Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (2nd Edition) DOWNLOAD PDF .. The Scientific Method and Attitude You have probably heard of the scientific method,and you may be wonderinghow it fits into all this. Basics of Social Research - Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (2nd Edition ). GO Jersey. Senior SeriesEd\tor: leff Lasser Editorial Assistant; Erikka Adams. search and the basics of what social science research is all about. From Chapter 1 of Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 7/e.
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Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , W.L. Neuman and others published Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. one interested in but un:fumiliar with qualitative research methods. I continue to sonal bias Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods. 3 The Ethics and Politics of Social Research 64W O . Comparison of the Different Survey Methods 8. 9 The Qualitative Analysis of Quantitative Data
The main methods sociologists use to generate primary data include social surveys normally using questionnaire , interviews, experiments and observations. Social Surveys are written in advance by the researcher and tend to to be pre-coded and have a limited number of closed-questions and they tend to focus on relatively simple topics.
A good example is the UK National Census. Social Surveys can be administered carried out in a number of different ways — they might be self-completion completed by the respondents themselves or they might take the form of a structured interview on the high street, as is the case with some market research. Experiments — aim to measure as precisely as possible the effect which one variable has on another, aiming to establish cause and effect relationships between variables.
Experiments typically start off with a hypothesis — a theory or explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation, and will typically take the form of a testable statement about the effect which one or more independent variables will have on the dependent variable.
A good experiment will be designed in such a way that objective cause and effect relationships can be established, so that the original hypothesis can verified, or rejected and modified. There are two types of experiment — laboratory and field experiments — A laboratory experiment takes place in a controlled environment, such as a laboratory, whereas a field experiment takes place in a real-life setting such as a classroom, the work place or even the high street. Interviews — A method of gathering information by asking questions orally, either face to face or by telephone.
Structured Interviews are basically social surveys which are read out by the researcher — they use pre-set, standardised, typically closed questions. The aim of structured interviews is to produce quantitative data.
Unstructured Interviews, also known as informal interviews, are more like a guided conversation, and typically involve the researcher asking open-questions which generate qualitative data.
Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data. The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.
Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods: Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating. Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section.
Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection. Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis.
Explain the techniques you used to "clean" your data set. Choose a minimally sufficient statistical procedure; provide a rationale for its use and a reference for it. Specify any computer programs used. Describe the assumptions for each procedure and the steps you took to ensure that they were not violated. When using inferential statistics, provide the descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, and sample sizes for each variable as well as the value of the test statistic, its direction, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level [report the actual p value].
Avoid inferring causality, particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further experimentation. Use tables to provide exact values; use figures to convey global effects.
Keep figures small in size; include graphic representations of confidence intervals whenever possible. Always tell the reader what to look for in tables and figures.
Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, ; Quantitative Research Methods. Writing CSU. Colorado State University; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, Basic Research Design for Quantitative Studies Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results.
A descriptive study is governed by the following rules: subjects are generally measured once; the intention is to only establish associations between variables; and, the study may include a sample population of hundreds or thousands of subjects to ensure that a valid estimate of a generalized relationship between variables has been obtained.
An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between variables. Introduction The introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view.
It covers the following information: Identifies the research problem -- as with any academic study, you must state clearly and concisely the research problem being investigated.
Reviews the literature -- review scholarship on the topic, synthesizing key themes and, if necessary, noting studies that have used similar methods of inquiry and analysis. Note where key gaps exist and how your study helps to fill these gaps or clarifies existing knowledge.
Describes the theoretical framework -- provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study.
Another common error is the haloeffect; it is when we overgeneralize from what we accept as being highly positive or prestigious and let its strong reputation or prestige "rub off' onto other areas.
Thus, I pick up a report by a person from a prestigious university, say Harvard or Cambridge University. I assume that the author is smart and talented and that the report will be excellent. I do not make this assumption about a report by someone from Unknown University. How the various alternatives to social research might address the issue of laundry is shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1. This suggests that we examine the meaning of science and how its works.
Science The term science suggests an image of test tubes, computers, rocket ships, and people in white lab coats. Science is a social institution and a way to produce knowledge. Women do the laundry based on their childhood preparation.
Women have done the laundry for centuries, so it is a continuation of what has happened for a long time. Men just are not as concerned about clothing as much as women, so it only makes sense that women do the laundry more often.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Quantitative Methods
Television commercials show women often doing laundry and enjoying it, so they do laundry because they think it's fun. My mother and the mothers of all my friends did the laundry. My female friends did it for their boyfriends, but never the other way around. It just feels natural for the woman to do it. The data can be quantitative i. Empirical evidence refers to observations that people experience through the senses-touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste.
Researchers have many specialized techniques to observe and indirectly measure such aspects of the social world. It is a professional community-a group of interacting people who share ethical principles, beliefs and values, techniques and training, and career paths. Many people outside the core scientific community use scientific research techniques.
Many use the research techniques e. Yet, anyone who uses the techniques or results of science can do so better if they also understand the principles and processes of the scientific community. The boundaries of the scientific community and its membership are defined loosely. There is no membership card or master roster. Many people treat a Ph.
If You're a Student
The Ph. Some researchers do not have Ph. They enter many occupations and may have other responsibilities e. Colleges and universities employ most members of the scientific community's core. Thus, the scientific community is scattered geographically, but its members tend to work together in small clusters.
How big is the scientific community?
This is not an easy question to answer. For example, each year, about people receive Ph. A discipline such as sociology may have about 8, active researchers worldwide. Most researchers complete only two or three studies in their careers, whereas a small number of highly active researchers conduct many dozens ofstudies.
In a specialty or topic area e.
The Scientific Method and Attitude You have probably heard of the scientific method, and you may be wondering how it fits into all this.
The method arises from a loose consensus within the community of scientists. Next, the researcher sends several copies to the editor of a scholarly journal.
Research Methods in Sociology – An Introduction
The reviewers do not know who did the study, and the author of the paper does not know who the reviewers are. This reinforces the scientific principle of judging a study on its merits alone. Even lower-ranked journals regularly reject half of the submissions. Thus, several experienced researchers screen a journal article based on its merits alone, and publication represents the study's tentative acceptance by the scientific community as a valid contribution to knowledge.
Likewise, the reviewers are not paid for reviewing papers, but consider it an honor to be asked to conduct the reviews and to carry out one of the responsibilities of being in the scientific community. Researchers actively read what appears in the journals to learn about new research findings and the methods used to conduct a study.
Most studies follow the seven steps discussed here. A topic is too broad for conducting a study. This makes the next step crucial. As you learn about a topic and narrow the focus, you should review past research, or the literature, on a topic or question. Once you have very carefully collected the data, your next step is to manipulate or analyze the data. This will help you see any patterns in it and help you to give meaning to or interpret the data e.
Finally, you must inform others by writing a report that describes the study's background, how you conducted it, and what you discovered.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Quantitative Methods
The seven-step process shown in Figure 1.Anyone study is a small part of the much larger whole of science. Sign in Find your rep Exam copy bookbag Basket. In order to accomplish this, quantitative research usually involves few variables and many cases, and employs prescribed procedures to ensure validity and reliability; Applying well establshed standards means that the research can be replicated, and then analyzed and compared with similar studies; You can summarize vast sources of information and make comparisons across categories and over time; and, Personal bias can be avoided by keeping a 'distance' from participating subjects and using accepted computational techniques.
They are a basis for misleading people confirm or rejectan ideaand stop when a small through propaganda, cons or fraudl magic, amount of evidenceis present.
Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. In fact, they may haveto pay a small feeto help defraycostsjust to havetheir papersconsidered.
Be sure to provide enough detail to enable the reader can make an informed assessment of the methods being used to obtain results associated with the research problem. You rely on what everyone knows and what "just makes sense.
The powei of"r. Alternative versions are designed to give your students more value and flexibility by letting them choose the format of their text, from physical books to ebook versions.
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