Struts 2 Tutorial in PDF - Learn Struts 2 in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples including Basic MVC Architecture. Audience. This tutorial is designed for Java programmers who are interested to learn the basics of. Struts 2.x framework and its applications. Prerequisites. I use Struts Version and Tomcat ; see my homepage We starts with some basics about Struts: Go to the directory you extracted the Struts download.
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In this course we will learn how to create a Java based web application using the Struts 2 MVC framework to cleanly separate our views from. Java & Struts2 & Spring & Hibernate & Eclipse Tutorial. 1 .. the basics of creating a typical web application using Java. . TutorialFiles folder rather than just typing it or copying from this PDF, to save . This is a basic struts configuration. Struts Tutorial, basic, advanced & PDF learning Guides can understand from the Basics of Struts to Advanced Struts concepts like Struts Spring integration and .
In case of struts 2 for N number of request N number of object is created. So in this case, even the member variable for these objects are not shared between objects of other request, that the reason Struts 2 is said to be thread safe. The concept of Struts 2 is depicted pictographically as below. In our next article we shall learn about the roles of Action class in struts 2. Roles of Actions class in Struts 2 Posted by Mohaideen Jamil on Apr 18, in Struts 2 Tutorial, Struts-2 0 comments The functionality of the action class is to retrieve resource bundle, hold the data, provide validation, perform business logic and select the view result page that should be sent back to the user.
There are four different ways to write struts 2 action class , which are as follows 1. Action For Struts 2 actions, it is not mandatory to implement any interface or extend any class. It is only required to implementexecute method that returns a string which is to be used in struts. Define which result page should be returned to the user with result tag and the name of the action you can use to access this action class with name attribute.
To change the extension to any value that suits your need, view — Struts2 Custom extension example.
Action interface The second way of creating Action class on Struts 2 is to implement an optional action interface com. This interface , comes with 5 common used constant values: By implements this interface, the action class can use the constant value directly. The Source code for Action interface: Struts 2 Action class implementing Action interface package com. The ActionSupport class is a very powerful and convenient class that provides default implementation of few of the important interfaces: Instead of implementing Action interface, it is better to extend the ActionSupport, Since the ActionSupport class implements Action interface along with other useful interfaces.
The ActionSupport class give you the ability to do: Validation Declare a validate method and put the validation code inside. Text localization Use GetText method to get the message from resource bundle.
Struts Tutorial, basic, advanced & PDF learning Guides
We will get to know about what is property file and the use of addFiendError , and use of other functionality like addActionError and addActionMessage in our upcoming tutorials. Struts 2 Action class extending ActionSupport class package com. Android Complete tutorial now available here. Action annotation Struts 2 has very good support for annotations, you can get rid of the XML file and replace with action in your action class.
Action; import org. Namespace; import org. Result; import org.
ResultPath; import com. When any request comes for struts web application, that request is first handled by web.
Struts 2 Example
StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter is having following responsibility: Executing struts actions name 2. Cleaning up the ActionContext 3. Serving static content 4. Do read: This file also describes the package structure of the application in which different modules are defined.
Application specific constant like resource file, devMode, custom extension, theme settings also configured in this file.
Below is the sample struts. All terms will be explained in their respective article. Execution flow of struts2 The flow starts with the web browser placing a request for a particular resource. This request is received by the web container. The container loads web.
If it matches, the web container transfers the request to Filter Dispatcher. The Filter Dispatcher decides the suitable action , by calling the ActionMapper , which in turn calls the ActionProxy.
ActionProxy reads the configuration file such as struts. ActionProxy creates an instance of ActionInvocation class.
The ActionInvocation class invokes the Interceptors one by one if required. ActionInvocation receives the final result produced by an action class. Once the Action returns, the ActionInvocation is responsible for looking up the proper result associated with the Action result code mapped in struts.
The Interceptors are executed again in reverse order and the response is returned from ActionProxy to the Filter In most cases to FilterDispatcher. FilterDispatcher selects an appropriate view, basing on the result. The result is then sent to the servlet container which in turn sends it back to the client. OGNL expression language provides simplified syntax to reference java objects.
It helps in data transfer and type conversion by binding the java-side data properties to the string-based view layer. ActionContext is a global storage area that holds all the data associated with the processing of a request.
When a request comes the param interceptor helps in moving the request data to the ValueStack. Now the OGNL does the job of converting the string based form data to their corresponding java types. OGNL does this by using the set of availablebuilt-in type converters. Here for N number of request N number of object is created, this makes the Struts 2 actions thread safe. The article Servlets Vs Concept of Struts 2 helps you in understanding the concepts of struts 2 better.
In Struts 2 all the Actions by default provide this functionality. To use this functionality we need to create different methods with the similar signature of the execute method.
In our example the CalculatorAction class has all the methods related to a Calculator like add , multiply , division and subtract which are used for performing mathematical operation on two numbers and it displays the result in a single jsp based on the action button clicked in jsp. Action Class package com.
Similarly for subtract, multiply and divide request the subtract ,multiply and divide methods will be invoked respectively. This way configuring a separate action mapping for each method of same action class can be avoided by using a feature called Dynamic Method Invocation. We will learn about this in our upcoming tutorial. Jsp In the curd. Now when the user click a button the appropriate method in the CalculatorAction class gets invoked.
For example When the user clicks the add button the add method in the CalculatorAction class gets executed and the following page is displayed. Dispatch action functionality is used when you have multiple submit buttons in a single form.
Zip file — DispatchAction. In this example you will see about avoiding configuration of separate action mapping for each method in Action class by using the wildcard method. Look at the following action mapping to under stand the concept.
The word that matches for the first asterisk will be substituted for the method attribute. We can also substitute asterisk in the jsp pages. War file — Dynamic Method Invocation. In this tutorial we will use the previous tutorials example to implement the functionality of ActionError and ActionMessageclass. Folder Structure Action Class The action class, do a simple checking to make sure that the username is not empty, if the userName is not valid then the action class set the error message with addActionError , if its valid then it set the successful message withaddActionMessage.
The fielderror tag is a UI tag that renders field errors if they exist. This method adds an error message for a given field to the corresponding jsp page. Here the error messages is added to each field individually using the addFieldError method.
The error messages can either be specified in a separate property file or can be added directly in the Action class itself. If userName and password are valid then a success message is added to actionMessage, the execute method get invoked, the jsp page get displayed based on execute methods returned value. We have done the coding such that If the username or password is empty , then the user will be forwarded to login.
You might be interested to read: The action that will be invoked depends upon the namespace in which it is called. See this picture to understand how an URL matches to Struts 2 action namespace. Final project structure 2. Namespace configuration Let us go through a Struts 2 namespace configuration example to know how it matches with URL and folder. JSP Pages File: Example 1 The URL: Given below is the genaralised url Http: You should break this struts.
Multiple Struts configuration files In Struts 2, you should always assign each module a struts configuration file. In this case, you can create three files: For example to change the extension from. Article to read Next: When this setting is enabled, Struts 2 will provide additional logging and debug information, which can significantly speed up development.
By default, the development mode is disabled, because it has a significant impact on performance, since the entire configuration will be reloaded on every request. The development mode is only suitable in development or debugging environment.
In production environment, you have to disable it.
Manual Struts 2 Tutorial for beginners.docx
As It will caused significant impact on performance, because the entire application configuration, properties files will be reloaded on every request, many extra logging and debug information will be provide also.
Posted by Mohaideen Jamil on Feb 24, in Struts-2 0 comments In this tutorial we will learn how to use a JavaBean class as a property in struts 2 action. Consider a scenario, in which you have written an action class, which in turn has a JavaBean class as its property as shown below.
Action class HelloAction. Action; import com. Retrieving the JavaBeans property from action class to Jsp To refer the attributes of User class, we need to first get the User object and then access its properties. Since the attributes we refer in the jsp page belongs to the User object JavaBean object we need to go one level deeper to reference the attributes.
To refer the userName attribute of User class, the value of the name attribute in the s: In struts 2 there is a concept call Model objects, using which we can refer to the JavaBean objects attributes directly, instead of doing a deeper reference as shown in this example above. In our next article we will learn about struts 2 Model Objects which simplifies the amount of code written above via ModelDriven interface Zip file — JavaBean.
In this tutorial we will learn about Struts 2 support for model objects. The Model object is a simple JavaBean object, which will be available to action class directly from ValueStack, i. To make a JavaBean object as a model object, our Action class should implement ModelDriven interface which forces the getModel method to be implemented.
This method provides the model object to be pushed into the Value Stack. Here the getModel must be invoked earlier for populating its input properties with data from request parameters, To make sure that the model is available in Value Stack when input parameters are being set, the ModelDrivenInterceptor is configured for the Action in struts.
Bean Class Model Class File: When the form data is submitted to this action, it will transfers the form data into the user properties automatically. ModelDriven; import com. Since the model object to be pushed into ValueStack must not be null hence model must be initialized before returned by getModel method.
We can use only one model object per action class Do read: On Clicking submit button without any value in textbox, then the application redirects to error page as shown. The Struts 2 File UploadInterceptor is based on MultiPartRequestWrapper, which is automatically applied to the request if it contains the file element.
This String will store the actual name of the uploaded file not the HTML name In the action class you can get the file, the uploaded file name and content type by just creating getter and setters. The file upload interceptor also does the validation and adds errors. These error messages are stored in the struts-messsages.
The values of the messages can be overridden by providing the text for the following keys: The default value of this is 2MB. It allows you to specify the allowed content type. File; import com. This file will be stored some where in the metadata directory Note: In order to save the. The problem with above code snippet is, you cannot see the uploaded file in the target folder.
Also the file uploaded wont have any proper extension, instead it will have the extension as. Struts 2 — Upload File to Desire Folder Location So in-order to upload and save a file in target space and in-order to have a file with proper extension, i. Posted by Mohaideen Jamil on Sep 28, in Struts 2 Tutorial, Struts-2 0 comments In my previous tutorial I have explained about how to upload file in struts 2 web application.
This article aims at overriding the default file upload error message which are added by file upload interceptor during file upload validation. These error messages are stored in the struts- messsages.
In-order to override these message, you need follow the below steps. Create a global. Add the constant In struts. File Download Example in Struts 2 Posted by Mohaideen Jamil on Sep 29, in Struts 2 Tutorial, Struts-2 2 comments This tutorial will help you understanding how to create a Struts 2 action class that allows users to download files from server to their local computer. The struts.
Now in the action class, we need to declare a variable with the same name along with getter and setter method. By this way we have configured the download file name dynamically. In addition to that, we must define an InputStream object which has the same name as the name specified by the inputName parameter in struts. All the variables must have appropriate getter methods.
File; import java. FileInputStream; import java. InputStream; import com. Properties file Two properties files to store the message. Action A simple Action class with a validation to make sure the username is not empty, otherwise return an error message. Demo http: Action LoginAction. Folder Structure: Action class HiddenAction. Action class TextAreaAction. Luckly struts2 has a build in functionality that prevents such scenarios: In order to prevent double submissions all we have to do is to add tag in the above form.
This tag will add a unique identifier in the form that will be used later from the token interceptor in order to check if the form is submitted for the first time or not. The s: Add struts2-dojo-plugin. Date; import com. Inorder to make this values appear in the result page, you just need to include the getter and setter for staticDateFromJsp and todaysDate in the action class, and render it via property tag in result.
As an alternative I found out a plugin Struts2- Jquery which provide a lots of customizing features. To create a date time pick component in struts 2, please follow this two steps: Add struts2-jquery-plugin Action class AutoCompleteAction.
ArrayList; import com. You can create an instance of an object and either push it onto the ValueStack or set a top-level reference to it in the Action-Context.
By default, the object will be pushed onto the ValueStack and will remain there for the duration of the tag. In this tutorial let us learn how to use the Struts 2 Bean Tag with the help of a DollarConverter bean example.
In this example we will convert dollars to rupees. Download It — BeanTag Example. Bean Class File name: We can use the bean tag in two ways. By pushing the value onto the ValueStack. By setting a top-level reference to it in the ActionContext. What to Remember Description When you click on a hyperlink or submit an HTML form in a Struts 2 web application, the input is not sent to another server page, but to a Java class that you provide.
These classes are called Actions. After the Action fires, a Result selects a resource to render the response. The resource is generally a server page, but it can also be a PDF file, an Excel spreadsheet, or a Java applet window. Separating concerns makes it easier to manage applications as they become more complex.
If you like, fire up your Java IDE, and enter the code as we go. The example code for this tutorial, helloworld, is available for checkout from the Struts 2 GitHub repository at struts-examples. The example projects use Maven to manage the artifact dependencies and to build the.
If you are having a problem getting this application to work search the Struts 2 mailing list.
Be sure to note the package statement below. Visit Struts Tutorials home page for finding more tutorials of Struts 2. Toggle navigation. Home Struts Struts 2 Tutorial and Examples. Ask Latest Tutorials: Latest Topics.
Download Struts 2. Struts 2 Tutorial and Examples with source code Struts 2 is open source MVC framework in Java which very popular and used by Java developers to develop applications. Pre-requisites for learning Struts 2 Framework Struts 2 framework is for creating user interface for web application and following are pre-requisites for learning this framework.
Here are the best tutorials of Struts 2: Beginning Struts 2. Struts 2 hello world application using annotation - Annotation is great way to write program quickly, in this tutorial we are going to develop Struts 2 Hello world application using annotation. Running and testing the example - In this section I will teach you to run the example program. Learn Action Chaining with examples. Configuring Actions in Struts application - This section teaches you to configure the Actions in a Struts 2 application.
Login Form Application About Struts 2. Create JSP file - This is the first step in creating login application in Struts 2 Create Action class - Action class is used to handle the request from user. Add configuration in struts.These standard validators that comes with the Struts framework that can be used.
This article provide details about majorly used Struts2 data tags with example project. Since the value is in the ActionContext we use the operator to refer it. ModelDriven; import com. DefaultPieDataset; import com. The article provide details about the usage of OGNL expressions and how we can create our own type converter classes. We can use only one model object per action class Do read: Given below is the genaralised url Http: Bean Class package com.