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They like places of entertainment, especially where alcohol is served. Ibn Kanjur said that his father took him once as a child to Ibls in order to be blessed by him.
He said that Ibls looked very ugly and can change his appearance with anything. His tail is between 4 and 6 cm long, his tall is between and cm, but he can make himself tall until 10 meters. He has a very big palace with millions of servants and guards of devils, and he has other palaces in other places.
The jinn have good sense of smell and like fragrance. Babies of one to two yeas old can see the jinn in its original form. Lost ships and planes were covered with special light or surrounded with thousands of devils. They live in Bermuda Triangle. What people used to claim to have seen aliens are not really alien. Ibn Kanjur had traveled more than one hundred times in outer space and has found no alien. If a Muslim encounters a jinni s he should read yatul kurs and surah al-S. If a Muslim crossing or passing by the Bermuda Triangle reads the Quran, Ibls and his army will not be able to harm him.
The pilot reporting to be lost in this area stated that the sky turned gray, and the instruments of their planes malfunctioned. He was actually entering the world of the jinn.
The four searching planes were themselves lost and vanished. Another triangle is Formosa triangle in the form of an upside down pyramid: Taiwan on the left, Gilbert island on the right, and Wake island at the bottom.
These areas are the favorite places of devils. A child of two years old who is still developing his eyesight can see with sharper eyes than those of the adult.
The jinn also like meeting places of cold and hot water where Ibls has also his kingdom and his assistants. This reminds us of the Prophet who prohibits people from sitting in a place where half is with sunshine and the other half is under the shade, as this place gives power to Ibls. We know that the meeting of cold and hot air could create power we call storm.
Marriage and Married Life in the Jinns World The age of maturity among the jinn is between years and years. Pregnancy period is 15 months containing between 7 and 8 babies, and sometimes 15 babies. The nursing period is as long as human age. The babies sleep very long without any noise.
Then they go to school and universities and become medical doctors, technicians, journalists, etc, like human beings. Mixed marriage between a human being and a jinni is impossible except if the jinni makes himself visible as human.
Pregnancy is impossible as sperms and wombs of humans and jinn are different. Therefore, the story saying the Princess Bilqiss mother was a jinni is not true. Categories of Jinn The skin of the jinn have different colours: red, white, black, yellow, and any colour known by men, the colours of the spectrum. Some jinn have wings and fly.
Others are like snakes and dogs. Some can change their forms from one form to another. There is a group of jinn who are like black dogs with white circles on top of their eyes. They are the most dangerous jinn. According to a h. Since then, you will see many black dogs in Makkah, especially outside the pilgrimage season. I have never heard them barking, and I have never seen their droppings.
I was also told that in the past when Black cats could also be jinn transforming their forms. Cats with other colours could also be jinn. Cats in history were adored as well as hated. They were associated with evilness and witches and some were burned alive. Some jinn are never able to make themselves visible. Others like Ifrt has a tremendous power to do so. A kind of devil called Mrid can also make himself visible with difficulty. When a jinni becomes visible he is vulnerable, can be caught and killed by citing ayatul kursi.
Some jinn are afraid of humans, as man can complain to their leader. When this happens the jinni will be severely punished. Jinns law, said Ibn Kanjur, is stricter than human law. Do the jinn have religions, and if so, what are they? Are these black dogs Muslim jinn protecting the Sanctuary Mosque? The next night a police man came to warn him for hitting someone and who complained against him.
Ibn Taymiyah was reported to have said that the jinn like to appear as dogs, snakes or black cats, because black colour gives power to the jinn. Perhaps it is because black colour absorbs all colours of the rainbow. When Abu Hurayrah told the incident to the Prophet, he confirmed that Allah will protect us from Satan the devil if we read it before going to sleep.
Among the jinn there are Jewish, Christians, Buddhists and Communists.
There are some Muslim jinn, but their numbers are few, like a drop of water compared to the ocean. Like humans where Muslims fight Communists like in Afghanistan , Muslim jinn also fight Communists jinn. When there was no non-Muslim jinni, the Muslim jinn assisted the mujahidin in Afghanistan against Soviet Unions invasion.
Some of them wore green clothes. Some people thought that they were angels. Qarn7 Qarn is a kind of jinn who always accompanies man Every human being has a qarn for a male, and qarnah for a female.
The qarn and qarnah are a special kind of weak jinn who have no sexual desire, and therefore they never married. On the authority of Abu Hurayrah the Prophet said that every human being is accompanied by a qarn a jinni accompanying man , When one of his companions asked him, Even you, O Messenger of Allah? In another h. According to Ibn Kanjur the qarn of the author is called Abdul Hadi.
He is staying on his right side. The author related that he had a discussion about Islam with his friend, a lady called Sahar. After the discussion she embraced Islam. Her qarn who heard the discussion converted also to Islam and changed her name from Izis to Fatimah, and was so happy that she cried out of happiness, and moved from her left side to her right side 7 The term qarn means a male companion, a male who accompanies someone. It could mean a husband, because he is a companion to his wife.
The term qarnah means a female companion, and therefore could mean a wife. They are a special kind of jinn; they are lighter and called Red Jinn, and cannot be seen by ordinary jinn, except in if they are under the influence of black magic like humans, jinn also practice black magic, they have also magicians and sorcerers , or drink water with black magic, then they can see their qarns.
A jinni can appear like another jinni. Like humans, a jinni can also be possessed by the devil. When Ibn Kanjur, the converted jinni, tried to cure a possessed jinni, his qarn appeared in the form of six different jinn, speaking in different languages.
When Ibn Kanjur tried to talk to them, one answered in Urdu, another in Arabic, and the others in other different languages. The appearance of Virgin Marys apparition on the top of a church was common among the Christian Egyptians, especially in the 60s.
According to Ibn Kanjur, this was the work a jinni who mastered medical science. He said that medical doctors among the jinn were more knowledgeable and more advanced in their fields than human medical doctors. They were active in propagating Christianity that had been abandoned by Ibn Kanjur.
There is no doubt among Muslims of not only the existence of jinn, but also of their power of reason. Like humans, they are accountable of what they do in this earth.
Like humans, some are good and others are bad, and they will be rewarded or punish in the Hereafter according to their deeds in this world. Allah says in the Qurn, Many of the jinn and men We have made for Hell. They have heart wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattlenay, more misguided: for they are heedless of the warning. We have also in the Qurn chapter 72 surah al-Jinn the Jinn speaking about this hidden creatures, as well as chapter 76 called surah al- 11 Insn Man speaking about human beings.
In surah al-Ns chapter it is mentioned that the evil whisperers are among jinn and human beings. In surah al-Rah. Young people who venerated cows jumped into it in order to free themselves from the dirty life. Then a devil appeared in the form of the young man, saying, Now, I am in the sate of bliss and happiness.
Jinn servants and slaves Prophet-King Solomon enslaved a group of jinn. There were even jinn among his army. He has treated tens of In Indonesia a person can download a jinni to work for him. One example is the jinni who worked for the person who bought him. The jinni who repaired the body of the car could do it easily in the area where it was difficult for humans to do.
The problem was that the repaired area did not stay permanently. In Indonesia it is called ketok majik magical pounding and is done behind a curtain. The jinni that we download as a servant can go and steal for us. We can order him to bring something, but we do not know its source, most probably from stealing. Moreover, because we do not see him, he does what he likes, and there must be something for him in return. It is not totally a free service.
As a matter of fact, we do not know who is really serving who. There has to be mutual benefit, namely, we have to serve him the way he wants, not the way we want, although we are the master, the downloader and he is the servant.
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Otherwise, he would not obey us. The jinni might even make fun of us because we do not see him.
Therefore, downloading or employing a jinni could be a dangerous deed, and he could turn to be an invisible enemy if we do not answer his demand. To the jinn we say to you your world, to us our world, we have not hing in common--except if you become Muslims, then you become among our bro thers and sisters in faith. There was a man who was bewitched, controlled by jinn.
His hands became paralyzed for seven years. He went abroad for treatment, but unsuccessful.
(PDF) Buku Exploring Africa FINAL compact | Haidi Nurhashfi - meteolille.info
It is a sophisticated and promising market, offering a combination of a well-developed economic infrastructure with a vibrant emerging market economy. It has advanced and modern financial systems, laws, telecommunication services, and energy infrastructures. Although the economy of South Africa is still dependant on the mining sector, it has long tried to diversify its industrial sector. South Africa is also a major supplier of machineries, equipment tools, processed foods, chemicals, petroleum products, and scientific equipments.
Moving forward through regional governments contacts Diplomatic relations between Indonesia and South Africa were established in August , and were then strengthened by the declaration of a Joint Strategic Partnership in However, these two countries have enjoyed long-standing relations long before formal ties were established. The relationship is currently moving forward in relation to inter-regional government cooperation, which was initiated for the purpose of increasing people to people contacts, promoting direct trade as well as opening access to other regional markets.
In this regard, the Province of West Java of Indonesia and the Provinces of Mpumalanga as well as Limpopo of South Africa had agreed to increase provincial cooperation on economic and technical sectors.
Although the Memorandum of Understanding on the provincial partnership is still being established, cooperation in several sectors has already been implemented. In order to strengthen the cooperation and to do further assessment regarding the plan to formalize the provincial partnership, the three provinces conducted partnership meetings on 17—21 September in Mpumalanga, South Africa.
The meeting identified several areas of cooperation and business opportunities which are related to tourism, trade and investments, as well as capacity building programs on various sectors such as fisheries, energy, mining and tea plantation.
The program of cooperation are as follows: Potential export commodities from West Java to Mpumalanga and Limpopo include pulpwood, mineral products, basemetals, textiles, machineries, vegetable products, chemical products, motor vehicles, and products made from ceramic. The provinces face several challenges in the implementation of the cooperation.
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Office of the Provincial Government of West Java Today, South Africa is witnessing a growing number of middle-class people, who tend to consume more and selectively, and this has made a significant contribution towards the national downloading power, particularly of those living in urban areas.
Meanwhile, South Africa is also heading towards market liberalization that is conducted through, among others: Trading with South Africa: What to do? The Indonesian Government should give more attention to the existence of the 1. Furthermore, the Indonesian Embassy in Pretoria states that Indonesian businesses should also consider the following factors in their efforts to amplify the success of engagements with South Africa: Supported by transport infrastructures that connect the sub-region, South Africa has put more emphasis on those infrastructures to ensure the smooth flow of goods and people among countries in the region.
At the moment, South Africa is undertaking strategies to advance its economy, with the following objectives: Both countries share a lot in common: Furthermore, the depth of relationship between the two countries is reflected in the recent signing of the Indonesia — South Africa Strategic Partnership.
South Africa is a key player in the continent, and plays an important role in the stability of the region. The political decisions made by South Africa have often largely influenced the dynamism of intra-regional relations. The enhancement of bilateral relations between Indonesia and South Africa has played a major role in the improvement of trade and investment access between the two countries.
To date, there has been plenty of promising business opportunities, particularly in the fields of natural resources extraction, construction, agriculture, and services.
Mauritius28 Mauritius is an island state located in the Indian Ocean, consist of an area of 1, square km. Language, such as Creole mother tongue , English and French are commonly spoken by the natives, while Asian languages such as India, Pakistan, and China are commonly spoken by the migrants population. For Mauritians, the languages form a modality to facilitate communication with the foreign communities, in order to promote economic relations and cooperation.
The policy includes investment facilitation, simplified procedures for FDI, and the tax reform. The objectives of both agreements are to create enabling environment to attract investments, as well as to protect the companies that invest in Mauritius.
Economic Reform towards an Open Economy Since , the Mauritian Government has launched an economic reform program which aims to open up its economy, facilitate business, improve investment climate and intensify the flow of Foreign Direct Investments FDIs as well as skilled workers.
Within the past 4 years, there have also been fiscal policy reforms. Among those policy reforms are the simplification of business permits and the harmonization of tax rates corporate tax and income tax. The various reforms that Mauritius had carried out have contributed to its resilience in dealing with the global economic recession and the Eurozone Crisis. Furthermore, to overcome the crisis, the Mauritian Government launched an Additional Stimulus Package ASP in order to enable the government, bank and companies to have a burden sharing measure and to cope with the effect of the crisis.
On the contrary, the Eurozone Crisis also creates an opportunity for Mauritius to obtain market shares of the French- speaking countries in Africa and beyond.
However, there is an indication that those investments are not entirely or originally coming from Mauritius, as most of them come from foreign companies which invest in Mauritius. Offshore companies are considered more profitable than onshore companies because the tax rates applied to them are very low, and could even be as low as zero per cent. Moreover, offshore companies are also considered easier to manage and have more confidentiality assurances than the on-shore ones.
Due to its strategic location in the Indian Ocean, around 2, km from the Southeast coast of Africa, Mauritius had positioned itself as a hub in the trade route which links Asia to Africa.
In the past few years, Africa has become more and more significant to Mauritius, which is why the Mauritian Government envisaged Mauritius as a strategic gate to Africa, especially for the financial and business sectors. Thus, Mauritius enjoys preferential access to those countries.
Although Mauritius views Africa as a promising market, it also realizes that there are still many obstacles in entering the African market. Some of the obstacles relate to logistics, infrastructure and connectivity. The poor connectivity in Africa has made travel expenses from Mauritius to Africa higher than the travel expenses from Mauritius to Asia. Furthermore, the lack of information, the low business facilitation, the uncertainty of business policy, and the under developed banking sector in mainland Africa are also among the main obstacles for penetration into the African market.
In order to overcome these challenges, Mauritius had developed a particular strategy to enter the African market by targeting specific countries which have good connectivity such as Kenya, Senegal, Nigeria, and Egypt. Indonesia should learn from this strategy. BPPK Mauritius. India had also experienced it.
However, India did not terminate the agreement, but instead decided to have the treaty reviewed in order to prevent further abuses. Reviewing the treaty is more effective than terminating it, as termination will only result in the loss of various benefits that can actually be attained from the DTAA mechanism. In October , the Mauritian government established a Steering Committee to explore possibilities of developing Islamic financial services in Mauritius.
The committee is responsible for reviewing and amending a legal framework to facilitate Islamic banking in Mauritius, which would later be stated in the Finance Act Based on the legal framework, a bank can operate fully as an Islamic bank or offer Islamic banking services.
The development of Islamic banking in Mauritius provides an opportunity for Indonesia to further expand and improve cooperation in this field. From Urbanized to Integrated Markets Africa is characterized by its fragmented and urbanized economy, which is partly due to the lack of connectivity in the continent. Interactions among countries, both social and economic, are difficult as shown by the low level of intra African trade.
SSA as compared to other regions Source: As a result, the incurring costs to get access to various centres of economic activities in Africa are higher than the ones that a party would need to pay in other regions such as Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Latin America. Electricity power costs 14 US cents per kilowatt-hour against 5 — 10 US cents elsewhere.
There seems to be better connectivity in the southern region, among SADC countries. However, the existing railways are concentrated on the coastal areas, as they were mainly constructed by former colonial powers to transport goods which were to be shipped abroad, mostly to Europe. The motorway transport networks are also limited and often lack maintenance, which pose challenges to the rapid regional economic development. PIDA is currently working to develop priority regional and continental integrated infrastructure networks and services in four key sectors: It has set out short-term, medium-term and long-term goals to be achieved by , , and respectively.
The missing links of the Trans—Sahara Highway project, championed by Algeria. The Nigeria—Algeria gas pipeline project, championed by Nigeria. The project will benefit Nigeria, Niger and Algeria. The Fiber Optic project along the Nigeria — Algeria gas pipeline project alignment, championed by Algeria. The project will benefit Algeria, Niger and Nigeria. The Dakar—Ndjamena—Djibouti road and rail project, championed by Senegal. The Kinshasa—Brazzaville bridge road and rail project, championed by the Republic of the Congo.
The project will benefit all African countries. The current sources of finance are obviously unable to meet up this demand, and therefore it is imperative for countries to look for new initiatives Despite all that, the AfDB is among those who are optimistic, seeing that the budget allocation among African governments for infrastructure development has increased in the last decade. Governments have also started exploring opportunities for using private financing, creating new partnerships and reducing wastage in such investments.
Along with the betterment in governance and business climate, foreign investors are beginning to pay closer attention to Africa. The development of Public Private Partnership has been encouraging. This is evidenced by the growing interests of companies from China, India, Europe and the Middle East to invest in Africa.
This is an idea that has been long recognized and nurtured. The main objective of the Union is to accelerate the process of integration in the continent, which in the end will enable Africa to play its rightful role in the global economy while addressing its multifaceted social, economic and political problems. As such, the African Union becomes the core coordinator for regional development and integration efforts in the continent.
Hence, the African Union is considered as a super body with wide mandate and strong support. The African Union Commission AUC itself is in the process of being transformed into AU Authority, for the sake of better coordination and implementation of development programs. Pan-Africanism and regional integration is considered one of the priorities among African leaders, as reflected in the decisions adopted by the African Union Assembly in the last five years and the transformation of the AUC into AU Authority.
However, too many initiatives to establish RECs had created difficulties in implementing the programs and had also influenced the progress that were supposedly achieved by other RECs, because a single country in Africa can belong to two or three RECs.
Table USD 1. Regional mechanisms have been established on Combined Population: USD billion free trade, investment on health, transport, energy, agriculture, industry, telecommunication, tourism, social and finance. Expected to launch a customs union in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Established in with the aim of widening and and Uganda deepening cooperation among the partner states and other regional economic communities in, among Combined Population: USD billion their mutual benefit.
Established a customs union in Established a common market in Negotiations on a monetary union are ongoing and expected to be established in Other regional mechanisms have been established on various sectors such as finance and capital markets, transportation, and standardization, free movement of people, education, joint patrols, military exercises, capacity building projects, and regional institutions.
Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Revitalized in from former organization with Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda expanded areas for regional cooperation The programs run in a rather slow pace due to Combined Population: Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Founded February 17, to achieve regional Morocco, Tunisia integration through strengthened common policy in all areas and to gradually introduce free circulation of Combined Population: Effort on reviving the union is currently pursued Source: Thus, this trend creates many opportunities for Indonesia to engage with Africa as there are enormous potentials of economic cooperation and benefits.
Coincidentally, the independence era was initially marked by the increase in prices of commodities from Africa, such as coffee, cocoa and other natural resources like copper34 in the international market. It was only by nature that in this situation, in which most of their products were absorbed by Western markets, many new African countries embraced a Western type of economic system and built close economic relations with European countries and the US during the Cold War era.
Unfortunately, an economic spring in Africa happened for only a brief period, before the continent went on to record a catalogue of brutal repression and extreme economic mismanagement, which put it in a state of arrested development for more than 50 years.
For Africa, freedom was indeed nothing more than a slogan. Most Africans were still bound, not by colonial chains, but by a continuance of the spirit of colonialism. The main causes that hindered the development of Africa were probably improper management and instability, yet many Africans would immediately pinpoint their ex-colonial masters as the main culprits of the wrongdoings in Africa.
Anti- western resentment was common in Africa, and would linger for many years to come. At the beginning of the Cold War era, China has already had its presence felt in the continent, although its presence was minor. However, this low degree of relationship was enough to create the seeds for the boost incurrent China-Africa relations.
In the case of India, its economic connection with Africa has been developed through the significant help from its community who had lived in the continent for years. After the Western States cut off funds to Zimbabwe following some allegations toward Robert Mugabe once the darling of the Western governments and had been awarded honorary degrees and even the Knighthood from the British Queen for violating human and political rights, the Zimbabwean Government has turned toward other states to make up the shortfall.
For many Africans, not only did China, India and other eastern countries bring in their resources for trade and investment, but more importantly, they also came with an approach that is different from the ones associated with Western States. Moreover, the hostile treatments conducted by Western countries toward African leaders like Robert Mugabe and Muammar Ghaddafi have created deep wounds for many Africans, which will remain unhealed for a considerable time.
It was in the middle of this negative sentiment that Eastern economies started engaging intesively with Africa. The main objectives were to conduct activities related to business, natural resources, and to a certain extent, food security. By doing so, on the one hand, countries like China and India, with their big financial liquidity, have managed to grasp this opportunity by channelling their loans or other financial schemes to the continent.
On the other hand, Europe and the US were still struggling from their financial crisis. It does not matter. I cannot correct that. The damage is done. Such ideas, however, is not widely accepted in many African countries. With the growing attention that African countries have toward Asia-Pacific and vice versa, it is only a matter of time before the East could compete in the same level with Europe and the US in Africa. Africa is not poor, and has immense untapped wealth: The tourism potential of Africa is enormous: The growth of informal activities and rapid urbanization is responsible for the sizeable share of the services sector, which can not therefore be interpreted as a maturation of African economies.
As depicted in the picture below, each region in Africa has its own strengths in regards to its global prowess. The Geography of Useful Africa Source: Meanwhile external trade and foreign direct investment contribute largely to the engine of growth in African economy, aided by improvements on domestic business climate, as the result of policy reforms through better banking regulations, fiscal restraints, private investment encouragement and stabilization of political and security condition.
The growth of FDI, however, is still concentrated in the countries with abundant natural resources, and the sector remains focused on the extractive industry. Meanwhile, trade accounted for High External Debt and Inflation Concerns over inflation rate and foreign debt remain high in Africa.
In fact, these two issues have become the highlight of every analysis on the economic profile of Africa. High debt has always been the greatest challenge to development in Africa. As the economy continues to grow, the debt to GDP ratio in African countries now is much lower than the one in the heyday of the African debt crisis in the s. However, there are growing concerns over the urgent need for African countries to get debt reliefs immediately and effectively, as debt burdens continue to increase in most of the countries.
In line with the improvements in governance and macroeconomic sustainability, African countries are slowly gaining a positive credit outlook, which is a certain benchmark on the debt repaying capacities of each national economy. The credit outlook also indicates the competitiveness of the nations, thus giving signals to attract foreign investors.
This is conducted by focusing on three 3 main strategies, among others7: The enhancement of market diversification: The diversification and enhancement of product qualities: The enhancement of trade facilitation Furthermore, the Government has set the following targets for The share of non-traditional market destinations is still relatively low, which indicates that there are still a lot of potentials and wide opportunities.
CPO, fatty acid for industry, and chillers Source: Figure 8: Ministry of Trade The picture also shows that the mining sector continued to increase by 4. Apart from its market diversification strategy, Indonesia also focuses on the utilization of trade agreements, both bilateral and regional. On a closer look, the economic growth in the sub-regions of Africa also show some interesting figures: Eastern Africa has grown by 6.
Malawi 8. It is also interesting to note that the coastal areas of Africa have grown by an average of 6. In fact, this growth has started in , in which the average growth of Africa had steadily increased from 2. With their size and influence throughout the sub-region, it is important to closely watch the development and regional role of these countries.
Nigeria14 Nigeria stands as the largest African country in terms of population, with million people sharing Nigerian citizenship. From another economic point of view, in its square km of land, Nigeria is endowed with various natural resources, a predominantly large reserve of oil and gas, as well as other minerals and extensive arable land.
In Growing Africa, Where is Indonesia? Economic Potential and Profile In addition to its economic posture, Nigeria is also among the medium to high economic top growers in the world. The country recorded an average of 6. It does, however, come with some challenges. Africa has the fastest growing population, and Nigeria is in the front line of it with around But to put it in a positive view, Nigeria has a young and growing population, thus presenting traders and investors with a large and growing consumer market.
Figure 9: World Trade Organization WTO , trade profile Nevertheless, based on the interviews with several Nigerian scholars and economic experts, it could be assumed that the economic challenges are also derived from the poor infrastructure and institutions as well as the massive practices of corruption that has lead to poor policies. As a consequence, there was a de- industrialization process in Nigeria, which made the imports of consumer goods the largest component of its foreign trade structure ever since.
Realizing the flaws of its economic development policy in the past, the Nigerian Government is currently striving to diversify its economy with the manufacturing sector backed by a sound agricultural sector. Regardless of the current economic situation, Nigeria has successfully stabilized its national politics. Nigeria, therefore, could become the gateway to enter the West African market.
In the end, it would also encourage openness and the political will needed to enhance international economic relations beyond the region. In relation to that, Nigeria has also looked to other non-traditional economic partners, such as China, India, and other emerging economies. Why Nigeria Matters to Indonesia? Thanks to the similar characteristics that they both have, Indonesia and Nigeria see each other as a new or non-traditional market waiting to be harnessed.
Both countries have huge potentials, and in fact have been starting to build a strong economic relationship through tens of thousand of their businessmen even before the governments have agreed to re-evaluate their mind-sets towards each other.
In Nigeria, there are already at least 20 to 30 Indonesian companies operating, ranging from food processing, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical companies. Figure Indonesia - Nigeria Bilateral Trade Source: These initial processes were further developed into business relationships. Rampant corruption and extortion in Nigeria hampers the efforts of Nigerian entrepreneurs to develop their business relations with Indonesia, particularly when it comes to enhancing investment cooperation in the country.
One key point that could be derived from this meeting was the commitment from the Government of Nigeria that Nigeria is open to trade and investment for Indonesian businessmen. It was also suggested that based on the experience with other foreign parties, a strategy to penetrate the Nigerian market can be done, among others, by setting up a legal umbrella to protect the parties involved in the bilateral trade, fostering close cooperation between the Chambers of Commerce of both countries, opening trade offices in both countries, conducting trade missions, and exchanging visits at regular intervals.
As the second largest economy in Africa, Nigeria is the proper gateway to enter the West African market. The presence of a number of obstacles in trade and investment in Nigeria did not dampen the interests of Indonesian businessmen to continue investing in Nigeria, especially given Nigeria's huge market potential, its relatively mild competition level, its abundant natural and human resources, as well as the opportunities presented by Nigeria as the stepping stone for a broader market in Western Africa and Africa as a whole.
Therefore, Indonesia should put forward a different approach by optimizing, for example, the technical cooperation that has been designed to create "distribution agents" of Indonesian products in Nigeria. It is unnecessary for Indonesian entrepreneurs to fear competition with Chinese products in the Nigerian market, due to the fact that Indonesian products are well known for their quality. The preference on Chinese products in Nigeria is mainly due to the lack of other competing products as alternatives for the local consumers.
It is, therefore, logical to expect that Indonesian products will be able to compete with Chinese-manufactured products existing in the market. The presence of the economic influence from emerging economies such as China, India and Turkey is distinctively apparent in a number of infrastructure projects in Nigeria.
However, the lack of infrastructure, especially road and highway, can be regarded as a great opportunity for Indonesian construction companies, such as WIKA, to mastermind a number of highway development projects in Nigeria. Given its geographical location at the centre of the east coast of Africa, Kenya possesses a strategic location in the region. With a population of more than 40 million and a GDP per capita of USD 1,, Kenya has become the largest economy and the most advanced country in the Eastern African region.
Kenya considers itself as a hub in Africa and as the Eastern gateway of the continent, mainly in relation to its economic cooperation with the Asia-Pacific region. One of the examples on why Kenya is considered as being at the heart of Africa is Kenya Airways. The table below shows the comparison between Kenya Airways and the largest carrier in Africa to date, Ethiopian Airlines, in Nov Ethiopian Airlines Kenya Airways Aircrafts in service 47 36 Aircrafts on order 36 21 Bs on order 10 9 Dedicated cargo aircrafts in service 5 0 Dedicated cargo aircrafts on order 2 1 African destinations 32 45 International destinations Africa and beyond 56 56 Global airline alliance Expected Star Alliance SkyTeam Codeshare partners 17 14 Source: Kenya is also the largest service exporter in the EAC market, and the largest investor in Uganda.
To support this, Kenya is keen to build vital infrastructures such as ports and land transportation networks. Currently, the port of Mombasa, which has been renovated and expanded, is one of the veins for the flow of goods to Africa, especially for members of the EAC.
Some of the strategic infrastructure projects underway are the constructions of a railway transportation network from the port of Lamu Kenya to Addis Ababa Ethiopia , the development of a South Sudan — Ethiopia — Mombasa pipeline, and the strengthening of the Kenya — Uganda — Burundi corridor. This shows that connectivity projects in the East African region are underway, and this could potentially provide Indonesian products with an entry point.
In addition, it gives opportunities for Indonesians to participate in such development projects. The US seems to have played a minor role in trade relations prior to Pakistan and India have persistently increased their share of trade over time. For its exports, Kenya has concentrated on the African markets with Rwanda and Egypt as key targets. In regards to investments, the country has had one of the most open regimes for FDI in Africa since its independence.
The main historical sources of investment have been the UK, Germany and India as well as other European countries such as Italy, the Netherlands and France.
The manufacturing industry has a large potential to grow and create large employment. The sector would have a wide opportunity to expand if it were not because of problems such as the high costs of production, competition from cheap imports, and limited access to financing. Furthermore, Kenya also adopts an open trade and investment policy, which enables foreign companies to come relatively freely. This relatively developed manufacturing industry has made Kenya able to produce locally processed products which have comparative advantages compared to its neighbours.
It is also one of the major challenges to Indonesia in its attempts to penetrate the consumer goods market in Kenya. In addition to that, the presence of competitors which have relatively close relations to Kenya such as Egypt, South Africa and India makes its products more expensive than other similar products. Thus, it takes hard work and the right marketing strategy to go to Kenya and its surounding regional market.
For Kenya, this policy is a response to the difficulty of expecting support for economic development from the West, particularly in the area of foreign aid, which is often loaded with burdensome requirements. What Kenya sees from Indonesia and other Asian countries is its ability to diversify its economy, micro finance development, SMEs development, and optimization of natural resources for developmental purposes.
While Kenya, despite all the offers, is experiencing several challenges such as the lack of human resources, poor infrastructure and political risks.
For Indonesia, Kenya is considered as a high competitive market, thanks to its open trade policy. Thus, deepened and strengthened strategies are required to penetrate the market. This also means that besides using a strong brand strategy, the business sector needs to educate the market quite intensively in order to provide it with much more understanding on the products.
On the other hand, as stipulated by several Indonesian companies who have business engagements between the two countries, Indonesia and Kenya have similar market structures. Table 3: Indonesia - Kenya Trade Export Kenya Export Promotion Council So far, there has only been one Indonesian company who had made investments in Kenya, which is in the form of an instant noodles factory. The decision to invest in Kenya was not only to meet the domestic demand, but also to answer the demand from East Africa by making Kenya its production hub.
Through deep discussions with business sectors, here are some suggestions that can be elaborated if Indonesia is to enhance its economic diplomacy towards this region: This effort was quite successful, and products from Turkey have been accepted by the Kenyan market over time. India, on the other hand, has been empowering the Indian community in Kenya to develop business, encouraging them to import and use Indian products.
Meanwhile, China has made use of its aid and investment in agriculture and infrastructure. The EAC presents a perfect example of how regional integration can start from small groups, as they are easier to consolidate. The EAC has a combined area of 1. On 1 July , the leaders of the EAC had signed a common market protocol in order to reduce bottlenecks at the borders. This, however, experienced delays, particularly on the issue of harmonized customs which in turn continues to hamper trade. Despite requiring its members to compromise on the free flows of goods and people, and despite the social and economic risks associated with its membership, the EAC has gained political support from its members.
Despite the encouraging facts mentioned above, the EAC also faces a few serious challenges, such as: Even though questions on the establishment of a common market and legislation reform may remain unanswered, the EAC has prompted many positive changes as shown by the increase of intra-regional trade as well as state revenues through taxes, particularly VAT. To further support regional integration, physical connectivity projects are currently being undertaken, among others: Power Grid Connectivity in Africa Source: The development of the service sector especially finance, health, and education , has been a major contributorto the economic structure of Kenya.
Infrastructure Projects in East Africa Source: But it also needs to be cautious, as the rural economy still needs to be developed to ensure the availability of consumer products and industrial raw materials. This benefit will surely increase once the connectivity projects are completed and utilized. Challenges and Opportunities for Indonesia: Both these countries have their own strengths and weaknesses, as shown in the table below.
Table 4: However, government efforts to develop power from various sources and energy pooling in the region is expected to be able to encourage reduction in production costs. Since the business climate in Kenya is relatively liberal and open, there have not been many problems faced by foreign companies in doing business or making investments.
However, the main challenge is the high level of competition, especially from the economic players who already have a stronger network in Kenya. Currently, out of the several market participants from Indonesia that has invested in Kenya, the Indomie instant noodles importer is one of the companies that still survive to develop business, and it is even planning to open a manufacturing plant this year.
With its competitive market and its similar pattern of goods distribution to Indonesia, Kenya presents a huge potential for Indonesia. This effort should also be made with an intensive and continous marketing strategy. So far, Indonesia is known as one of the capacity-building programs donors under the South-South Cooperation. This position needs to be strengthened, especially with regards to the leading sectors and in the sectors which are needed by African countries.
Technical cooperation programs should be accompanied by a strategy to seek economic opportunities that can be used later.
One potential model is to develop aviation cooperation between Garuda Indonesia and Kenya Airways through the opening of flight routes from Jakarta to Nairobi. This also became one of the considerations taken when African leaders met for the establishment of the Organization of African Unity OAU and decided that Addis Ababa should host its headquarter. Since then, Addis Ababa is often called the diplomatic hub of Africa, featuring more than foreign missions residing in the city.
As efforts to synergize and harmonize regional integration started a decade ago, UNECA began repositioning programs to be synchronized and aligned with the development agenda of the AU. Indonesia is fortunate enough to have a diplomatic mission in Addis Ababa, which is also accredited to the African Union. Current state of bilateral economic relationsand its potential market For most Indonesians, and probably most people throughout the world, Ethiopia is only known as the land of war, famine, drought, poverty and disease.
This is the result of news broadcasted worldwide by the international media that has been going on since the s, and nowadays, that image may still be reflected in certain areas. Ethiopia is currently one of the fastest growing economies in Africa, and under the current leadership, has lifted itself into a new stage of development.
Infrastructures have been rapidly developed and the flow of foreign investment keeps coming, particularly after its expanded partnership with China, India, Turkey and Middle Eastern countries. As the capital of Africa, Ethiopia certainly needs to work on its connectivity to ease up travel within Africa. That is why the government put enormous efforts to expand its national carrier, Ethiopian Airlines, in terms of increasing the number of its flights, destinations, and ground works in recent years.
This has 21 Based on the observation during field research as reported at document number: With good connectivity, the problem of hunger and drought which often dominates Africa will be significantly reduced, as most food surplus can be channelled into the needy areas. Energy distribution is also a major challenge for Africa. For Ethiopia, building hydropower plants will remain the top choice, although they are expensive.
This means that there are opportunities for investors to help build hydroelectric plants in the Nile River. As far as its land transport is concerned, Ethiopia plans to expand railway and road projects throughout the country, and to connect itself to the national network of neighbouring countries such as Djibouti, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia northern part , and Kenya, as depicted in the picture above.
Commitments of aid from countries such as China and India are pouring to invest in these projects.
There is a strong sense of optimism among the people of Ethiopia on the country's development progress. To achieve that objective, the service sector would need to be developed quite prospectively, which is why Ethiopia has to open up opportunities for other countries, including Indonesia, to invest in services.
Some of the potential service sectors which are yet to be developed are education, health and other sectors which require skilled labour. However, its performance has been lauded by the international community for registering fast growths in the last five years, which is largely attributed to government spending.
Meyongsong Imam Mahdi: Sang Penakluk Dajjal As the powerhouse of the area, Ethiopia becomes a complement to the region, while its strong neighbour, Kenya, would provide industrial products, and South Sudan with its abundant oil reserve. The focus of development has been to increase agricultural output, which requires further expansion on infrastructure such as transportation, irrigation, as well as energy networks.Fortunately, they are created differently from us, and live differently, so that, in general, we do not disturb each other.
It has also signed investment agreements with 14 African countries and is currently negotiating similar agreements with 5 other countries.
They live everywhere.
This position needs to be strengthened, especially with regards to the leading sectors and in the sectors which are needed by African countries. In addition to serving the local market in Egypt, these companies also made Egypt their production base in North Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe.