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India Book by Abdul Kalam India by APJ Abdul Kalam Ebook Download India PDF India by Abdul [PDF] All 7 HARRY POTTER BOOKS. Download free PDF of wings of fire Books To Read, My Books, Abdul Kalam. Visit Oneline Store: Ask me bazaar Offer: Additional 50% off on all th. You will then be able to see the document with all the regular Acrobat about science. Arun Tiwari worked under Dr APJ Abdul Kalam for over a decade in the This book is written for the ordinary people of India for whom Dr. Kalam has an .
The Earth rotates from west to east that is why the Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Therefore something moving on a northsouth route cannot be stationary with respect to Earth.
Wings of Fire by APJ Abdul Kalam in Hindi
It will be stationary with respect to Earth only if it moves parallel to the equatorial line at the same speed as Earth, that is taking twenty-four hours to complete an orbit. You will remember that the centrifugal force active on the satellite when it is placed in orbit has to balance the gravitational pull on it. For a twenty-four-hour orbit the required orbital height is about 36, km above the surface of the Earth.
If you could sit inside a geosynchronous satellite you would see the Earth as stationary. If you have placed a satellite in a geostationary orbit, it is equivalent to erecting an invisible tower 36, km high.
We know that the higher the telecom tower, the better the coverage.
A geostationary satellite gives us that capability. If we put a meteorological camera on the satellite, it can also perform weather monitoring functions from its great height, giving us twenty-four-hour coverage. In times of emergence of cyclones, you would have seen INSAT pictures a few days before the cyclone hits, showing the pressure depression over the sea, its progress path etc.
This can often turn out to be life-saving information. The launch of geostationary satellites requires much higher energy than that of a near-Earth satellite because the satellite has to be taken to a 36, km high orbit. It has a powerful cryogenic engine that uses liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as fuel. These pack in lots of energy in less volume and weight than the conventional solid or liquid propellants.
What are propellants? Basically propellants are things which can be burnt easily to expel a hot gas which gives the force required to power the rocket.
Burning requires both a burning material and an oxygen supply which is crucial for burning , and both need to be present in a propellant mixture. It is also important that the propellant mixture does not have any unnecessary matter not connected with burning specialists call these inert materials.
There is a lot of advanced chemistry and chemical engineering involved in making propellants, and also a great deal of safety engineering.
Propellants all over the world are in either solid or liquid form in their natural state. In jet aircraft the propellant refined kerosene is burnt by oxygen taken from the atmosphere; but all launch vehicles and missiles have an oxidizer along with the propellant to provide the oxygen required to burn the fuel.
Both of these are solid polymers. They derive the oxygen for burning from the ammonium perchlorate which is mixed with them when they are cast in the rocket motor. Both propellants and the ammonium perchlorate are manufactured in India, based on technology developed by ISRO engineers.
Liquid rockets can be made ready at any time, that is, you can pour propellants into rocket engines and keep them ready for launch. In the past aniline or kerosene were popular liquid propellants. These two use Nitrogen Tetroxide N2O4 as the oxidizer kept in a separate tank. A more advanced liquid engine is the semi-cryogenic one.
The cryogenic engine has liquid hydrogen as fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer, both in a cryogenic or very cold state. This requires very advanced technology as in these super-cold conditions storage vessels, tubes, valves etc.
In the future nuclear materials might be used to propel a rocket. While propellants are important, just burning them does not make a rocket fly to plan. There is a lot of science and technology involved in making these materials burn in an efficient manner to make a launch vehicle work.
A jet aircraft engine has a lot in common with a rocket engine. However, there is a whole history of technological development in the area of propulsion which has led to the sophisticated design of launch vehicles and missiles. Propulsion addresses not only how the propellants are burned but also controls how they come out from the bottom of the rocket through nozzles. Since these burnings and gases involve high temperatures and strong chemicals there is a whole set of materials science and technology associated with propulsion.
The weight of inert materials that is non-burning materials also needs to be kept to a minimum.
List of all 25 books written by Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Therefore a whole set of sciences, engineering and technology is required for excellent propulsion to take place. Indian engineers mastered these technologies in the late s. The engineers also built up the capability for ground testing of these rocket engines.
How does one control a rocket? The brain power for directing and tilting the launch vehicle, raising it to the right orbit, detaching the used parts of launch vehicles jettisoning , correcting deviations from expected preplanned paths etc.
THE SCIENTIFIC INDIAN_ A Twenty - A. P. J. ABDUL KALAM.pdf
Launch vehicles have many systems and subsystems to carry out these functions. Each of these is very complex in itself and involves key choices to be made by the launch vehicle designers.
Think for a moment of the problems involved in controlling and guiding a rocket so precisely that it can accurately place a satellite in orbit. But for a rocket, flying through the void of space, there are no landmarks. Of course the ground radars can see the rocket, but they can only see it as a point in space.
They cannot see how it is tiltingwhich is of crucial importance for the final positioning of the satellite. Zohara, his sister stood with him. When he had in a specific branch of aeronautical engineering, the goal was very clear in his mind at that time.
And he tried to communicate with different kinds of people. At MIT, their teachers shaped his thoughts, Prof. Sponder, Prof. Kal Pandalai and Prof.
Narasingalu Rao. Each of them had carried distinct personalities. Last year MIT was a year of transition and had a great impact on his later life. There he worked on engine overhauling as part of a team. He had trained in radial engine-cum- drum operations.
But he was not selected in Air Force because he failed to pass the physical fitness standards. He had to create opportunities on his own. At the stage, he covered 32 eventful years of his life when he was just on the threshold of his career after graduation. Creation[ edit ] The section 'Creation' traverses seven chapters, from chapters four to chapter ten; and covers Kalam's life and work for 17 years, from the year until At a NASA facility, he remembers to have seen a painting, prominently displayed in the lobby.
The painting depicted a battle scene with a rocket flying in the background.
On closer examination, he found that the painting depicted Tipu Sultan's army fighting the British. His association with Thumba and Satellite Launch Vehicle and related projects are vividly presented in the section 'Creation'. During the period covered under 'Creation', Kalam, in the year , lost his father who lived up to years of age.
Kalam took the bereavement with courage and remembered these words written on the death of William Butler Yeats by his friend Auden , and his father: Earth receive an honoured guest; William Yeats is laid to rest: In the prison of his days Teach the free man how to praise.
The period covered in the section 'Creation' also brought Kalam national recognition.
A pleasant surprise came in the form of conferment of Padma Bhushan on the Republic Day, Propitiation[ edit ] Section Propitiation covers the period to This section covers the scientist's journey towards becoming the "Missile Man of India".
In this section, his excellent leadership qualities as taking up the responsibility of shaping up the Guided Missile Development Program, are clearly visible.
In this phase of the life, Kalam was responsible for the development of the five missiles — Prithvi , Trishul , Akash , Nag and Agni. The book has 24 plates with photographs associated with the life and work of Kalam: Ramanathapuram , from where Kalam had completed his high schooling. Plate 8 shows his teachers at Schwartz High School. Plate 9 shows Nandi, an indigenous hovercraft prototype. Plate 10 shows the picture of a Church in Thumba , a place which was donated by the local Christian community to India's Space Research Centre.
Plate 11 shows him with Prof. Vikram Sarabhai. Plate 12 shows an SLV-3 review meeting.Some microthrusters are kept even at the nozzle, directly deflecting the flame of gases.
Abdul Kalam. After the success of a hardworking student with special interest was nominated for a six-month training IGMDP programme, Kalam was elevated to in mathematics. Creation[ edit ] The section 'Creation' traverses seven chapters, from chapters four to chapter ten; and covers Kalam's life and work for 17 years, from the year until Our locality was predominantly Muslim, but there were quite a few Hindu families too, living amicably with their Muslim neighbours.