To download a PDF document of this catalogue and for information about important updates, go to bestthing.info Please note prod- uct data in this printed. used as a guide during actual mounting of bearings rather than just a reference. - Assembly Catalog () or bestthing.info Bearing care prior to. Spherical roller thrust bearings. Engineering products. Mechatronics. Bearing accessories. Bearing housings. Maintenance and lubrication products. Other SKF .
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SKF bearing housings and roller bearing units PUB BU/P1 EN For additional technical specification not covered in the catalog, please refer to. Search in SKF Precision Bearings catalogs and technical brochures on DirectIndustry and find the information you need in 1 click. SKF has been supplying Canadian industry with top quality bearings, related products and services since The company offers the broadest product line in.
These charts identify com- Product designations for SKF rolling bearings monly used designation prefixes and typically contain information about the bear- suffixes. They are printed bold for quick browsing. Inch single ro w 2 ,5 2 ,5 0,37 0,24 2 ,4 1 ,8 3,6 3,6 3,2 2 ,5 2 ,5 8. Inch single ro w tapere d ro Inch single ro w tapere d ro r bear ings lle 2 ,7. S el pere d be. Inchf-aligning ba bear in. S el single ro w ll bear ings Inch ning ba re d ro S el w ar ings ar ings..
S el f-aligning batapere d ro w it h an ex te. S el f-aligning ba ll bear ings r bear ings nded inn. Inchf-aligning ba ll bear ings. Inch single ro w ll bear ings. Inch single ro w tapere d ro. Numbered product tables make it easier to access product data. Ex ter nal de , 32 1 rv al 2 N sign se als , s calc ula r 54 s Designation chart to decode designation suffixes s Designation suffixes listed in the text index f reduce search time.
Units of measurement This catalogue is for global use. Therefore, the predominant units of measurement are in accordance with ISO Exceptionally, imperial units are used when it is required by the product.
Temperature values are typically rounded. Therefore, the two values do not always exactly match when using the conversion formula. More SKF rolling bearings Other rolling bearings, not presented in this catalogue, include:. From one simple but inspired solution to a mis- alignment problem in a textile mill in Sweden, and fifteen employees in , SKF has grown to become a global industrial knowledge leader. Over the years, we have built on our expertise in bearings, extending it to seals, mechatronics, services and lubrication systems.
Our know- ledge network includes 46 employees, 15 distributor partners, offices in more than countries, and a growing number of SKF Solution Factory sites around the world. In addition, our world- leading experts and university partners pioneer advanced theoretical research and development in areas including tribology, condition monitor- ing, asset management and bearing life theory. Our ongoing commitment to research and development helps us keep our customers at the forefront of their industries.
SKF Solution Factory makes SKF knowledge and manufacturing expertise available locally to provide unique solu- tions and services to our customers. Meeting the toughest challenges Our network of knowledge and experience, along with our understanding of how our core technologies can be combined, helps us create innovative solutions that meet the toughest of challenges. We work closely with our customers throughout the asset life cycle, helping them to profitably and responsibly grow their businesses.
Working for a sustainable future Since , SKF has worked to reduce the negative environmental impact from our oper- ations and those of our suppliers.
Our continu- ing technology development resulted in the introduction of the SKF BeyondZero portfolio of products and services which improve efficiency and reduce energy losses, as well as enable new technologies harnessing wind, solar and ocean power.
Our knowledge Design and develop — your success at ion Man ufa ctu. Working closely with you application. It productivity, minimize maintenance, achieve looks at the whole application to see how each higher energy and resource efficiency, and opti- component interacts with each other.
Design optimization and verification Innovative solutions SKF can work with you to optimize current or Whether the application is linear or rotary or a new designs with proprietary 3-D modelling combination, SKF engineers can work with you software that can also be used as a virtual test at each stage of the asset life cycle to improve rig to confirm the integrity of the design.
Bearings SKF is the world leader in the design, development and manufacture of high performance rolling bearings, plain bearings, bearing units and housings. Machinery maintenance Condition monitoring technologies and maintenance services from SKF can help minimize unplanned down- time, improve operational efficiency and reduce main- tenance costs.
Sealing solutions SKF offers standard seals and custom engineered seal- ing solutions to increase uptime, improve machine reli- ability, reduce friction and power losses, and extend lubricant life.
Mechatronics SKF fly-by-wire systems for aircraft and drive-by-wire systems for off-road, agricultural and forklift applica- tions replace heavy, grease or oil consuming mechanical and hydraulic systems.
Lubrication solutions From specialized lubricants to state-of-the-art lubrication systems and lubrication management services, lubrication solutions from SKF can help to reduce lubrication related downtime and lubricant consumption.
Actuation and motion control With a wide assortment of products — from actuators and ball screws to profile rail guides — SKF can work with you to solve your most pressing linear system challenges. Bearing basics Selecting bearing size Bearing specifics. Design considerations Mounting, dismounting and bearing care.
Bearing basics A. Selecting rolling bearings. Boundary dimensions. Basic bearing designation system. Selecting rolling bearings bearings is provided in special catalogues or online at skf. A bearing-shaft-housing system consists of In this section and in sections B through H, more than just bearings.
Associated compo- the designer of a bearing-shaft-housing sys- nents like the shaft and housings are integral tem can find the necessary basic information, parts of the overall system. The lubricant and presented in the order in which it is generally sealing elements also play a crucial role.
To required. Obviously, it is impossible to include maximize bearing performance, the correct all the information needed to cover every con- amount of an appropriate lubricant must be ceivable application. For this reason, in many present to reduce friction in the bearing and places, reference is made to the SKF applica- protect it from corrosion. Sealing elements tion engineer ing ser vice. This technical service are important because they keep the lubricant can perform complex calculations, diagnose in and contaminants out of the bearing.
This is and solve bearing performance issues, and particularly important since cleanliness has a help with the bearing selection process. SKF profound effect on bearing service life. There- also recommends this service to anyone work- fore, SKF manufactures and sells a wide range ing to improve the performance of their of industrial seals and lubrication systems. There are a number of factors that go into The information contained in this section the bearing selection process: Once a suitable bearing has been selected, there are several other factors that need to be considered:.
When designing an application, every decision affects the performance, reliability and econ- omy of the bearing-shaft-housing system. As the leading bearing supplier, SKF manu- factures a wide assortment of bearing types, series, designs, variants and sizes. There are also bearings that are not included in this catalogue. Information about most of these. Terminology Symbols Symbols used in this catalogue are mainly in Some frequently used bearing terms are accordance with ISO standards. Most common explained here.
For a detailed collection of symbols for bearing boundary dimensions are bearing-specific terms and definitions, refer shown in fig. All symbols can be used with a sub- script to identify specifications.
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Bearing-shaft-housing Fig. Radial bearings Fig. Radial bearings Radial bearings accommodate loads that are predominantly perpendicular to the shaft. The bearings are typically classified by the type of rolling element and shape of the raceways.
Bearing basics Cylindrical roller bearings cont. Bearing types and designs A drawn cup needle roller bearings. Bearing basics Needle roller bearings cont.
Cam rollers single row 72 double row with shields 73 with contact seals 72 73 Support rollers without flange rings with or without contact seals without an inner ring with an inner ring 74 74 with flange rings.
These ready-to-mount units are used in all types of cam drives. Bearing basics Support rollers cont. They can also be Depending on the bearing type. Cages can be classified according to the manufacturing process and material group into: In each product chapter. As a result SKF has devel- oped a variety of cages. They materials. If a bearing with a non-standard cage is required. The primary purposes of a cage are: The A number of cages depends on the number of ball or roller sets within the bearing and on the cage design.
Bearing types and designs Cages Fig. The good sliding properties of the polymer on Bearing basics Fig.
How to use this SKF bearing catalogue
Depending on the bearing type. SKF also manufactures a fabric reinforced phenolic resin cage. The excellent running properties of polymer cages under poor lubrication condi- tions permit continued operation of the bear- ing for some time without the risk of seizure and secondary damage. Suitable steps must be taken to provide a sufficient supply of lubricant to the guiding surfaces of the cage. Ring guided cages. Bearing types and designs Fig.
A tional heat and wear in the bearing are minim- ized. Materials For information about materials used for cages. Depending on the bearing type and design. For higher c speeds. The low density of the material means that the inertial forces generated by the cage are minor. The boundary dimensions for standard metric The height series for thrust bearings height bearings are contained in the general plans as series 7.
The first letter identifies the diameter series. They comprise: T or H each diameter series. The dimension series consists of a number for the angle series and two letters.
With very few exceptions. Based on the relationship between the bore and outside diameter. Experience has shown that the require. The dimen. In addition to the inch tapered roller bear- uct chapter. General plans for inch bearings ments of the vast majority of bearing applica. A large group of bearings with inch dimensions tions can be met using bearings with these are inch tapered roller bearings. Boundary dimensions plans. A standardized dimensions. ABMA Standard T diameter is also given in millimetres or H.
The first digit indicates and angular contact ball bearings. The size alphanumeric characters. The basic designa.
These digits are shown in brackets in diagram 2. The complete designation is always marked on the Prefix bearing package. The num. The second digit identifies the diam. Some products. Basic designation The basic designation identifies: This bore diameter identifi- The most important exceptions in the basic cation is part of the basic designation and is bearing designation system are: Two or 3 Tapered roller bearing more letters are used to identify the 4 Double row deep groove ball number of the rows or the bearing configuration of the flanges.
NNCF etc. Basic bearing designation system Diagram 2 Basic designation system for SKF standard metric ball and roller bearings Bearing series A 6 0 4 0 4 6 0 3 33 23 6 0 2 23 0 3 32 22 6 1 0 22 12 16 0 0 41 0 2 31 31 41 60 30 31 50 20 60 7 0 4 40 10 50 7 0 3 30 39 40 23 1 23 7 0 2 69 29 30 0 3 1 0 3 7 1 0 59 19 69 12 1 22 49 38 49 0 2 0 33 1 0 2 4 2 3 39 28 39 10 0 32 1 1 0 4 2 2 29 18 48 19 Bearing type NC.
NCF NF. Other variants Bearing sets. Stabilization Group 4. Lubrication Group 4. Group 3: Cage design Oblique stroke Group 4: Variants Group 4. Internal design Group 2: External design seals. Prefixes and suffixes Tapered roller bearings Prefixes and suffixes provide additional infor. Suffixes Customized bearings Suffixes identify designs or variants.
The suffixes are drawing number. Information about these designation systems is provided in the relevant catalogues.
They can also identify bearings is explained in the relevant product bearing variants. The designation system for tapered roller ponents of a bearing. The designations for metric tapered roller mation about the bearing.
Prefixes are mainly used to identify com. Basic bearing designation system Series designations Bearing designations not covered by the Each standard bearing belongs to a given basic bearing designation system bearing series.
Y-bearings insert bearings Series designations often include a suffix A. The digits in brackets are omitted not fully follow the system described above in the series designation.
When more than one spe. The designations for Y-bearings differ some- C. D or E or a combination of these letters. Other rolling bearings Rolling bearings not covered in this catalogue. The drawing number does divided into groups. Prefixes and suf. The following fac- tors are the most important to be considered when selecting a standard bearing: Spherical and toroidal roller bearings can accommodate very heavy loads and are self- aligning. This catalogue does not cover the complete SKF rolling bearings assortment.
Detailed information on the individual bear- ing types. These properties make them popular for applications. These include load carrying capacity and life. Specific cata- logues and brochures are available for bear- Bearing basics Basic selection criteria Fig. For example. These bearings. Some of the most important criteria to con- sider when designing a bearing arrangement are covered in depth in separate sections of this catalogue.
For large- diameter shafts. For additional informa- tion. Basic selection criteria Fig. Other bearing types in the 8 or 9 diameter series can also be used. When axial space is limited. For purely axial loads. When radial space is limited.
For small-diameter shafts all types of ball bearings can be used.
A Available space In many cases. Direction of load Radial loads Fig. Roller bearings are used in applica- tions where loads are heavier. Bearing basics Loads Fig.
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For axial loads acting in either direction. Single direction thrust ball bearings can accommo- date axial loads in one direction only. Bearings with a full complement of rolling elements can accom- modate heavier loads than corresponding bearings with a cage.
Ball bearings are typic- ally used in applications where loads are light to normal. For heavy alternating axial loads. Basic selection criteria Angular contact thrust ball bearings can support normal axial loads at high speeds. For normal to heavy loads that are purely axial and act in one direction only.
An indication of this is given by the calculation factor Y. For axial loads that alternate direction. In addition. For combined loads.
NJ design cylindrical roller bearings. NU design cylin- dric al roller bearings with an HJ angle ring and spherical roller thrust bearings can accommo- date axial loads in one direction only. For this reason.
Bearing basics Combined loads Fig. The greater the angle.
The ability of a bearing to accommodate an axial load is determined by the contact angle a. Single row angular contact ball bearings. The values of the angle a or the fac- tor Y are listed in the relevant product chapter. Double row bearings. To make sure that the bearing is subjected to a purely axial load.
Moment loads When a load acts eccentrically on a bearing. In add. A ition to thrust bearings. If the Angular misalignment between the shaft and expected misalignment exceeds the permis- housing occurs when the shaft deflects sible values.
Self-aligning bearings. Y-bearing units and align- Rigid bearings. Bearing basics Misalignment listed in the relevant product chapter. Values for the permissible misalignment are Fig. Bearing types that operate with low friction and generate low frictional heat are therefore the most suitable for high- speed operation.
For information about super-precision bearings. Because of their design. Each product chapter provides information about the tolerance classes to which the bear- ings are manufactured. Basic selection criteria Precision Fig. This is particularly true for super-precision angular contact ball bearings and deep groove ball bearings with ceramic rolling elements.
SKF manufactures a comprehensive assortment of super-precision bearings. Speed Fig. Other machine tool spindles and transmission differ- sources include. If very low friction is an essential requirement. Bearing stiffness Friction. Because of the contact conditions between and between seals and their counterface. One contributing tion deflection in the bearing under load. SKF E2 bearings are available for several bearing types: SKF manufactures a deep groove ball bearing variant specifically for these types of applications.
Bearings suitable for the non-locating position include needle roller bearings and NU and N design cylindrical roller Fig. Values for the permis- sible axial displacement within the bearing are listed in the relevant product tables.
All of these bearings accommodate axial displacement between the shaft and the hous- ing. In applications where the required axial dis- placement is relatively large and misalignment may also occur. The bearing in the locating position must be able to locate the shaft axially in both direc- tions. Non-locating bearings must accommodate axial movement of the shaft. If non-separable bearings.
NJ design cylindrical roller bearings and some full complement design cylindrical roller bearings can also be used. Basic selection criteria Axial displacement Fig. The most suitable bearings for the locating position are those bearings that can accommodate combined loads. Separable bearings are also pref- erable if frequent mounting and dismounting are required.
Bearing basics Mounting and dismounting Cylindrical bore Bearings with a cylindrical bore are easier to mount and dismount if they are separable. SKF supplies bearings capped with integral seals or shields: They are filled with the appropriate amount of high-quality grease under clean conditions.
They are available for different bearing types: Bearing basics Sealing solutions Fig.
Bearing system life Metal fatigue of the rolling contact surfaces is a well-known failure mode for rolling bearings. Metal fatigue can be the result of a variety of factors including but not limited to excessive frictional heat. L lubricant. L cage. L rolling elements. Selecting bearing size A systems approach to ant to remember that the complete bearing can be viewed as a system in which the life of bearing selection each component. International standards such as ISO are based on metal fatigue of the roll- ing contact surfaces.
This enables users to fully exploit bearing life potential. Understanding the influ. L seals SKF Explorer performance class bearings thus a reliability for the mounted application of have undergone. Bearing life definition of the sealing or of the lubrication system. The individual life of a rolling bearing is expressed as the number of revolutions or the number of operating hours at a given speed Load ratings that the bearing is capable of enduring before A bearing is typically selected on the basis of the first sign of metal fatigue spalling occurs its load rating relative to the applied loads and on a raceway of the inner or outer ring or a the requirements regarding bearing life and B rolling element.
Bearing life and load ratings Bearing life and load ratings fits. In the absence of pre. For instance. An exception to this bearings working under similar conditions. Dynamic load ratings The rated life based on the above definition The basic dynamic load rating C is used for life has to satisfy the requisite life expectations of calculations involving dynamically stressed the bearing application. Values for the basic dynamic load laboratory conditions.
It is assumed that the load is constant Due to the statistical nature of bearing life. The load general population of bearings running under ratings provided in this catalogue apply to similar conditions. Like ISO Ser- The maximum load that can occur on a bearing vice life in a particular application depends on should be used when calculating the equivalent a variety of influencing factors including lubri- static bearing load.
ISO uses a modified life bearing size using static load carrying capacity factor to supplement the basic rating life. For additional information cation.
The contact Basic rating life stress values are: The loads are purely radial hours using for radial bearings and axial. Values of Pu are listed in the product tables.
If the speed is constant. Values expressed in operating hours using for the factor a SKF can be obtained from four diagrams. The diagrams are referenced in the following. Fur- thermore. SKF has also developed sophisti- cated computer programs incorporating the SKF rating life equation directly at the rolling contact stress level.
ISO VG 68 68 ISO VG 15 15 The condition of the lubricant is B described by the viscosity ratio k as the ratio of the actual viscosity n to the rated viscosity n1 for adequate lubrication. Selecting bearing size using the life equations Lubrication conditions — the viscosity ratio k The effectiveness of a lubricant is primarily determined by the degree of surface separ- ation between the rolling contact surfaces.
ISO VG 32 32 If an adequate lubricant film is to be formed. ISO VG 3 3. From diagram 6. Selecting bearing size Example viscosity class. Selecting bearing size using the life equations Considering EP additives For the remaining range. Under these conditions. In case of severe ISO In this case. Refer to the infor- tion of a SKF. Selecting bearing size Factor hc for contamination level ISO contamination classification and filter rating This factor was introduced to consider the The standard method for classifying the con- contamination level of the lubricant in the tamination level in a lubrication system is bearing life calculation.
The influence of con. The level of bearing oil is the microscope counting influence of these parameters on bearing life method. In this classification tamination on bearing fatigue depends on a system. Another more difficult to quantify. It uses three particle size ranges indicated by the symbol c e. It is therefore not possible modern method is to use an optical automatic to allocate precise values to hc that would have particle counter in accordance with ISO Contaminants like water or other fluids detrimental to bearing life is not included.
This method uses two particle size is complex and many of the parameters are ranges: This can be calculated using page The higher the b value. Though it would be optimal if lubricating oils were continuously filtered. It depends largely on the lubri. On the other hand. A simplified method in accordance tem as indicated in ISO From the oil in a similar way using ISO values for five levels contamination code or filtration ratio of the of contamination as shown in table 6.
Selecting bearing size Determining hc when the contamination level Diagrams 8 and 9 provide typical values for is known the factor hc for circulating oil lubrication sys- Once the oil contamination level is known.
Similar contamin- or the automatic particle counting method. Selecting bearing size using the life equations For other degrees of contamination or in the most general case of circulating oil. In case of oil filtra- tion.
Selecting bearing size Diagram 10 Contamination factor hc for grease lubrication. The number of operat. This type of during operation. Heavy and normal loads load history can also be derived from a similar consume bearing life at a faster rate than light type of application.
Within each duty interval. Duty intervals with constant bearing load P ing hours or revolutions expected from each and number of revolutions N duty interval showing the life fraction required P by that particular load condition should also be P1 Duty interval included. Each block should char. L 10m2. In these types of applications. P4 tions. Under variable operating condi. These transformations are ing service. For add- itional information. For applications where bearings operate continu- ously at elevated temperatures.
Requisite rating life ing components undergo a special heat treat. The satisfactory operation of bearings at elevated temperatures also depends on whether the lubricant retains its lubricating properties and whether the materials used for the seals.
This bearings made of steels for through-hardening usually depends on the type of machine and or induction-hardening have a recommended the requirements regarding duration of ser- maximum operating temperature between vice and operational reliability. For additional information. Selecting bearing size Influence of the operating temperature For bearings operating at high tempera- In operation.
If the normal operating temperatures of the application are higher than the recommended temperature limit. To avoid inadmissible dimensional changes as a result of structural transformation.
These max. When determining bearing size. Selecting bearing size using the life equations Table 9 Guideline values of specification life for different machine types Machine type Specification life Operating hours Household machines. The standardized plied by a factor. When calcu. Values of this factor for lating the load components for a single bear.
The larger values apply when the distance If external forces and loads like inertial between shafts is short. Geared transmissions With geared transmissions. Elastic deformations in the bearing. Their lated according to the laws of mechanics if the influence on the rating lives of the bearings is external forces. Because of the require- ments for quiet running. Belt pull. Additional dynamic forces from gears can be the result of form errors of the teeth and from unbalanced rotating components.
Selecting bearing size Dynamic bearing loads Additional forces arising from the type and mode of operation of the machines coupled to Calculating dynamic bearing loads the transmission can only be determined when The loads acting on a bearing can be calcu. Belt manufacturers usually publish assumptions. The belt pull must be multi- out a computer program. The and cylindrical and needle roller thrust bear- equivalent dynamic bearing load is defined as ings. B In all other cases.
With double row bear- load rating C. This hypothetical load. Dynamic bearing loads Equivalent dynamic bearing load An additional axial load only influences the The above information can be used to calcu. If the resultant load is constant in magnitude and Fluctuating bearing load direction. Rotating load To provide satisfactory operation. Diagram 15 Rotating load fm 1. U Requisite minimum load The correlation between load and service life is less important for applications where there are very light loads.
Selecting bearing size Diagram 13 Rotating load Load averaging If. The importance of applying a mini- mum load increases in applications where there are rapid accelerations or rapid starts and stops.
Failure mechanisms other Diagram 14 than fatigue often prevail. If minimum F2 load requirements cannot be met. Recommendations for calculating the requis- ite minimum load for different bearing types are provided in the relevant product chapter. In all these cases. The indentations can be irregularly spaced around the raceway. It is also possible that the internal clearance will increase or the character of the fits may be changed.
Selecting bearing size using static load carrying capacity Selecting bearing size using The extent to which these changes are det- rimental to bearing performance depends on static load carrying capacity the demands placed on the bearing in a par- Bearing size should be selected on the basis of ticular application.
In other words. Perman- ent deformation is typically caused by: It is therefore necessary to static load ratings C0 instead of on bearing life make sure that permanent deformations do when one of the following conditions exist: In these cases. When calculating P 0. Selecting bearing size Equivalent static bearing load Required basic static load rating Static loads comprising radial and axial com. When determining bearing size based on the ponents must be converted into an equivalent static load carrying capacity.
If a static load acts in different directions on a bearing. This is defined as that factor s0. For additional infor- the equivalent static bearing load is provided mation. At elevated temperatures. Selecting bearing size using static load carrying capacity Checking the static load carrying capacity For dynamically loaded bearings.
If the magnitude of the shock loads is known. Table 11 Guideline values for the static safety factor s 0 Type of operation Rotating bearing Non-rotating bearing Performance requirements e. Since the load is purely radial. What are the basic and SKF rating obtained.
As the conditions used. Check contamination conditions or in operating hours. The contamination level can be characterized as normal cleanliness.
This application would be able to Extreme pressure grease with a lithium take advantage of a more cost-effective solu. They range input: SKF Explorer bearing.
Wherever possible. Bearing searches are available based on designation or dimen- The above shows that the static safety of this sions. The equations used are determined accurately. P from easy-to-use tools based on SKF cata- and k logue Rolling bearings formulae to the most sophisticated calculation and simulation sys- 7 L 10mh1. As the static load is be evaluated as well. L 10mh2. Working in a virtual customers with bearings having an optimized environment.
The pro. Orpheus SKF engineers also use commercial pack- The numerical tool Orpheus is used to study ages to perform. Orpheus can provide a profound under- standing of the dynamic behaviour of an appli- cation. Beast Beast is a simulation program that enables SKF engineers to simulate the detailed dynamics inside a bearing. These and vibration-critical bearing applications.
This enables SKF engineers to determine the most suitable bearing type and size as well as the corresponding mounting and preload con- ditions for a given application. It can be seen as a virtual test rig performing detailed studies of forces. SKF engineers combine bearing surface finish to extend bearing ser- mechanical systems containing shafts. Engineering Consultancy Services. But there are applica. The standard computer programs used within tion engineering specialists can support with the SKF Engineering Consultancy Services for the following services: The SKF applica.
Some of these service benefits are: The centre also supports work carried out at the research B facilities of the major SKF manufacturing facilities. Furthermore it is also essential to develop and continuously improve the engineering models required for the design of bearing applications.
SKF undertakes life testing.
Typical endurance testing activities include tests on bearing population samples under: The test facilities are unique in the bearing industry with regard to sophistication and the number of test rigs and are ISO accredited.
High performance SKF Explorer and SKF Energy Efficient E2 bearings are examples of the implementation of the optimized influencing factors on the basis of analytical simulation models and experimental verification at the component and complete bearing level. Friction Estimating the frictional moment. Friction Table 1 The friction in a rolling bearing determines the amount of heat generated by the bearing. Friction is also Needle roller bearings with a cage 0. The conditions are: Tapered roller bearings 0.
SKF bearings as well as internal and external which also increases friction zone 2. As speeds or viscosity con. Diagram 1 Bearing frictional moment as a function of speed or viscosity M 1 2 3 n. Mixed lubrication Zone 2: Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication EHL Zone 3: To accurately calculate the total frictional moment in a rolling bearing. C ally. The SKF model for calculating the frictional tinue to increase and the bearing enters into moment closely follows the real behaviour of the full elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication EHL the bearing as it considers all contact areas.
The radial load is divided equally over the two bearings. This reverse flow shears the lubricant. Only a tiny amount of lubri- cant is used to form a hydrodynamic film. For the effect described above. Kinematic starvation reduces the thickness of the hydrodynamic film decreasing k value. In appli- cations where viscosity or speeds are high. For the type of lubrication methods described above. Fr and Fa are always considered as positive. Both loads. Friction Table 3a Geometric constants for rolling and sliding frictional moments of deep groove ball bearings Bearing series Geometric constants for rolling frictional moments sliding frictional moments R1 R2 S1 S2 2.
ECMH design 22 1. NJ or NUP design 2. The SKF model for calculating the frictional moment Table 3c Geometric constants for rolling and sliding frictional moments of cylindrical roller bearings Bearing series Geometric constants for rolling frictional moments sliding frictional moments R1 S1 S2 Bearing with cage of the N.
RSL seals Deep groove ball bearings — 25 0 0 0 d2 25 52 2. CS2 and CS5 seals Spherical roller bearings 62 2 0. Where bearings are fitted with contact seals. The SKF model for calculating the drag losses The postion of the lowest contact point can be in oil bath lubrication considers resistance of estimated with sufficient accuracy using: External oil agi. Drag losses are speed. It provides results with sufficient outside diameter D [mm] accuracy under the following conditions: Effects from Bearings lubricated by the oil bath method are reservoir size and geometry or external oil partially submerged or.
The SKF model for calculating the frictional moment The variables and functions used in the equa- tions for the frictional moment of drag losses are: The obtained value for Mdrag should be multiplied by a factor of two.
D d Oil level H Drag losses for oil jet lubrication To calculate drag losses for the oil jet lubrica- tion method. Friction Drag losses for vertical shafts Fig. Cer- tainly. The obtained value for Mdrag should be multiplied by a factor equal to the width height that is submerged relative to the total bearing width height.
It can be seen as an increase application engineer ing service when calculat- in operating temperature. Hybrid deep groove ball bearings in high- Effects of grease fill on friction speed applications are usually preloaded axially. The SKF model for calculating the frictional moment Additional effects on the frictional Additional information for specific moment bearing types and performance classes Effects of clearance and misalignment on Hybrid bearings friction The higher values for the modulus of elasticity Changes in clearance or misalignment in of rolling elements made of silicon nitride bearings influence the frictional moment.
Needle roller bearings To obtain values for the frictional moment for needle roller bearings. SKF recommends using the tools available online at skf. When a bearing has just been lubricated or Under these conditions. Bearings filled with an excessive amount of grease may show higher Y-bearings insert bearings values of friction.
The time it takes for ing the frictional moment for hybrid deep friction to decrease depends on the speed of groove ball bearings. The decreases the contact area in the raceways to model above considers normal internal oper.
CARB toroidal roller bearings and Using the above equations. To obtain values for the frictional moment However. For information about the frictional moment This effect can be estimated by multiplying for SKF super-precision bearings. SKF values for the frictional moment in the bearing recommends using the tools available online is similar to. It can be up to four times higher for tapered roller bearings in the If the value of Ws is known. Friction Starting torque Power loss and bearing The starting torque of a rolling bearing is temperature defined as the frictional moment that must be The power loss in a bearing as a result of bear- overcome by the bearing to start rotating.
Speeds Basics of bearing speed. The ISO standard. For bearings with contact seals. To assess the actual temperature rise and heat flow in a particular application.
This is outside the scope of the present ISO speed rating standard. Grease lubricated bearings may undergo a This ISO standard provides reference oper. For detailed temperature rise calcu- For some bearing series. Speeds Basics of bearing speed lations. The speed at which a bearing reaches its it may be necessary to reduce the reference operating temperature limit depends on the speed ratings in applications where the outer heat generated in the bearing.
In every case. The standard reference heat flow densities shown in diagram 1 are within the values found in bearing applications. There is a limit to the speed at which rolling The values of the reference speeds are bearings can be operated. Outer ring rotation is limit. Speeds Influence of load and oil viscosity on Oil lubrication reference speed Values for the adjustment factors for oil lubri- When load or viscosity values higher than the cation can be obtained from diagrams 2 to 5 reference values are applied.
For other base oil viscosities. Speeds Diagram 3 Adjustment factors f p and fn for radial roller bearings fP 0. Reference speed Diagram 4 Adjustment factors f p and fn for thrust ball bearings fP 0. Speeds Diagram 5 Adjustment factors f p and fn for thrust roller bearings fP 0.
From placement between one bearing ring and its diagram 3. Any increase in bearing temperature lowers the viscosity and Up to this speed. For these types of evaluations.
Any clearance and accuracy of the bearing seats increase in speed above the reference speed must be verified and adapted to accommodate generally means that the temperature differ- higher speeds.
In cases like this. The grease has a base oil viscosity tions include fans. In most cases. What is the adjusted reference speed? Speeds above the reference speed For bearing In some cases. Users can perform either plain bearing calculation or rolling bearing calculation at any point of time.
When user changes frequency the corresponding value for time will be modified and displayed to user.
Allowing now the user to enter negative values in the input fields for radial and axial force parameters. Reviews Review Policy. Fixed white screen error for reported devices, crashes, improved performance and other bug fixes.
See more. SKF Shaft alignment. Dimensions detail for NTN ball and roller bearings. Fit Tolerance ISO. Shaft Alignment Calculator. The tool help to calculate result of shaft alignment more quickly and precision.
Beak Lack Jin. English User install icatalog.Terminology Symbols Symbols used in this catalogue are mainly in Some frequently used bearing terms are accordance with ISO standards.
SKF DryLube bearings provide effective lubri- cation for high temperature applications, low start-up torque at any temperature and low frictional moment during operation. Cylindrical roller bear- ings.
Because of their design. The exceptional properties of PEEK pro.
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