Remote Sensing and. Geographical Information Systems. Third Edition. M. ANJI REDDY. Professor & Head. Centre for Environment. Institute of Science and. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems by M. Anji Reddy. Systems – M. Anji Reddy. By gisresources; January 27, ; No Comments. Anji Reddy, “Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems”, BS Publications Burrough P A,”Principle of GIS for land resource assessment”, Oxford.

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Concepts & Techniques of GIS by Albert, K.W. Yonng, Prentice geometry of vertical Remote Sensing and Geographical Information systems by displacement Reddy JNT UHyderabad , bestthing.infoations. measurement. To impart the knowledge of Remote Sensing & GIS along with simple applications in Reddy, “Remote Sensing and Geographical. Information systems”. Remote sensing and GIS text book by - M Anji Reddy.

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No notes for slide. A text book of remote sensing and geographical information systems 1. All rights reserved. Adithya Art Printers Hyderabad. Contents Map Language 1. Remote Sensing - Basic Principles 2.

Microwave Remote Sensing 3. Contents 4. Remote Sensing Platforms and Sensors 4. Visual Image Interpretation 5. Digital Image Processing 6. Contents 7. Spatial Data Modelling 8. GIS Data Management 9. Contents xix 9. Data Input and Editing Contents xxi Data Analysis and Modelling Contents xxiii Creation of Information System: A Case Study From the earliest civilizations to modern times, spatial data have been collected by navigators, geographers and surveyors, and rendered into pictorial form by map makers or cartographers.

Originally, maps were used to describe far- off places, as an aid for navigation and military strategies Hodgkiss During the eighteenth century, many governments realised the advantages of systematic mapping of their lands, and commissioned national government institutions to prepare topographical maps. These institutions are still continuing the mapping work.

Many of the developing countries are making all attempts to obtain the status of a developed country. These attempts are based on certain strategies relating to areas like natural resources management and development, information technology, tourism development, infrastructure development, rural development, environmental management, facility management, and e-governance.

In order to make an effective study of these thrust and emerging fields, new and innovative technologies have been developed.

Remote Sensing And Gis By Anji Reddy Pdf Free Download

Remote Sensing and GIS In the last two decades innovative technologies have been greatly applied to experimental and operational activities. These technologies have their historical antecedents. For instance, Remote Sensing and GIS have been developed from earlier technologies such as surveying, photogrammetry, cartography, mathematics, and statistics.

Laurini and Thompson adopted the umbrella term "Geomatics" to cover all these disciplines. They stated that the different aspects of each of these areas are necessary for formulating and understanding spatial information systems. The traditional method of storing, analysing and presenting spatial data is the map.

The map or spatial language, like any other language, functions as a filter for necessary information to pass through Witthuhn et ai, It modifies the way we think, observe, and make decisions. Maps are thus the starting point in any analysis and are used in the presentation of results of any operational project.

Whether it is remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, or GIS, the ultimate output will be the production of high quality, more accurate and clearer map, so that the user finds it easy to make appropriate decisions. Therefore, maps and their production using modern technologies is an essential starting point and they are the necessary tools to explore the characteristics of spatial phenomena. This Chapter is exclusively devoted to providing the fundamental concepts of a map, map scale, various terms used in mapping, review of map projections, and map symbolism.


As a graphic form of spatial data abstraction it is composed of different grid systems, projections, symbol libraries, methods of simplification and generalisation, and scale. A map is the representation of the features of the earth drawn to scale. The surface ofthe map is a reduction of the real scenario. The map is a tool of communication and it has been in use since the days of the primitive man who had to move about constantly in search of food and shelter.

A map from any local planning agency provides different kinds of information about the area. This map focuses on the infrastructure and legal descriptions of the property boundaries, existing and planned roadways, the locations of existing and planned utilities such as potable water, electric and gas supplies, and the sanitary sewer system.

The planning map may not be of the same scale as the topographic map, the former probably being drawn to a larger scale than the latter. Further, the two may not be necessarily based on the same map projection.

For a small area, the approximate scale of the data is probably more important than 2 Map Language the details of the map projection. As Robinson et al observe, "A map is a very powerful tool and maps are typical reductions which are smaller than the areas they portray". As such, each map must have a defined relationship between what exists in the area and its mapped representation.

The scale of a map sets limits on both the type and manner of information that can be portrayed on a map. Collectively, these four features, or various permutations and combinations of these four spatial features Cartographer's Conception point line area volumetric representation representation representation representation [: Housing IIII Point, line, area, and surface features with examples Source: Demers, Points, lines and areas can be represented by using symbols to depict the real world.

Surfaces are represented by any combination of these spatial entities. In general, all the geographic surfaces are in two tangible forms, namely, discrete and continuous.

Trees, houses, road intersections and similar items are discrete spatial features. A feature can be termed 3 Remote Sensing and GIS as discrete, if it occupies a given point in space and time, that is, each feature can be referenced by its locational coordinates.

All discrete features are said to have a zero dimensionality but have some spatial dimension. The earth's surface occurs all around as natural features like hills, ridges, cliffs, and trenches, which can be described by citing their locations, the area they occupy, and how they are oriented with the addition of the third dimension. All these are considered continuous surface features. These features are composed of an infinite number of possible height values distributed without interruption across the surface.

Continuous data Discrete data Fig. A topographic map depicts several kinds of information both discrete and continuous.

Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems – M. Anji Reddy

Elevation on the site is portrayed as a series of contour lines. These contour lines provide us with a limited amount of information about the shape of the terrain.

Different kinds of man-made features including structures and roadways are typically indicated by lines and shapes. In many cases, the information on this map is five to fifteen years out of date, a common situation resulting from the rate of change of land cover in the area and the cycle of map updates. Each of these different kinds of information, which we may decide to store in various ways, is called a theme. A topographic map describes the shape, size, position, and relation of the physical features of an area.

In addition to mountains, hills, valleys, and rivers, most topographic maps also show the culture of a region, that is, political boundaries, towns, houses, roads, and similar features.

Elevation or altitude is the vertical distance between a given point and the datum plane. Datum plane is the reference surface from which all altitudes on a map are measured. This is usually mean sea level. The height is defined as the 4 Map Language vertical difference in elevation between an object and its immediate surroundings.

The difference in elevation of an area between tops of hills and bottoms of valleys is known as relief of the terrain. A point of known elevation and position usually indicated on a map by the letters B.

On some maps the altitude is given along the contour line Survey of India Maps. A map line connecting points representing places on the earth's surface that have the same elevation is called contour line.

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It thus locates the intersection with the earth's surface of a plane at any arbitrary elevation parallel to the datum plane. Contours represent the vertical or third dimension on a map which otherwise has only two dimensions. They show the shape and size of physical features such as hills and valleys. A depression is indicated by an ordinary contour line except that hachures or short dashes are used on one side and point toward the center of the depression. The difference in elevation represented by adjacent contour lines is termed as contour interval.

Monmonier and Schnell, Maps are a very important form of input to a geographical information system, as well as a common means to portray the results of an analysis from a GIS. Like GIS, maps are concerned with two fundamental aspects of reality, locations and attributes. Location represents the position of a point in a two-dimensional space.

Attributes at a location are some measure of a qualitative or quantitative characteristic such as land cover, ownership, or preCipitation.

From these fundamental properties a variety of topology and metric properties of relationship may be identified including distance, direction, connectivity, and proximity. Even though there are many different types of maps, all the maps are broadly classified on the basis of two criteria, namely, scale and, contents and purpose. On the basis of the scale, the map may be classified as either a small scale map or a large scale map.

Some of large scale maps, are cadastral or revenue maps, utility maps, urban plan maps, transportation or network maps. In the process of preparing a map one should remember that inside a GIS, one is likely to encounter a greater variety of maps than one might have expected on the basis of the subject matter. In addition, based on the thematic content of GIS coverages, the maps can be termed as thematic maps like vegetation maps, transportation maps, land use land cover maps, and remotely sensed imagery.

These thematic maps will 5 Map Language Fractional scale: If two points are 1 km apart in the field, they may be represented on the map as separated by some fraction of that distance, say 1 cm. In this instance, the scale is 1 cm to a kilometer.

There are , cm in 1 km; so this scale can be expressed as the fraction or ratio of 1: Many topographic maps of the United States Geological Survey have a scale of 1: In India, commonly used fractional map scales are 1: The method of representing this type of scale is called Representation Fraction RF method.

Graphic scale: This scale is a line printed on the map and divided into units that are equivalent to some distance such as 1 km or 1 mile. The measured ground distance appears directly on the map in graphical representation. Verbal scale: This is an expression in common speech, such as, "four centimeters to the kilomekr", "an inch to a mile".

This common method of expressing a scale has the advantage of being easily understood by most map users.

The ratio and map scale are inversely proportional. Therefore, 1: In this instance, the'scale is 1 cm to a kilometer. As there are , cm in 1 km, this scale can be expressed as the fraction or ratio of 1: The small scale maps depict large tracts of lands such as continents or countries usually with a limited level of detail and a simple symbology. Large scale maps can depict small areas such as cities with a richness of detail and a complex symbology.

The terms 'small scale' and 'large scale' are in common use. A simple example helps illustrate the difference. Consider a field of meters on a side. Remote Sensing and GIS scale, the field is drawn 0. The field appears larger on the 1: Conversely, the field appears smaller on the 1: Alternately, if we have a small area of the earth's surface on a page, we have a large-scale map; if we have a large area of the earth's surface on a page we have a small-scale map.

A scale of 1: Thus, one centimeter on the map refers to 25, centimeters or meters on the earth. This is exactly the same as one inch on the map corresponding to 25, inches or approximately 2, feet on the earth.

Scale always refers to linear horizontal distances, and not measurements of area or elevation, An explanation of the symbols used on topographic maps is printed on the bottom of each topographic sheet along the margin, and for other maps on a separate legend sheet. In general, culture artificial works is shown in black.

All water features, such as streams, swamps and glaciers are shown in blue. Relief is shown by contours in brown. Red may be used to indicate main highways, ana green overprints may be used to designate areas of woods, orchards, vineyards, and scrub.

The system must have a structured mechanism to communicate the location of each object under study. The characteristics that a referencing system should possess include stability, the ability to show pOints, lines and areas and the ability to measure length, size and shape Dale and McLaughlin, There are several methods of spatial referencing systems and they can be grouped into three categories, namely, geographic coordinate systems, rectangular coordinate systems and non-coordinate systems.

In geographic coordinate systems, the coordinates of any location on the earth surface can be defined by latitude and longitude. Lines of longitude, called meridians are, drawn from pole to pole. The starting point for these lines called the prime meridian runs through Greenwich Fig. The prime meridian is the starting or zero point for angular measurements, east and west. The lines of latitude lie at right angles to lines of longitude, and run parallel to one another.

That is, each line of latitude represents the circle rounding the globe. Each circle will have a definite circumference and area depending on where it lies relative to the two poles. The circle of greatest circumference is called the equator and will be at equidistant from the poles. This type of location is called absolute location and it gives a definitive, measurable, and fixed point in space.

This spherical grid system is produced by slicing the entire globe and placing two sets of imaginary lines around the earth. The first set of lines starts at the middle of the earth or equator called parallels, and circle the 9 Remote Sensing and GIS globe from east to west. These parallels are called latitudes. The second set of lines, called meridians, are drawn from pole to pole. These are called longitudes. Simply, it can be stated that the system of angular measurements allows us to state the absolute position of any location on the surface of the earth while calculating the degrees of latitude north or south of the equator, and the degrees of longitude east and west of the prime meridian.

Most of the spatial data available by means of remote sensing systems or any other sources of data for use in GIS are in two-dimensional form. This coordinate referencing system to locate any object point is called rectangular coordinate system. The I. The third coordinate system, namely, non-coordinate system, provides spatial references using a descriptive code rather than a coordinate, such as, postal codes, which are numeric in nature..

Some countries use the non-coordinate system which is alpha numeric as in the case of UK and Canadian postal codes. This type of reference system is of particular importance for GIS users. Public land survey systems of Western United states is a classical example of this non coordinate-referencing system Heywood et. When the information is digitised from a map, the recorded locations will be often based on a rectangular coordinate system determined by the position of the map on the digitising table star and Eastes, In order to determine the true earth locations of these digitised entities, it is necessary to devise the mathematical transformation required to convert these rectangular coordinates into the positions on the curved surface of the earth as represented on the map.

Mathematical formulae to convert map units into latitude and longitude are available for most common projections Snyder, Such mathematical transformation functions are normally built into prOjection as it is mathematically produced and is a two-fold process.

First by, an obvious scale change converts the actual globe to a reference globe based on the desired scale. Secondly, the reference globe is mathematically projected on to the flat surface Robinson et al , In this process of projection there is a change in scale.

The representative fraction for the reference globe called the principle scale, can be calculated by dividing the earth's radius by the radius of the globe. The scale divided by the principle scale, is by definition 1.

The process of transformation of three-dimensional space into a two dimensional map inevitably distorts at least one of 10 Map Language the properties, namely, shape, area, distance or direction, and often more than one. Therefore, the scale factor will differ in different places on the map Robinson et. Map projection properties can be evaluated by means of applying three principal cartographic criteria, namely, conformity orthomorphic projections, equivalent projections, and equidistant projections peuckar and chrisman, The projection that retains the property of maintaining correct angular correspondence can be preserved, and this is called angular conformity, conformal, or orthomorphic projection.

The conformal type of projection results in distortions of areas leading to incorrect measurements. The projections by which a-reas can be preserved are called equal area or equivalent projections, the scale factor being equal to 1.

The projections by which the distances are preserved are known as equidistant projections. These three criteria are basic and mutually exclusive and other properties have only a peripheral importance.

In fact, there is no ideal map projection, but only the best representation for a given purpose can be achieved. A special emphasis is laid on transforming the satellite data on to a map. One of the requirements of the remotely sensed data is its ability to process an image from a generic coordinate system on to a projected coordinate system.

Projecting imagery from line and pixel coordinates to the Universal Transverse Mercator UTM is an ;example in this regard. This is particularly critical when different trends of information from a Geographical Information Systems GIS are to be combined. Remote sensing platforms and sensors. Visual image interpretation. Digital image processing. Fundamentals of GIS.

Spatial data modelling. GIS data management. Data input and editing. Rapid urbanization brings with it many problems as it places huge demands on land, water, housing, transport, health, education etc [ 1 ]. Environmental pollution has reached alarming levels in the last 5—6 years mainly due to industries and automobiles. The city witnessed an increase in population from 0. As per the population estimates, Hyderabad is likely to become a mega city with about 7.

This rising population density will continue to have an impact on the quality and quantity of local water resources.

Fresh water being one of the basic necessities for sustenance of life, the human race through the ages has striven to locate and develop it. Water, a vital source of life in its natural state is free from pollution but when man tampers the water body it loses its natural conditions.Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems GIS deals with mapping technology concepts of maps and all relevant terminology which are necessary for a beginner to develop his skills in this new and upcoming technology.

About the author Dr. GIS data management. Hence, in recent years, remote sensing has become a powerful source of spatial data as an input for GIS through which a detailed map can be generated with the help of other collateral data derived from several other sources. Map Language A common step in quality assurance when initially developing a database is to compare a digitised file with its source map. Each of these different kinds of information, which we may decide to store in various ways, is called a theme.

Remember me on this computer. For the UTM grid the mapping cylinder is secant to the earth. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software.

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