Welcome to the Blender Manual! This is the manual for the 3D animation software from This site can be downloaded for offline use: Download the. A few months ago I revamped my old project about converting the whole wiki manual to PDF format (& others) for version +. Most people. Animation. . This manual is a good start, though it serves more as a reference. . - November First Manual published.

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Certain window managers also use the following hotkeys. So ALT-CTRL can be substituted for CTRL to perform the functions described below if a conflict arises. This manual is written to serve the wide array of Blender users. Blender Development Blender User Manual Tutorials Books Scripts Blender 3D Manual a - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read book online for free. This page in other languages - (ar) | Català (ca) | Czech (cz) | Deutsch (de) | Dansk (dk) Finding Groups for a Vertex.

Noise, Tangent, 3D curvature, Crease angle, Simplification. A few other improvements: Have a look at some of the above mentioned features in the demo videos made by the Blender community.

As for every Blender release, hundreds of bugs were fixed, thanks to the hardworking Blender developers. Blender Foundation welcomes recurring donations to the Development Fund , which enables coders from the community to work for a set period of time on specific objectives. Join now and support Blender development!

Main highlights for this release: A huge view-port performance boost. Big file browser performance boost and arrow keys navigation support. Node auto-offset feature that helps organizing node layouts. Absolute grid snapping in the 3D view. Sculpting with tiled strokes.

Text effect strips for the sequencer, supporting subtitle export As usual, hundreds of bugs fixed and other improvements! Page 15 Place your appliance on a solid Put the ingredient you want Place the jug onto the mo- and flat surface. Do not operate it at the highest speed suddenly. Otherwise the motor may overheat.

Let it cool for 5 minute before operating it again. Page 17 2. Put the ingredients in the jug Select the desired automat- When the process is com- 2 and close the lid 1. Page 18 2. The appliance will stop when you release the button.

Page 19 2. Take out the jug 2 from the If you want to operate the motor housing 9 and pull appliance again, remove the down the lever 5. Page Cleaning And Care Cleaning and care 3. Lock the jug 2 operate it for 26 seconds. It is recommended to clean the appliance immedi- ately after using. You can wipe it with a damp cloth. Page 22 Cleaning and care Open Lock Open Lock Turn over the lid 1 and open Take out the backflow pre- Place and secure the back- the backflow prevention cap vention cap to wash or rinse flow prevention cap back by by turning it anti-clockwise to then to dry it.

WD18 8UF The guarantee does not in any way diminish your statutory or legal rights. If you hold CTRL while doing this. Number buttons To change the value in a wider range. Special pages Wanted pages The colors green. No more than one Radio Button 1. This is a powerful Undo feature.

Navigation menu

Some buttons also have a third state that is identified by the text turning yellow the Emit button in Toggle Contents buttons. To increase the value. Unlinked objects Unlinked data is not lost until you quit Blender. Some number buttons contain a slider rather than just a number with side triangles. DataBlocks are structures like Meshes. Number buttons are handled in several 1. And the "F" button specifies whether the DataBlock should be saved in the file even if it is unused unlinked.

Menu Buttons Use the Menu buttons to choose from dynamically created lists. The first button with the tiny up and down pointing triangles opens a menu that lets you select the DataBlock to link to by holding down LMB Datablock link buttons and releasing it over the requested item.

They can be identified by their brownish color in the default Blender An operation button scheme An operation button. The "X" button clears the link. Menu buttons are principally used to link DataBlocks to each other. Clicking this type of button does not perform any operation. You just have to re-link it to another object or press the "F" button. You can also enter simple equations. Handy geometric constants to remember: Color Selector Cascade Buttons Occasionally.

The same method of operation applies. Press ESC to restore the original value. Note You will need to uncheck "Do Clipping" if you were using it before otherwise Gus will end up with a skirt rather than pants. This will force the camera to track Gus and always point at him. Here is how layers work: Blender provides you with twenty layers to help to organize your work.

Gus should now have a left arm that you modelled he's facing us and a right arm that Blender added. If you now move the mouse toward Gus he should become thinner but remain the same height. The shape of the Object is still controlled by the location of the coarse mesh vertices. Gus is much better now! Let's see what Gus looks like We're just about ready to see our first rendering. Our cube in Edit Mode. This is usually avoided if you used the Mirror Modifier but it might happen when extruding and flipping.

Coincident vertices Extruding works by first creating new vertices and then moving them. In our case we will check the Cage Mode button so we can see the transparent faces in Edit Mode.

The limit can be set from 0. Constrained Scaling Slimming Gus using constrained scaling. The header of the 3DWindow toolbar shows the scaling factor Slimming Gus using constrained scaling. Otherwise your legs will end up going straight down. If you are using Extrude. Once you do this the camera will really track Gus. Contents Just like the "Gus the Gingerbread Man" tutorial you see here.

The camera should be magenta and Gus light pink. This will move your camera and lamp to layer Axis perpendicular to the mirror plane. Default Blender screen as 1. The last layer that is turned on controls. The Ground Now we need to create the ground for Gus to stand on. We will call our Gingerbread man "Gus". Try to produce something like in Body. To select vertices that are hidden behind others uncheck the Limit selection button.

He should look like Setting Gus to smooth. It allows us to model only one side of Gus while Blender creates the other in real time. The modifiers panel.

The Head Gus needs a head. So let's clean up the place. To make it smoother. Note It is important to be out of Edit Mode. Merge Limits button. The scale factor will now vary in discrete steps of value 0. The pop-up menu of the Delete X action. Camera position with respect to Gus. To reset the normals. If you made changes in Edit Mode that are not lost for that Object.

Our first task is to build Gus's body by working on the vertices of our Cube. Box Select the two top-right-most vertices Extruding the arm in two steps. Our subdivided cube has 26 vertices. Shift Ctrl Z to redo and Alt U to see the history. Adjust Samples: In Part I of this tutorial we'll build a still Gingerbread Man.

Solid or Textured we can only select visible vertices. With your cursor hovering in the 3D window press A to deselect all elements.

Cage Mode button. We will use the default rendering settings. Alt U opens a menu with a list of possible undos so that you can easily find the point you want to revert to. If this were to happen it would cause quite a mess. Lights Now. Shift Ctrl Z re-does changes. The active layer is where all objects that will be created are stored. We will organize our working area by placing objects on different layers where we can hide them.

The cube should already be selected. Click MMB to constrain scaling to just one axis or press Y to obtain the same result. This means that you can move the camera wherever you want and be sure that Gus will always be in the center of the camera's view. The simplest way to go back to the state before you started extruding is to Undo Ctrl Z. Your first rendering. Preview Panel. Check the rightmost button on the top row Layer control toolbox. Set its Energy to 0. You must have the Limit selection button unselected to continue this tutorial.

In Top view NumPad 7. Gus will now appear smooth although he may wear some funny black lines in his middle. Press S and start to move the mouse horizontally. Undo data is not lost when you switch out of Edit Mode. Scale Gus down so that the factor is 0. The Rendering buttons window buttons.

As you can see. If you change your mind in the middle of an action. Vertices will turn pink. Clicking the button marked Add Modifier opens a list from which you'll choose Mirror List of modifiers. Blender will warn you if you try to overwrite an existing file. Button Window header The Lamp buttons window button.

Cursor to Grid places the cursor exactly on a grid point. The cube. To place the cursor at a specific grid point. These lines appear because the SubSurf's finer mesh is computed using information about the coarse mesh normal directions. It guides you through the process of making a Part I walking. This will split each side of the cube in two. Press MMB and drag the mouse around to view Gus from all angles. SubSurfaces SubSurfacing is an advanced modelling tool.

Press X and from the popup menu select Vertices to erase the selected vertices The pop-up menu of the Delete X action. Using the sequence you just learned. On the screen you should see.

In Object Mode the same shortcuts apply. As a first step. A small toolbox. The Subsurf modifier in the Modifiers panel. SubSurfaces subsurf So far what we have produced is a rough figure at best. Enlarge the plane so that its edges extend beyond the camera viewing area. Y or Z button. It is sometimes useful to intentionally create new vertices this way and then move. Extrude again with E then move the new vertices another half a square to the right.

You may need to change views and move the camera a second time to adjust all three coordinates. We're done with mirror modelling. But beware that by default this is true only for the wireframe drawtype: Mirror modelling To model symmetrical Objects we can use the Mirror modifier. Do Clipping button.

This will create new movable vertices and faces which you can move with the mouse. In the next steps we will experiment with other techniques. Let's make Gus thinner: Switch to the Shading context F5 and then the Lamp buttons window via the sub-context button with a lamp in the The Lamp buttons window button.

In our case it is the X-axis. Make this spotlight track Gus just as you did for the camera by selecting Spot. Tracking If you choose the option Old Track and the camera has a rotation of its own.

The location of the camera is specified by LocX.

Blender does automatic saves into your system's temporary directory. Setting Gus to smooth. Press and hold CTRL. The sequence of Box selecting a group of vertices. Slimming Gus using constrained scaling. Rendering We're almost ready to render. In the Buttons Window. You can press TAB to switch between these two modes.

For modelling Gus. Building the body Change to the front view with NumPad 1 and add a cube --if one is not present-. Do this by pressing G and dragging the camera. Cursor to Selection places it exactly on the selected object..


The result. A camera. To make Gus look smooth. Extruding the arm in two steps shows this sequence. We choose the axis that will run from the modelled side of our character to the side Blender is completing by checking either the X.

We still need materials. Arms and Legs Let's create Gus's arms and legs. Two things to remember: Undo in Edit Mode works only for the Object currently in that mode. This leaves all the room we can wish for to begin our modelling job. It is pretty empty for the moment. Now press B. We will build the left leg the same way by extruding the lower vertices three times. Shift LMB on the top right small button of the layer visibility buttons in the 3DWindow toolbar Making both layer 1 and 10 visible.

Be sure to set both Levels NumButtons below or at 2. Our mesh could end up ripped in the middle if vertices that should be on the mirror plane aren't. Ctrl Z to undo.

2012 – Vertexpainting Tutorial for animated Trees in Unity

Now make sure that only Layer1 is visible. In that case select the tracking object in our example the camera. Loading these saves is another way to undo unwanted changes. Adding the head. To see the Blender tools that we'll use for this purpose. Go to the Edit context F9 and find the Modifiers panel. Click with LMB on the Recalculate normals outside box which appears. Now Gus should be nice and smooth Setting Gus to smooth. Saving our work If you have not done so already.

Inserting a Lamp. A normal RMB click selects only one of these stacked vertices. Go Search Note For a much more in-depth introduction to Blender that focuses What links here New files on character animation. Hemi lamp settings Two lamps?

Use two or more lamps to help produce soft. Move the cursor above the top left corner of the cube. A cube will appear. Press TAB. List of The modifiers panel. The button is selected in the image at the right. Box Select On many occasions you may have vertices hidden behind other vertices.

The first Level is for what you'll see in the 3D Window area. In Object Mode. We need to make the right part of our model real since nothing done with Body. Extruding the arm in two steps. Return to Front view and to Solid mode Z. Spot light settings. The Mesh Tools panel in the Edit context F9.

To make the camera point at Gus. You can do the following steps just as well in Object Mode. You can see which layers are currently visible from the group of twenty buttons in the 3D window header Layer visibility controls.

Press E and click on the Region menu entry to extrude them. Any vertex closer to the mirror plane. That's what we want right now. We will describe Categories each step completely. Camera position with respect to Gus shows top. Now press G to switch to Grab Mode and move the newly created vertices down. The Merge Limits button Merge Limits button acts as a safety net. To avoid inadvertently neglecting a wandering vertex.

Nothing much seems to happen. A Tip Remember that the last layer selected is the active layer. Move them one and a half squares to the right. TogButton is on. The complete Gus still rendering. Creating a mouth with Spinning tools. We're adding a texture in the first channel. The crosshair pivot button. The Buttons window will be populated by Panels and Buttons and a string holding the Material name. The texture itself is a plain Noise texture. Now Gus has two eyes. This will create three duplicates of the selected vertices on an arc of 90 degrees.

Give the mouth a white sugar like material. Add a new sphere and scale and move it exactly as done before for the eyes.

Blender 3D Manual 2.48a

Place it below and to the right of the cursor. Buttons window Button. Enter the name of your image in the file window and save. The Material Buttons window and a first gingerbread material. Give the ground an appropriate material.

File type selection menu in the Rendering Buttons window. Place the cursor at the center of Gus's head. Scale the sphere down S to a factor of about 0. Settings for the Stucci texture in the Material Buttons window. Layer visibility buttons on toolbar. Once you have made one button.

These changes will make our Stucci texture act as a "bumpmap" and make Gus look more biscuit-like. Eyes and detail To give some finishing touches we'll add eyes and some other details.

Materials and Textures It's time to give Gus some nice cookie-like material. Attaching the spheres If we want to be able to grab Gus and move him around as a whole this goes beyond the animation in the second part of this tutorial. Click the name and change it to something meaningful. The sphere is in the first image at the top left of the sequence in Sequence for creation of the eyes.

Enter Object Mode and press A until nothing is selected. The result should be Gus's mouth. Sequence for creation of the eyes. To add a material. Blender does not add an extension to the file name. A very simple material for the ground. From the columns of ToggleButtons which appear in the Texture panel select Stucci and set all parameters as in The Texture Buttons window with a stucci texture. Objects sharing a material To give one object the same material as another object.

Flipping a duplicate around the cursor Select the crosshair pivot button in the header of the 3D window pivot: Deselect everything and repeat the process to attach each element.

Then press M to mirror. Then press the red dot sub-context button to access the Material panels. Return to front view NumPad 1 and move the sphere sideways. This will hide the lamps. Set Degr: Now right click one sphere if more than one is selected as a group. The Button window will be almost empty because Gus has no materials yet. Remember that you are in 3D so be sure to check at least two views to be sure! The Texture Buttons window Button. You must choose the image format JPEG.

X to mirror around the X axis. The Spin Tools buttons in the Edit Buttons window. The Material Menu button. Note that you must click the Shaders tab to reveal the shader panel. Some other candy materials. The default of 32 is more than we need here. With just the eye selected. The complete Gus! Eyes material Give the eyes a chocolate-like material.

Once you have finished assigning materials.

Now go back to Object Mode and add three more spheres below the head and centered along the Z-axis to form Gus's buttons. Call it "GingerTex.

Now add a second texture. Place it where Gus should have an eye. The eye should still be selected if not.

Rendering Material Menu. The Save menu. You will be asked for the number of Segments: Return the pivot button to its default setting Median Point. First make Layer 1 the only one visible by clicking with LMB on the layer 1 button Layer visibility buttons on toolbar.

The result should look more or less like The complete Gus still rendering. These are shown from top to bottom in Some other candy materials too.

Saving Save your image by pressing F3. The Texture Buttons window with a stucci texture. Select Gus. Modify the default values as per The Material Buttons window and a first gingerbread material to obtain a first rough material.

Settings for an additional Noise texture in channel 2. Go Search Rigging To add the rigging: What links here New files Set your 3D cursor where Gus's shoulder is. Bone position The bones we are adding will deform Gus's body mesh. Do so by copying it as usual. Forward Kinematics While handling bones in Pose Mode notice that they act as rigid.

Select the Armature entry. Create Vertex Group menu. Categories The next step is to give him a skeleton. Place the other end of the armature in Gus's hand by grabbing G and moving the end. This procedure. You should see something like Gus in EditMode with all the vertices of group Arm. This requires that you begin to manually adjust the grouping as described in the following sections. But a truly complex character. L" with those of bones with suffix ".

While this is generally not the best choice. Remember that all the layers that you want to use in the animation must be shown! In our case. Stopping a Rendering If you make a mistake. Other details Our deformations will affect only Gus's body. A menu pops up Storing the pose to the frame. Gus in EditMode with all the vertices of group Arm.

The armature will turn blue. Check them all and be sure that they look like those in The six vertex groups. This is called the fine art of rigging. Gus will have a very simple rigging: You have now copied the current pose to the buffer.

By pressing the Menu Button a menu. Change to the Rendering Buttons F10 and in the Anim panel. Select all bones again and press I to store this pose at frame See The menu with the vertex groups automatically created in the skinning process.

The current frame Num Button in the Buttons window Toolbar. This pose is the mirror of the one we defined at frame 1. Naming Bones It is very important to name your bones with a trailing '. Start with with clearing the rotation on both arms using Alt R as mentioned earlier. A new "chained" bone will appear automatically linked with the knee and ending at the foot.

The vertex groups buttons in the Edit Buttons window. We have produced only a very basic walk cycle. Armature Bones panel. We'll use the automatic skinning option. The pose is there but it has not been stored yet! You must press I with all bones selected.

Press Ctrl P to parent the body to the armature. This button will paste the cut pose. All the other bones assume a algorithmic position. This allows a much easier and precise positioning of hands and feet using IK.

Now place the cursor in the center and select all bones with A. L' or '. We do this with Skinning. The six vertex groups. Once the 'undesired' vertices are selected.

If it is not set to 1. The buttons Select and Deselect show you which vertices belong to which group.The image below has been rendered with blender's cycles engine: But, for a quick rendering, the Raytracing workbench can already do a good job, with the advantage of being very easy to setup, thanks to its templates system. Non-uniform scaling of the X and Y axes is accessible by locking it with X or Y.

Page 19 2. Why 6m and not 5. This, provided that you organized your model well, allows you to easily retrieve individual values: Note that the spreadsheet workbench is still very new, and like everything very new, still contains many bugs and limitations.

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