PDF | On Dec 6, , G R Sinha and others published Introduction and Classification of Sensors. suitable for processing (e.g. optical, electrical, mechanical). • Nowadays common sensors convert measurement of physical phenomena into an electrical signal. Actuators & Sensors in Mechatronics: Introduction to Sensors. K. Craig. 1. Introduction to Sensors. • Types of Applications of Measurement. Instrumentation.

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II-Characteristics of different types of sensors a) Active vs. Passive: Does sensor draw energy from the signal? b) Digital vs. Analog: Is the signal discrete or. All Sensor offers a complete product catalog in PDF file format. Our catalog includes product specifications, packaging, cofigurations, and technical design. Chief Scientist of National High Technology Research and Development of China Research and application of intelligent sensors and actuator materials.

Now that we have seen what a sensor is, we will proceed further with the classification of Sensors.

Classification of Sensors There are several classifications of sensors made by different authors and experts. Some are very simple and some are very complex.

The following classification of sensors may already be used by an expert in the subject but this is a very simple classification of sensors.

In the first classification of the sensors, they are divided in to Active and Passive. Active Sensors are those which require an external excitation signal or a power signal. Passive Sensors, on the other hand, do not require any external power signal and directly generates output response. The other type of classification is based on the means of detection used in the sensor.

Some of the means of detection are Electric, Biological, Chemical, Radioactive etc. The next classification is based on conversion phenomenon i. Some of the common conversion phenomena are Photoelectric, Thermoelectric, Electrochemical, Electromagnetic, Thermooptic, etc.

The final classification of the sensors are Analog and Digital Sensors.

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Analog Sensors produce an analog output i. Digital Sensors, in contrast to Analog Sensors, work with discrete or digital data. The data in digital sensors, which is used for conversion and transmission, is digital in nature. Different Types of Sensors The following is a list of different types of sensors that are commonly used in various applications.

Because of magnetic field limitations, inductive sensors have a relatively narrow sensing range — from fractions of millimeters to 60 mm on average — though longer-range specialty products are available.

Tubular sensors, by far the most popular, are available with diameters from 3 to 40 mm. But what inductive sensors lack in range, they make up in environment adaptability and metal-sensing versatility. With no moving parts to wear, proper setup guarantees long life. Special designs with IP ratings of 67 and higher are capable of withstanding the buildup of contaminants such as cutting fluids, grease, and non-metallic dust, both in the air and on the sensor itself.


It should be noted that metallic contaminants e. Inductive sensor housing is typically nickel-plated brass, stainless steel, or PBT plastic. Capacitive sensors Capacitive proximity sensors can detect both metallic and non-metallic targets in powder, granulate, liquid, and solid form. This, along with their ability to sense through nonferrous materials, makes them ideal for sight glass monitoring, tank liquid level detection, and hopper powder level recognition. In capacitive sensors, the two conduction plates at different potentials are housed in the sensing head and positioned to operate like an open capacitor.

Air acts as an insulator; at rest there is little capacitance between the two plates. Like inductive sensors, these plates are linked to an oscillator, a Schmitt trigger, and an output amplifier. As a target enters the sensing zone the capacitance of the two plates increases, causing oscillator amplitude change, in turn changing the Schmitt trigger state, and creating an output signal.

Note the difference between the inductive and capacitive sensors: inductive sensors oscillate until the target is present and capacitive sensors oscillate when the target is present. Because capacitive sensing involves charging plates, it is somewhat slower than inductive sensing Many housing styles are available; common diameters range from 12 to 60 mm in shielded and unshielded mounting versions. Housing usually metal or PBT plastic is rugged to allow mounting very close to the monitored process.

If the sensor has normally-open and normally-closed options, it is said to have a complimentary output. Due to their ability to detect most types of materials, capacitive sensors must be kept away from non-target materials to avoid false triggering. For this reason, if the intended target contains a ferrous material, an inductive sensor is a more reliable option.

Photoelectric sensors Photoelectric sensors are so versatile that they solve the bulk of problems put to industrial sensing.

Different Types of Sensors

Because photoelectric technology has so rapidly advanced, they now commonly detect targets less than 1 mm in diameter, or from 60 m away. Classified by the method in which light is emitted and delivered to the receiver, many photoelectric configurations are available. However, all photoelectric sensors consist of a few of basic components: each has an emitter light source Light Emitting Diode, laser diode , a photodiode or phototransistor receiver to detect emitted light, and supporting electronics designed to amplify the receiver signal.

The emitter, sometimes called the sender, transmits a beam of either visible or infrared light to the detecting receiver. All photoelectric sensors operate under similar principles. Identifying their output is thus made easy; darkon and light-on classifications refer to light reception and sensor output activity.

If output is produced when no light is received, the sensor is dark-on. Either way, deciding on light-on or dark-on prior to downloading is required unless the sensor is user adjustable.

In that case, output style can be specified during installation by flipping a switch or wiring the sensor accordingly. Through-beam The most reliable photoelectric sensing is with through-beam sensors. Separated from the receiver by a separate housing, the emitter provides a constant beam of light; detection occurs when an object passing between the two breaks the beam.

Despite its reliability, through-beam is the least popular photoelectric setup.

Know about Different Types of Sensors with their Applications

The download, installation, and alignment of the emitter and receiver in two opposing locations, which may be quite a distance apart, are costly and laborious. With newly developed designs, through-beam photoelectric se nsors typically offer the longest sensing distance of photoelectric sensors — 25 m and over is now commonplace.

New laser diode emitter models can transmit a well-collimated beam 60 m for increased accuracy and detection. At these distances, some through-beam laser sensors are capable of detecting an object the size of a fly; at close range, that becomes 0.

But while these laser sensors increase precision, response speed is the same as with non-laser sensors — typically around Hz. One ability unique to throughbeam photoelectric sensors is effective sensing in the presence of thick airborne contaminants.

If pollutants build up directly on the emitter or receiver, there is a higher probability of false triggering.

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If detected light decreases to a specified level without a target in place, the sensor sends a warning by means of a builtin LED or output wire. Through-beam photoelectric sensors have commercial and industrial applications.

At home, for example, they detect obstructions in the path of garage doors; the sensors have saved many a bicycle and car from being smashed.

Burnthrough might happen with thin or lightly colored objects that allow emitted light to pass through to the receiver. Retro-reflective Retro-reflective sensors have the next longest photoelectric sensing distance, with some units capable of monitoring ranges up to 10 m.

Operating similar to through-beam sensors without reaching the same sensing distances, output occurs when a constant beam is broken. But instead of separate housings for emitter and receiver, both are located in the same housing, facing the same direction. The emitter produces a laser, infrared, or visible light beam and projects it towards a specially designed reflector, which then deflects the beam back to the receiver. Detection occurs when the light path is broken or otherwise disturbed.

One reason for using a retro-reflective sensor over a through-beam sensor is for the convenience of one wiring location; the opposing side only requires reflector mounting. This results in big cost savings in both parts and time.

However, very shiny or reflective objects like mirrors, cans, and plastic-wrapped juice boxes create a challenge for retro-reflective photoelectric sensors. These targets sometimes reflect enough light to trick the receiver into thinking the beam was not interrupted, causing erroneous outputs.

Some manufacturers have addressed this problem with polarization filtering, which allows detection of light only from specially designed reflectors Diffuse As in retro-reflective sensors, diffuse sensor emitters and receivers are located in the same housing.Output is then read by an external control unit e.

This is a more stable method when reflective backgrounds are present, or when target color variations are an issue; reflectivity and color affect the intensity of reflected light, but not the angles of refraction used by triangulation- based background suppression photoelectric sensors.

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Through-beam photoelectric sensors have commercial and industrial applications. One reason for using a retro-reflective sensor over a through-beam sensor is for the convenience of one wiring location; the opposing side only requires reflector mounting.

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Introduction to Transducers, Sensors, and Actuators Participant Guide Description and Estimated Time to Complete This unit familiarizes you with transducers, sensors, and actuators and helps you understand the difference between them.

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