Reason and responsibility: readings in some basic problems of philosophy. by Joel Feinberg; Russ Shafer-Landau;. Print book. English. Sixteenth edition. Joel Feinberg (Professor Emeritus, late of University of Arizona) was widely recognized as one of America's leading political and social philosophers. Acclaimed. Doing & Deserving; Essays in the Theory of bestthing.info Feinberg - - Princeton: Princeton University Press. Psychological bestthing.info Feinberg - - In Russ Shafer-Landau & Joel Feinberg (eds.), Reason and Responsibility. Reason and Responsibility: Readings in Some.
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Reason and Responsibility: Readings in Some. Basic Problems of Philosophy, 12th/13th edition (Belmont, CA: /). 2. Online course packet available at . gmt reason and responsibility feinberg pdf - joel feinberg (october 19, in detroit, michigan reason and responsibility readings in some. philosophy book by cengage learning ebook pdf at our library. get reason and tldr - [pdf]free reason and responsibility readings in some basic problems of.
His work was informed by the psychologist Jean Piaget and his thinking was strongly influenced by the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. As such he was a deontologist, and his theory placed value in principles, rights and the fulfilment of duty and obligation. He then used their answers to theorise the stages of development see table 3.
Despite using a male only sample, he concluded that women tended to get stuck at stage three of the developmental sequence, with their focus on family and relationships. The findings of her research culminated in her book In a Different Voice in which she outlined the identification of a different moral perspective — a caring perspective.
This different voice prioritised empathy, care, maintenance of relationships and balancing needs over the pursuit of principles, justice and rights. The two perspectives came to be known as the care and justice perspective, each with its own emphasis in moral reasoning.
Her analysis of her findings appeared to suggest that men and women had different ways of thinking and reasoning morally. In addition, she was also accused of overtly valorising the care perspective over the justice perspective, which seemingly underscored them as different and incompatible.
Her analysis appeared to support now defunct gender stereotypes, such as women being more emotional than men, who were more able to reason.
Pre-conventional Morality Focus: Obedience Obedience to law without question or consideration for alternative: the law is the Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment Orientation law Recognition of alternatives, of different Stage 2 Individualism and Exchange viewpoints Level II. Current debates within an ethic of care have moved on considerably, and importantly the care and justice perspectives are no longer deemed as separate or conflicting, but instead as crucially complimentary, existing as a moral reasoning spectrum in the thinking of all genders.
Whilst the caring perspective is predominantly used in personal situations and justice in impersonal situations, the reasons for this and the effects of any possible over emphasis of this distinction are of interest.
In addition, the extreme i. In short, what evidence exists of this identified socialised bias in moral reasoning on our wider social structure and the social problems we currently face? Care ethics has been significantly expanded into political theory in an attempt to consider resolutions to social issues. The work of theorists such as Joan Tronto and Daniel Engster question the moral boundaries of society and ask what Care ethics can add to the debate on who we should care for, where care should take place, and what this means for social restructure.
These new political developments also extend to considerations of citizenship and how this can be explored using a developed ethic of care see Bowden , ch.
In short, the exclusion of the care perspective from an organisational environment is both damaging and restrictive. Research is currently taking place on how to rectify this in terms of leadership training, specifically focussing on how best to improve attitudes towards corporate social performance.
Emphasis on how to foster a socially responsible and sustainable approach in executives is central to this. The research leads to the proposal of a programme known as Educare which can be delivered in an executive education environment.
The application of Care ethics within an organisation are far reaching, although a fine line between care and paternalism must be watched. When considered internally, many would suggest that care already takes place — amongst employees for example — most likely not explicitly recognised as such.
Why Do Companies Engage in Corporate Social Responsibility? Background, Reasons and Basic Concepts
In addition, some of the current CSR initiatives such as community involvement and service learning draw on a caring perspective. The Problem of Evil.
Mackie: Evil and Omnipotence. Johnson: God and the Problem of Evil. Reason and Faith. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief. Part III.
The Nature and Value of Knowledge. Our Knowledge of the External World. Moore: Proof of an External World. The Methods of Science. Salmon: An Encounter with David Hume.
Responsibility for health: personal, social, and environmental
While individuals often have the ability to take care of their own health, they lack the ability to promote health at the population or environmental level. Government action is required to monitor diseases, control infections, engage in urban planning, guarantee the safety of food and drugs, minimize pollution and sponsor basic biomedical research.
Even people who emphasize personal responsibility would admit that society should promote environmental health and public health, and even those who believe in a minimal government would admit that public health institutions are necessary to prevent sick people from harming healthy people.
Many of the other strategies are compatible with and may even encourage individual responsibility for health. One of the problems with emphasizing social responsibility for health is that this may encourage individuals to take less responsibility.
Free [PDF] Downlaod Reason and Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy,
Making society responsible for the health of individuals can further add to the passivity and dependence that happen when one becomes sick. Many of the other strategies for health promotion can empower individuals to take responsibility for their own health. Education in safe sex, for example, provides individuals with information about how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
Urban planning can give individuals the ability to make healthy choices concerning transportation, work and recreation by allowing them to choose walking or other forms of exercise. Responsibility for health should be a collaborative effort among individuals and the societies in which they live.
Individuals should care for their own health and help to pay for their own healthcare, and societies should promote health and help to finance the costs of healthcare. Though access to care tends to dominate discussions of social responsibility for health and often receives the largest portion of society's resources, one should not forget the importance of environmental health, public health and health research. Recognizing the importance of these other methods still leaves important ethical and political questions unanswered, such as how to decide the appropriate level of government funding for access to care, public health, environmental health and health research.
I encourage others to address these issues. It does not represent the views of those organisations. Footnotes References 1.
Easthope G. Lifestyle, health and disease. New York: Routledge, 2. World Health Organization The world health report: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: WHO, 3.In addition, some of the current CSR initiatives such as community involvement and service learning draw on a caring perspective.
There was, in reasoning, responsibility-as-accountability.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, Suggested reading Book Luetge, Christoph. Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy. Raz, J. Harvard University Press:
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