The text presents detailed Treatment of television engineering and video systems . Emphasis is laid on the systematic development of basic concepts with. Television Engineering and Video Systems. Front Cover · R G Gupta. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, Nov 1, - Television - pages. 10 Reviews. Books · My library · Help · Advanced Book Search · Get print book. No eBook available Television Engineering and Video Systems. By R G Gupta.
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Language English. Title. Television engineering and video systems. Electrical and electronics engineering series. Author(S) R. G. Gupta (Author). Publication. G GUPTA PDF FREE DOWNLOAD is added to the menu.. Systems R G Gupta Pdf Audio Video Engineering Books Of Rg Gupta Pdf Tv Book R. Television Engineering and Video Systems R G Gupta Download PDF Television engineering handbook Book. International ITG Conference.
Key concepts[ edit ] Modern telecommunication is founded on a series of key concepts that experienced progressive development and refinement in a period of well over a century.
Basic elements[ edit ] Telecommunication technologies may primarily be divided into wired and wireless methods. Overall though, a basic telecommunication system consists of three main parts that are always present in some form or another: A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal. A transmission medium , also called the physical channel that carries the signal.
An example of this is the "free space channel". A receiver that takes the signal from the channel and converts it back into usable information for the recipient.
For example, in a radio broadcasting station the station's large power amplifier is the transmitter; and the broadcasting antenna is the interface between the power amplifier and the "free space channel". The free space channel is the transmission medium; and the receiver's antenna is the interface between the free space channel and the receiver. Next, the radio receiver is the destination of the radio signal, and this is where it is converted from electricity to sound for people to listen to.
Sometimes, telecommunication systems are "duplex" two-way systems with a single box of electronics working as both the transmitter and a receiver, or a transceiver. For example, a cellular telephone is a transceiver. This can be readily explained by the fact that radio transmitters contain power amplifiers that operate with electrical powers measured in watts or kilowatts , but radio receivers deal with radio powers that are measured in the microwatts or nanowatts.
Hence, transceivers have to be carefully designed and built to isolate their high-power circuitry and their low-power circuitry from each other, as to not cause interference.
Telecommunication over fixed lines is called point-to-point communication because it is between one transmitter and one receiver. Telecommunication through radio broadcasts is called broadcast communication because it is between one powerful transmitter and numerous low-power but sensitive radio receivers. The sharing of physical channels using multiplexing often gives very large reductions in costs.
Multiplexed systems are laid out in telecommunication networks, and the multiplexed signals are switched at nodes through to the correct destination terminal receiver. Analog versus digital communications[ edit ] Communications signals can be sent either by analog signals or digital signals. There are analog communication systems and digital communication systems.
TV Engineering and Video Systems
For an analog signal, the signal is varied continuously with respect to the information. In a digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete values for example, a set of ones and zeros.
During the propagation and reception, the information contained in analog signals will inevitably be degraded by undesirable physical noise. The output of a transmitter is noise-free for all practical purposes.
Commonly, the noise in a communication system can be expressed as adding or subtracting from the desirable signal in a completely random way. This form of noise is called additive noise , with the understanding that the noise can be negative or positive at different instants of time. Noise that is not additive noise is a much more difficult situation to describe or analyze, and these other kinds of noise will be omitted here.
On the other hand, unless the additive noise disturbance exceeds a certain threshold, the information contained in digital signals will remain intact.
Their resistance to noise represents a key advantage of digital signals over analog signals. Some digital communications networks contain one or more routers that work together to transmit information to the correct user. An analog communications network consists of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users.
For both types of network, repeaters may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances. This is to combat attenuation that can render the signal indistinguishable from the noise. Communication channels[ edit ] The term "channel" has two different meanings.
In one meaning, a channel is the physical medium that carries a signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Examples of this include the atmosphere for sound communications, glass optical fibers for some kinds of optical communications , coaxial cables for communications by way of the voltages and electric currents in them, and free space for communications using visible light , infrared waves , ultraviolet light , and radio waves.
The various RG designations are used to classify the specific signal transmission applications. The sending of radio waves from one place to another has nothing to do with the presence or absence of an atmosphere between the two. Radio waves travel through a perfect vacuum just as easily as they travel through air, fog, clouds, or any other kind of gas.
The other meaning of the term "channel" in telecommunications is seen in the phrase communications channel , which is a subdivision of a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple streams of information simultaneously.
For example, one radio station can broadcast radio waves into free space at frequencies in the neighborhood of In the example above, the "free space channel" has been divided into communications channels according to frequencies , and each channel is assigned a separate frequency bandwidth in which to broadcast radio waves. This system of dividing the medium into channels according to frequency is called " frequency-division multiplexing ".
Another term for the same concept is " wavelength-division multiplexing ", which is more commonly used in optical communications when multiple transmitters share the same physical medium. The human eye has fairly little spatial sensitivity to color: the accuracy of the brightness information of the luminance channel has far more impact on the image detail discerned than that of the other two.
Bandwidth is in the temporal domain, but this translates into the spatial domain as the image is scanned out. Therefore, the resulting U and V signals can be substantially "compressed".
Early versions of NTSC rapidly alternated between particular colors in identical image areas to make them appear adding up to each other to the human eye, while all modern analogue and even most digital video standards use chroma subsampling by recording a picture's color information at reduced resolution.
Only half the horizontal resolution compared to the brightness information is kept termed chroma subsampling , and often the vertical resolution is also halved giving The 4:x:x standard was adopted due to the very earliest color NTSC standard which used a chroma subsampling of where the horizontal color resolution is quartered while the vertical is full resolution so that the picture carried only a quarter as much color resolution compared to brightness resolution.
Today, only high-end equipment processing uncompressed signals uses a chroma subsampling of with identical resolution for both brightness and color information. The I and Q axes were chosen according to bandwidth needed by human vision, one axis being that requiring the most bandwidth, and the other fortuitously at 90 degrees the minimum.
However, true I and Q demodulation was relatively more complex, requiring two analog delay lines, and NTSC receivers rarely used it. However, this color space conversion is lossy , particularly obvious in crosstalk from the luma to the chroma-carrying wire, and vice versa, in analogue equipment including RCA connectors to transfer a digital signal, as all they carry is analogue composite video , which is either YUV, YIQ, or even CVBS.
Furthermore, NTSC and PAL encoded color signals in a manner that causes high bandwidth chroma and luma signals to mix with each other in a bid to maintain backward compatibility with black and white television equipment, which results in dot crawl and cross color artifacts.
When the NTSC standard was created in the s, this was not a real concern since the quality of the image was limited by the monitor equipment, not the limited-bandwidth signal being received.A crystal-ringer circuit is used for the AFPC on color oscillator.
Television Engineering and Video Systems
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. For V, a 90 degree shifted subcarrier briefly gates the chroma signal every nanoseconds, and the rest of the process is identical to that used for the U signal.
The keystone effect produces a square raster- it is a false statement. T Coaxial cables have I2R losses.
Chapter 11 1. A 2T sine-squared pulse has an HAD of 0. The typical target voltage is more than 50 V.
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