CARDIAC CYCLE PDF

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Cardiac Cycle. The cardiac muscles of the heart contract and relax in a rhythmic cycle. During the contraction phase, called systole, blood is propelled out of the. The period of time that begins with contraction of the atria and ends with ventricular relaxation is known as the cardiac cycle (Figure 1). The period of contraction. Oct 27, The cardiac cycle is a series of pressure changes that take place within the heart. Cardiac cycle events can be divided into diastole and systole. Diastole represents ventricular filling, and systole represents ventricular contraction/ejection.


Cardiac Cycle Pdf

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Atria repolarize and relax // remain in diastole for the rest of the cardiac cycle. • Ventricles depolarize. – this initiates the QRS complex. – Depolarization followed . Pressure forces semilunar valves open. ◦ Blood flows out of the ventricles into arteries. ◦ Chordae tendinae prevent AV valves from being forced open; preventing. The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.

Throughout the cardiac cycle, blood pressure increases and decreases. The movements of cardiac muscle are coordinated by a series of electrical impulses produced by specialised pacemaker cells found within the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node.

Cardiac muscle is composed of myocytes which initiate their internal contractions without applying to external nerves—with the exception of changes in the heart rate due to metabolic demand. In an electrocardiogram , electrical systole initiates the atrial systole at the P wave deflection of a steady signal; and it starts contractions systole of the ventricles at the Q deflection of the QRS complex.

Completing the P wave represents the end of the ventricular diastole and the start of the ventricular systole —see cycle diagram. The cardiac cycle involves four major stages of activity: See Wiggers diagram, which presents the stages, label-wise, in 3,4,1,2 order, left-to-right. Moving from the left along the Wiggers diagram shows the activities within four stages during a single cardiac cycle.

See the consecutive panels labeled, at bottom-right, "Diastole" then "Systole". Stages 1 and 2 together—"Isovolumic relaxation" plus Inflow equals "Rapid inflow", "Diastasis", and "Atrial systole" —comprise the ventricular "Diastole" period, including atrial systole, during which blood returning to the heart flows through the atria into the relaxed ventricles.

Stages 3 and 4 together—"Isovolumic contraction" plus "Ejection"—are the ventricular "Systole" period, which is the simultaneous pumping of separate blood supplies from the two ventricles, one to the pulmonary artery and one to the aorta.

Notably, near the end of the "Diastole", the atria begin contracting, then pumping blood into the ventricles; this pressurized delivery during ventricular relaxation ventricular diastole is called the atrial systole , aka atrial kick. The time-wise increases and decreases of the heart's blood volume see Wiggers diagram , are also instructive to follow.

The red-line tracing of "Ventricular volume" provides an excellent track of the two periods and four stages of one cardiac cycle. Starting with the Diastole period: Then, the Systole, including the high "Isovolumic contraction" stage to the rapid decrease in blood volume i. Stages 1, 2a, and 2b together comprise the "Diastole" period; stages 3 and 4 together comprise the "Systole" period.

Dicrotic notch- rebounding of aorta, helps perfuse coronary arteries, with increasing age the aorta stiffens and less elasticity hence the notch may be less and problems arise perfusing coronary arteries. The heart is a four-chambered organ consisting of right and left halves, called the right heart and the left heart. The upper two chambers, the left and right atria , are entry points into the heart for blood-flow returning from the circulatory system , while the two lower chambers, the left and right ventricles , perform the contractions that eject the blood from the heart to flow through the circulatory system.

In a healthy heart all activities and rests during each individual cardiac cycle, or heartbeat, are initiated and orchestrated by signals of the heart's electrical conduction system, which is the "wiring" of the heart that carries electrical impulses throughout the body of cardiomyocytes , the specialized muscle cells of the heart.

These impulses ultimately stimulate heart muscle to contract and thereby to eject blood from the ventricles into the arteries and the cardiac circulatory system ; and they provide a system of intricately-timed and persistent signaling that controls the rhythmic beating of the heart muscle cells, especially the complex impulse-generation and muscle contractions in the atrial chambers.

The rhythmic sequence or sinus rhythm of this signaling across the heart is coordinated by two groups of specialized cells, the sinoatrial SA node, which is situated in the upper wall of the right atrium, and the atrioventricular AV node located in the lower wall of the right heart between the atrium and ventricle. The sinoatrial node, often known as the cardiac pacemaker , is the point of origin for producing a wave of electrical impulses that stimulates atrial contraction by creating an action potential across myocardium cells.

Impulses of the wave are delayed upon reaching the AV node, which acts as a gate to slow and to coordinate the electrical current before it is conducted below the atria and through the circuits known as the bundle of His and the Purkinje fibers —all which stimulate contractions of both ventricles. The programmed delay at the AV node also provides time for blood volume to flow through the atria and fill the ventricular chambers—just before the return of the systole contractions , ejecting the new blood volume and completing the cardiac cycle.

Cardiac diastole is the period of the cardiac cycle when, after contraction, the heart relaxes and expands while refilling with blood returning from the circulatory system. Both atrioventricular AV valves open to facilitate the 'unpressurized' flow of blood directly through the atria into both ventricles, where it is collected for the next contraction.

This period is best viewed at the middle of the Wiggers diagram—see the panel labeled "Diastole". Here it shows pressure levels in both atria and ventricles as near-zero during most of the diastole.

See gray and light-blue tracings labeled "Atrial pressure" and "Ventricular pressure"—Wiggers diagram. Here also may be seen the red-line tracing of "Ventricular volume", showing increase in blood-volume from the low plateau of the "Isovolumic relaxation" stage to the maximum volume occurring in the "Atrial systole" sub-stage.

Atrial systole is the contracting of cardiac muscle cells of both atria following electrical stimulation and conduction of electrical currents across the atrial chambers see above, Physiology.

While nominally a component of the heart's sequence of systolic contraction and ejection, atrial systole actually performs the vital role of completing the diastole, which is to finalize the filling of both ventricles with blood while they are relaxed and expanded for that purpose. Atrial systole overlaps the end of the diastole, occurring in the sub-period known as ventricular diastole—late see cycle diagram. At this point, the atrial systole applies contraction pressure to 'topping-off' the blood volumes sent to both ventricles; this atrial kick closes the diastole immediately before the heart again begins contracting and ejecting blood from the ventricles ventricular systole to the aorta and arteries.

Atrial kick is absent or disrupted if there is loss of normal electrical conduction in the heart, such as caused by atrial fibrillation , atrial flutter , or heart block. Atrial kick may also be degraded by any deterioration in the condition of the heart, such as "stiff heart" found in patients with diastolic dysfunction.

Ventricular systole is the contractions, following electrical stimulations, of the ventricular syncytium of cardiac muscle cells in the left and right ventricles. Contractions in the right ventricle provides pulmonary circulation by pulsing oxygen-depleted blood through the pulmonary valve then through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs.

Simultaneously, contractions of the left ventricular systole provide systemic circulation of oxygenated blood to all body systems by pumping blood through the aortic valve, the aorta, and all the arteries. Blood pressure is routinely measured in the larger arteries off the left ventricle during the left ventricular systole.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: As pressure drops within the ventricles, blood flows from the major veins into the relaxed atria and from there into the ventricles. Both chambers are in diastole, the atrioventricular valves are open, and the semilunar valves remain closed see Figure 1.

The cardiac cycle is complete. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the ECG.

Figure 2. Initially, both the atria and ventricles are relaxed diastole. The P wave represents depolarization of the atria and is followed by atrial contraction systole. Atrial systole extends until the QRS complex, at which point, the atria relax. The QRS complex represents depolarization of the ventricles and is followed by ventricular contraction.

The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles and marks the beginning of ventricular relaxation. In a normal, healthy heart, there are only two audible heart sounds: S1 and S2.

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In both cases, as the valves close, the openings within the atrioventricular septum guarded by the valves will become reduced, and blood flow through the opening will become more turbulent until the valves are fully closed.

There is a third heart sound, S3, but it is rarely heard in healthy individuals. It may be the sound of blood flowing into the atria, or blood sloshing back and forth in the ventricle, or even tensing of the chordae tendineae.

S3 may be heard in youth, some athletes, and pregnant women. If the sound is heard later in life, it may indicate congestive heart failure, warranting further tests.

The fourth heart sound, S4, results from the contraction of the atria pushing blood into a stiff or hypertrophic ventricle, indicating failure of the left ventricle. A few individuals may have both S3 and S4, and this combined sound is referred to as S7. Figure 3.

Heart Sounds and the Cardiac Cycle. In this illustration, the x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure. The term murmur is used to describe an unusual sound coming from the heart that is caused by the turbulent flow of blood.

Murmurs are graded on a scale of 1 to 6, with 1 being the most common, the most difficult sound to detect, and the least serious.

The most severe is a 6. Phonocardiograms or auscultograms can be used to record both normal and abnormal sounds using specialized electronic stethoscopes. During auscultation, it is common practice for the clinician to ask the patient to breathe deeply.

This procedure not only allows for listening to airflow, but it may also amplify heart murmurs. Inhalation increases blood flow into the right side of the heart and may increase the amplitude of right-sided heart murmurs.

Expiration partially restricts blood flow into the left side of the heart and may amplify left-sided heart murmurs.

Figure 4 indicates proper placement of the bell of the stethoscope to facilitate auscultation. Figure 4. Stethoscope Placement for Auscultation. Proper placement of the bell of the stethoscope facilitates auscultation. At each of the four locations on the chest, a different valve can be heard.

Chapter Review The cardiac cycle comprises a complete relaxation and contraction of both the atria and ventricles, and lasts approximately 0. Beginning with all chambers in diastole, blood flows passively from the veins into the atria and past the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles. The atria begin to contract atrial systole , following depolarization of the atria, and pump blood into the ventricles.

The ventricles begin to contract ventricular systole , raising pressure within the ventricles.

Pressures and Flow

When ventricular pressure rises above the pressure in the atria, blood flows toward the atria, producing the first heart sound, S1 or lub. As pressure in the ventricles rises above two major arteries, blood pushes open the two semilunar valves and moves into the pulmonary trunk and aorta in the ventricular ejection phase. Following ventricular repolarization, the ventricles begin to relax ventricular diastole , and pressure within the ventricles drops.

As ventricular pressure drops, there is a tendency for blood to flow back into the atria from the major arteries, producing the dicrotic notch in the ECG and closing the two semilunar valves. The second heart sound, S2 or dub, occurs when the semilunar valves close.

When the pressure falls below that of the atria, blood moves from the atria into the ventricles, opening the atrioventricular valves and marking one complete heart cycle. The valves prevent backflow of blood.

Failure of the valves to operate properly produces turbulent blood flow within the heart; the resulting heart murmur can often be heard with a stethoscope. Review Questions 1.

The cardiac cycle consists of a distinct relaxation and contraction phase.Nevertheless, both ventricles pump the same amount of blood. Initially, both the atria and ventricles are relaxed diastole. Expiration partially restricts blood flow into the left side of the heart and may amplify left-sided heart murmurs.

The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Atrial systole overlaps the end of the diastole, occurring in the sub-period known as ventricular diastole—late see cycle diagram. Murmurs are graded on a scale of 1 to 6, with 1 being the most common, the most difficult sound to detect, and the least serious.

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