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The developmentprocess began in with five IBM employees: Here, R stands for real-time dataprocessing and 1 indicates single-tier architecture, which means that the three networking layers,Presentation, Application, and Database, on which the architecture of SAP depends, are implemented ona single system.
SAP ensures efficient and synchronous communication among different businessmodules, such as sales and distribution, production planning, and material management, within anorganization. These modules communicate with each other so that any change made in one module iscommunicated instantly to the other modules, thereby ensuring effective transfer of information.
Note Time-sharing implies that multiple users can access an application concurrently; however, each user is unaware that the operating system is being accessed by other users. The three-tier architecture of the client-server model is preferred to the mainframe computingarchitecture as the standard in business software because a user can make changes or scale a particularlayer without making changes in the entire system.
Youcan configure the settings of these tables according to your requirements. With the passage of time, a business suite that would run on a single database was required. The It was usedoriginally to prepare reports, which enabled large corporations to build mainframe business applicationsfor material management and financial and management accounting. ABAP is one of the first programming languages to include the concept of logical databases, whichprovides a high level of abstraction from the centralized database of the SAP system.
Apart from theconcept of logical databases, you can also use Structured Query Language SQL statements to retrieveand manipulate data from the centralized database. To learn more about working with databases with thehelp of the SQL statements, refer to Chapter 8.
For instance, besides theavailable reports and interfaces in the mySAP ERP system, you can create your own custom reports andinterfaces. Similar to any other operating system, the SAP Basis component contains both low-level services, suchas memory management and database communication, and high-level tools, such as SAP Smart Formsand log viewers, for end-users and administrators. You learn more about these concepts later in thisbook.
The ABAP language provides the following features: Different users and programs can then access the data without copying it. Figure 1. The link betweenthese systems is established with the help of a network.
The runtime environment may be specific to the hardware, operating system, or database. The tasks of the Kernel and Basis services are as follows: Thesecomponents act as either clients or servers, based on their position and role in a network. Software-oriented viewAs shown in Figure 1. For example, using these components, users can enter a request, to display the contents of a databasetable.
The Presentation layer then passes the request to the Application server, which processes therequest and returns a result, which is then displayed to the user in the Presentation layer. Note The servers in the Presentation layer have been referred to as Presentation servers in this chapter. This layer consists ofone or more Application servers and Message servers. Application servers are used to send userrequests from the Presentation server to the Database server and retrieve information from the Database Application servers are connected to Database servers with thehelp of the local area network.
However, a singleApplication server cannot handle the entire workload of the business logic on its own. Therefore, theworkload is distributed among multiple Application servers. Application serverThe Message server component of the Application layer shown in Figure 1. This component also contains information aboutApplication servers and the distribution of load among these servers.
It uses this information to select anappropriate server when a user sends a request for processing. The control of a program moves back and forth among the three layerswhen a user interacts with the program.
When the control of the program is in the Presentation layer, theprogram is ready to accept input from the user, and during this time the Application layer becomesinactive for the specific program.
That is, any other application can use the Application layer during thistime. The procedure in which a new screen is presented before the user is known as a dialogstep. Dialog steps are processed in the Application layer, as shown in Figure 1. The centraldatabase system has two components, DBMS and the database itself. Apart from this, the components of ABAP application programs, such as screendefinitions, menus, and function modules, are stored in a special section of the database, known asRepository, also known as Repository Objects.
Note Master data is the core data, which is essential to execute the business logic. Data about customers, products, employees, materials, and suppliers are examples of master data.
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Transaction data refers to information about an event in a business process, such as generating orders, invoices, and payments. Thesewindows are created by the Presentation layer. The Application layer consists of Application servers and Message servers.
Application serverscommunicate with the Presentation and Database layers. They also communicate with each otherthrough Message servers. Application servers consist of dispatchers and various work processes,discussed later in this chapter. Architecture of the application serverFigure 1. An Application server contains multiple work processes that are used to run an application.
Each work process uses two memory areas, the user context and the roll area.
The user context contains information regarding the user, and the roll area contains information about program execution. The requests received by Application servers are directed first to the dispatcher, which enrolls them to a dispatcher queue. The dispatcher then retrieves the requests from the queue on a first-in, first-out basis and allocates them to a free work process. All work processes running in an Application server use shared memory. This memory is used to save the contexts data related to the current state of a running program or buffer data.
Shared memory is also used to store various types of resources that a work process uses, such as programs and table content. Each work process contains two software processors, the Screen processor andthe ABAP processor, and one database interface. A work process uses two special memory areaswhenever it processes a user request. This information consists of userauthorization as well as the names of currently running programs. The second memory area is known asthe roll area, which holds information about the current program pointer the location in which data of the The components of a work processAs shown in Figure 1.
From theprogramming point of view, user interaction is controlled by screens consisting of flow logic. The screenprocessor executes screen flow logic and also controls a large part of the user interaction. The ABAP processor not only processes the logic but also communicates with the databaseinterface to establish a connection between a work process and a database.
The screen processorinforms the ABAP processor of the module of the screen flow logic that will be processed. Components of the database interfaceAs shown in Figure 1. The Database-specific layer Figure 1. Now, lets describe the various types of work processes.
Types of Work ProcessesAll work processes can be categorized into five basic types on the basis of the tasks they perform: In the Application server, the type of the work process The dispatcher starts a work process, anddepending on the type of work process, assigns tasks to it. This means that you can distribute workprocess types to optimize the use of resources in the Application servers.
Types of work processesIn Figure 1. Table 1. Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcessDialog work Deals with requests to execute dialog The maximum response time of aprocess steps triggered by an active user.
The default time for a dialog work process is seconds. If the dialog work process does not respond in this time period, it is terminated. Update work Executes database update requests. An update work process parameter is used to control the is divided into two different modules, V1 number of update work processes of and V2. The V1 module describes critical V2 modules. The V2 module describes less critical secondary changes.
These are pure statistical updates, for example, Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcess calculating the sum of the values of certain parameters. V1 modules have higher priority than the V2 modules. Background Executes the programs that run without The number of background workwork the involvement of the user, such as processes can be changed byprocess client copy and client transfer.
Usually, background work processes are used to perform jobs that take a long time to execute.
Enqueue Handles the lock mechanism. Spool work Passes sequential data flows on to The parameter to set the number ofprocess printers.
Note In Table 1. To learn more about the Command field, refer to Chapter 3. Now, lets discuss how dialog steps are executed by a work process. Dispatching Dialog StepsThe dispatcher distributes the dialog steps among the various work processes on the Application server.
Dispatching of dialog steps means navigating from one screen to another screen, where one screenaccepts a request from the user and the other screen displays the result of the request. It is very important for a programmer in SAP to understand how dialog steps are processed anddispatched, because the process is completely different from the processing involved in executing anABAP program. The dynpro program consists of a screen and all the associated flow logic.
It contains field definitions, screen layout, validation, and flow logic. A flow logic explains the sequence in which the screens are processed. A set of dialog steps make up a transaction. Often, the number of users logged on to an ABAP Application server is many times greater than thenumber of available work processes.
In addition, each user can access several applications at a time.
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Inthis scenario, the dispatcher performs the important task of distributing all the dialog steps among thework processes on the ABAP Application server. Dispatching dialog stepsFigure 1. The dispatcher receives a request to execute a dialogstep from User 1 and directs it to work process 1, which is free.
Work process 1 addresses the context ofthe application program in shared memory , executes the dialog step, and becomes free again. Now, thedispatcher receives a request to execute a dialog step from User 2 and directs it to work process 1.
Workprocess 1 executes the dialog step in the same way that it did in the case of User 1. However, while workprocess 1 is in progress, the dispatcher receives another request from User 1 and directs it to workprocess 2 because work process 1 is not free. After work processes 1 and 2 have finished processingtheir respective dialog steps, the dispatcher receives yet another request from User 1 and directs it towork process 1, which is now free.
When work process 1 is in progress, the dispatcher receives anotherrequest from User 2 and directs it to work process 2, which is free.
This process continues until all therequests of the users are processed. From the preceding example, we can conclude that a program assigns a single dialog step to a singlework process for execution. The individual dialog steps of a program can be executed on different workprocesses, and the program context must be addressed for each new work process.
Moreover, a workprocess can execute dialog steps of different programs from different users. An ABAP program is always processed by work processes, which require the user context for processing. A user context represents the data specifically assigned to an SAP user. The information stored in theuser context can be changed by using the roll area of the memory management system in SAP.
The memory managementsystem of SAP comprises the following three types of memory which can be assigned to a work processin SAP: It is located in the heap of the virtual address space of the work process. Roll area memory is used as the initial memory assigned to a user context. Roll area memory is allocatedto a work process in two stages. However, if thismemory is already in use by the work process, additional memory is allocated in the second stage.
The area in the shared memory, which belongs to a user context, is then accessed. Note thatwhen the context of a work process changes, its data is copied from the local roll area to a commonresource called the roll file through the roll buffer a shared memory.
As shown in Figure 1. A client-dependent table has its first field or column of the CLNT type. The length of this fieldis always of three characters, and by convention, this field is always named MANDT and contains the clientnumber as its content. A client-independent table, on the other hand, does not have the CLNT type as itsfirst field.
AnSAP script form is a template that simplifies the designing of business forms. On the other hand, SAPSmart Forms is a tool used to print or send business forms through e-mail, the Internet, and faxing.
Now, lets assume that a user generates two forms by using SAPscript forms with two different clientlogins, client and client In this case, any changes made in client will not be reflected in theform designed in client On the other hand, in the case of Smart Forms, any changes made to oneclient will be reflected in the other client as well. SummaryThis chapter has explored the concept of SAP and its importance as leading business software.
Presentation,Application, and Database, and the various components of the Application server, such as workprocesses, the dispatcher, and the gateway. In addition to these topics, the text has explored memorymanagement in SAP. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on the client dependency feature ofSAP. Chapter 2: This process ofverifying the users based on the login names and passwords is called user authentication.
However, youcan change the password afterwards for security purposes. This screen also allows youto perform various activities related to the SAP logon process. For example, you can add and configureSAP servers that you need to connect to during the logon process.
While creating these shortcuts, you can specifythe logon settings for these functions. You also explore how to create and manage shortcuts, which facilitate you to access a transactionscreen, report, or a system command directly in the SAP system.
Figure 2. The SAP logon screen 2. Note Notice that as you enter the password, asterisks appear in the field rather than the characters that you type. As a security measure, the system does not display the value entered in the Password field. Enter the values in all the fields of the SAP screen; for instance, we have entered the client ID as , user name as KDT, and the password as sapmac, as shown in Figure 2.
However, before starting to work in this screen, you need to understand that theSAP Logon screen see Figure 2. It has to be noted that the changes done on the SAP Logon are not reflected at the frontend; they affect only the internal processing of the SAP system.
Now, lets discuss each operation in detail, one by one. You can add a single instance of aserver as well as a group of servers in this list. Perform the following steps to add a single server: The system maps, documents and supports the entire process, from order and delivery of the material to invoicing and product delivery.
Because of this scope, ERP systems are very complex software with huge amounts of data. Due to the enormous data volume, there is great potential for process analysis , resource utilization and much more. Since many companies carry out a large part of their processes and bookings with an SAP solution, the software must work error-free and always be accessible.
It is the heart of a company and if this system fails a company quickly becomes unable to act, which leads to large losses. How do the systems differ? Master Data and Basic Functions. Condition and Pricing.
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Availability Check and Requirements. Credit and Risk Management. Understanding Output. Sales Component in SAP. Shipping and Transportation. Planning Analyzing and Monitoring. Transportation Planning. Exploring mySAP.
Functional Buttons of SAP. Transaction Codes. Tackling Interviews. Bibliographic information. A Gateway to SAP.Upcoming SlideShare. The Presentation layer then passes the request to the Application server, which processes therequest and returns a result, which is then displayed to the user in the Presentation layer.
Note The servers in the Presentation layer have been referred to as Presentation servers in this chapter. Moreover, a workprocess can execute dialog steps of different programs from different users.
Thesewindows are created by the Presentation layer. In addition, the chapter described how to create and usethe shortcuts for various purposes, such as to log on or to open a particular screen. SAP AG is neither the author nor the publisher of this publication and is not responsible for its content,and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials.
Maintaining the Planning File. The application toolbar Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcess calculating the sum of the values of certain parameters.