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Solzhenitsyn draws on his own and fellow prisoners' long experiences in the gulag as the basis for this non-fiction work. Solzhenitsyn spent time as an inmate at a sharashka or scientific prison, an experience that he also used as the basis of the novel The First Circle.
However, the ultimate integrity and authority of The Gulag Archipelago is rooted in the first-hand testimony of fellow prisoners. The sheer volume of firsthand testimony and primary documentation that Solzhenitsyn managed to assemble in this work made all subsequent Soviet and KGB attempts to discredit the work useless. Much of the impact of the treatise stems from the closely detailed stories of interrogation routines, prison indignities and especially in section 3 camp massacres and inhuman practices.
Solzhenitsyn also poetically re-introduces his character of Ivan Denisovich towards the conclusion of the book. When questioned by the book's author if he has faithfully recounted the story of the Gulag, Denisovich now apparently freed from the camps replies that "you [the author] have not even begun One chapter of the third volume of the book was written by a prisoner named Georg Tenno, whose exploits so amazed Solzhenitsyn to the extent that he offered to name Tenno as co-author of the book; Tenno declined.
However, never before had the general reading public been brought face to face with the horrors of the Gulag in this way.
The controversy surrounding this text, in particular, was largely due to the way Solzhenitsyn definitively and painstakingly laid the theoretical, legal, and practical origins of the Gulag system at Lenin's feet, not Stalin's.
According to Solzhenitsyn's testimony, Stalin merely amplified a concentration camp system that was already in place.
This is significant, as many Western intellectuals viewed the Soviet concentration camp system as a "Stalinist aberration". Solzhenitsyn documented the Soviet government's reliance on the prison system for governance and labor, placing doubt on the entire moral standing of the Soviet system.
The government could not govern without the threat of imprisonment. The Soviet economy depended on the productivity and output of the forced labor camps, especially insofar as the development and construction of public works and infrastructure were concerned. In Western Europe , the book eventually contributed strongly to the need for a rethinking of the historical role of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Lenin.
With The Gulag Archipelago , Lenin's political and historical legacy became problematic, and those factions of Western communist parties who still based their economic and political ideology on Lenin were left with a heavy burden of proof against them. George F.
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Kennan , the influential U. In an interview with German weekly Die Zeit , British historian Orlando Figes asserted that many gulag inmates he interviewed for his research identified so strongly with the book's contents that they became unable to distinguish between their own experiences and what they read: After the KGB had confiscated Solzhenitsyn's materials in Moscow, during —, the preparatory drafts of The Gulag Archipelago were turned into finished typescript, sometimes in hiding at his friends' homes in the Moscow region and elsewhere.
Solzhenitsyn entrusted Susi with the original typed and proofread manuscript of the finished work, after copies had been made of it both on paper and on microfilm. In the KGB seized one of only three existing copies of the text still on Soviet soil. This was achieved after interrogating Elizaveta Voronyanskaya , one of Solzhenitsyn's trusted typists  who knew where the typed copy was hidden; within days of her release by the KGB she hanged herself 3 August News of the nature of the work immediately caused a stir, and translations into many other languages followed within the next few months, sometimes produced in a race against time.
American Thomas Whitney produced the English version; the English and French translations of Volume I appeared in the spring and summer of Solzhenitsyn had wanted the manuscript to be published in Russia first, but knew this was impossible under conditions then extant. The work had a profound effect internationally.
Not only did it provoke energetic debate in the West; a mere six weeks after the work had left Parisian presses Solzhenitsyn himself was forced into exile. Because possession of the manuscript incurred the risk of a long prison sentence for "anti-Soviet activities", Solzhenitsyn never worked on the manuscript in complete form.
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Since he was under constant KGB surveillance, Solzhenitsyn worked on only parts of the manuscript at any one time, so as not to put the full book into jeopardy if he happened to be arrested. For this reason, he secreted the various parts of the work throughout Moscow and the surrounding suburbs, in the care of trusted friends.
Sometimes when he was purportedly visiting them on social calls he actually worked on the manuscript in their homes.
During much of this time, Solzhenitsyn lived at the dacha of the world-famous cellist Mstislav Rostropovich , and due to the reputation and standing of the musician, despite the elevated scrutiny of the Soviet authorities, Solzhenitsyn was reasonably safe from KGB searches there.
Solzhenitsyn did not think this series would be his defining work, as he considered it journalism and history rather than high literature.
Solzhenitsyn was aware that there was a wealth of material and perspectives that deserved to be continued in the future [ clarification needed ] , but he considered the book finished for his part. The royalties and sales income for the book were transferred to the Solzhenitsyn Aid Fund for aid to former camp prisoners, and this fund, which had to work in secret in its native country, managed to transfer substantial amounts of money to those ends in the s and s.
Natalya Reshetovskaya, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's first wife, wrote in her memoirs that The Gulag Archipelago was based on "campfire folklore" as opposed to objective facts. She wrote that she was "perplexed" that the Western media had accepted The Gulag Archipelago as "the solemn, ultimate truth", saying that its significance had been "overestimated and wrongly appraised". She said that her husband did not regard the work as "historical research, or scientific research", and added that The Gulag Archipelago was a collection of "camp folklore", containing "raw material" which her husband was planning to use in his future productions.Although Khrushchev's speech was not published in the Soviet Union for a long time, it was a break with the most atrocious practices of the Gulag system.
Troica GPU-ului! Once and for all my mind was able to resist the drip, drip, drip of the propaganda. Cinci ani!
Domnule Makarov! Structurally, the text is made up of seven sections divided in most printed editions into three volumes:
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