform the way in which global culinary knowledge is currently being produced.
London: Prospect Books. Alleyne, Mervin C. Sidney W. Kiple and Kriemhild Cone Ornelas, Vol 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Beckles, Hilary McD.
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Shepherd and Hilary McD. Beckles, Kingston: Ian Randle. Bilby, Kenneth M. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Coe, Sophie D. Austin: University of Texas Press. Bring back home economics education. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs.
J Nutr Educ Behav. Jul-Aug;46 4 — Levy J, Auld G. Cooking classes outperform cooking demonstrations for college sophomores. Jul-Aug;36 4 — The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.
Public Health Nutr. February;10 2 — LA Sprouts: a gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention for Latino youth improves diet and reduces obesity. August; 8 — Nutrition education in an era of global obesity and diabetes: thinking outside the box.
Acad Med. July;90 7 — The need to advance nutrition education in the training of health care professionals and recommended research to evaluate implementation and effectiveness.
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Am J Clin Nutr. May;99 5 Suppl S—66S.
A deficiency of nutrition education in medical training. Am J Med. September; 9 —6. Taste one. Cook one.
Teach one. March 25; 6 —2. Medical student-led community cooking classes: a novel preventive medicine model that's easy to swallow.
Am J Prev Med. La Puma J.In New York, the main linguistic spice is Spanish. In fact, it was the unsavory side of professional cooking that attracted me to it in the first place. While remarking that abundance of meat and emphasis on quantity are contrary to the culinary system of Siam which emphasizes quality and in which meat is not given a central role, Kosa Pan does not fail to grasp the importance of wine in the French culinary experience.
Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. To correct an excessively wet food like melon, it was served with cured ham which was considered hot and dry.
With the following account of the interactions between different ingredients and cooks in the Caribbean kitchen I want to conceptualize Caribbean cuisine as performance following the definition given by Joseph Roach of performance as a process of surrogation through which circum-Atlantic societies invented themselves.
This summary of culinary programs might benefit institutions that are in the process of developing CM programs. Historically, the use of land and other natural resources has been determined by external market demands because of the logic of plantation agriculture.
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