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Pengantar Ekonomi Pertanian
Pertanian sudah menjadi way of life bagi sebagian besar masyarakat Indonesia. Wajah pertanian akan kembali menjadi cerah manakala para pelaku —dengan didukung penuh oleh pemerintah— dapat memahami peran dan fungsi pertanian, serta mampu mengelolanya dengan benar sesuai dengan perkembangan kebutuhan manusia. Pemahaman tentang pertanian http: Pemahaman tentang pertanian dengan ciri spesifiknya, serta peran pentingnya dalam hidup dan kehidupan manusia di era global saat ini mengharuskan fokus perhatian pertanian tidak lagi kepada sisi sosial way of life, tetapi lebih kepada kegiatan ekonomi yang mampu membawa para pelakunya pada peningkatan produksi, pendapatan, dan perbaikan kesejahteraan hidupnya melalui cara pandang yang benar terhadap pertanian.
Perhatian pemerintah melalui serangkaian kebijakan menjadi penentu keberhasilan pembangunan dan pengembangan pertanian. Get A Copy. Published by Andi.
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Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Apr 08, Mufidah Saleh rated it liked it. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here.
Aug 03, Katalogbukunasional Pustakawan rated it it was amazing. Dhita Dwita rated it it was amazing May 11, Buku rujukan di mata kuliah "Pembangunan Pertanian".
Ridho Pandi Utama rated it really liked it Apr 19, Jack Barges rated it really liked it Feb 23, Hamriani rated it it was amazing Sep 11, Lussyana rated it it was amazing Feb 05, Apr 09, Nur Almas added it. Smoking prevalence is 34 percent, and 63 percent of men smoke.
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Per capita adult tobacco consumption increased by 9. Given the delay of up to 25 years between the time of smoking uptake and the onset of many chronic diseases, the negative health effects of increases in cigarette consumption are being seen only now.
The customs law states that excise should be used to reduce consumption of tobacco products and control their distribution because they are unhealthy.
In practice, the primary factor taken into consideration when setting the tobacco tax rate is the annual revenue target.
The system continues to promote gaps in prices between products, tobacco has become more affordable over time, and smoking prevalence among children has increased sharply. Cigarette prices and tax rates in Indonesia are low relative to other countries, and real cigarettes prices have remained stable since the s.
The report concludes with five recommendations.
Dasar-dasar Demografi (Introduction to Demography)
First, the tobacco excise system should be simplified by eliminating the production tiers, applying a uniform specific tax, implementing tax increases across all products, and automatically adjusting the specific tax for inflation.
Specific excises that impose the same tax per cigarette are more effective in discouraging cigarette consumption. Tax increases that aim to reduce consumption need to be higher than the general rate of inflation and large enough to offset income growth. Second, the maximum legally allowable excise tax rate for all tobacco products should be applied to reverse the trend of increasing cigarette affordability and to start to address the significant burden of tobacco-related illnesses.
Tax levels that achieve the global benchmark of 70 percent through a specific, or primarily specific rather than ad valorem, tax would have the greatest health impact.
Third, the employment generation goal of the tobacco tax system should be re-examined to determine whether other programs or policies would be more effective in promoting employment. Fourth, the tax rates should be set at a level to correct for market failures related to lack of information and addiction, and to reflect the true costs of smoking to individuals and society.
Lastly, it is recommended that the 2 percent earmarked excises be used effectively to support local economies that could be negatively affected by reductions in tobacco consumption, and to implement tobacco control programs more broadly.Modernization without development in rural Java.
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Tio Faisal rated it really liked it May 01, Indonesian exports. Atlas Indonesia. Geertz, Clifford.
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The religion of Java. Political culture and cultural politics. Find more information about: Kekuatan-kekuatan kolonial memang memperoleh keuntungan yang besar dari sumber daya alam dan dan pasar Asia Tenggara yang besar, akan tetapi mereka juga mengembangkan wilayah ini dengan tingkat pengembangan yang berbeda-beda.