PDF | Kaziranga National Park is now a protected area of global significance. While some issues remain to be addressed within the protected. KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK: A BRIEF OVERVIEW. Assam, the gateway of the north east region of India, is famous all over the world as the home of the. CATALOGUE ZOOS' PRINT JOURNAL 21(8): Fauna of Protected Areas - ORTHOPTERAN FAUNA OF THE GIBBON WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, .
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Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of .. "Birds of Kaziranga National Park, India" (PDF). Forktail. Oriental. UNESCO-IUCN-WII. 1. KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK (ASSAM). Project Title: Enhancing our heritage: Managing and Monitoring for Success in World Natural. The Kaziranga National Park: Dynamics of Social and Political History. Arupjyoti Almost after a century of experimenting, Kaziranga National Park is now a well- known example of the success evaluation/pdf.
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Environmental Conservation, 28, — Local attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism in Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management, 69, — Migration and home gardens in the Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India. Journal of Ecological Anthropology, 9, 20— Google Scholar Shrivastava, R.
A microsite analysis of communities around Kaziranga National Park, India: Implications for conservation and development. Journal of Environment and Development, 16, — The problem of change: A study of North-East India.
Periodic reporting on the application of the World Heritage Convention. Section II: State of conservation of world heritage properties. United Nations Environment Program. Kaziranga National Park. Wang, S. Environmental Conservation, 33, — Google Scholar Wittemyer, G. Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science, , — Report No. The park is home to large breeding populations of elephants , wild water buffalo , and swamp deer. When compared with other protected areas in India, Kaziranga has achieved notable success in wildlife conservation.
Kaziranga National Park
Located on the edge of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot , the park combines high species diversity and visibility. Kaziranga is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass , marshland , and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests , criss-crossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra , and the park includes numerous small bodies of water. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books, songs, and documentaries.
The park celebrated its centennial in after its establishment in as a reserve forest.
The history of Kaziranga as a protected area can be traced back to , when Mary Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston , the wife of the Viceroy of India , Lord Curzon of Kedleston , visited the area. In , it was redesignated the "Kaziranga Game Sanctuary" and remained so till , when hunting was prohibited and visitors were permitted to enter the park.
Stracey, the forest conservationist, in order to rid the name of hunting connotations.
Kaziranga has been the target of several natural and man-made calamities in recent decades. Floods caused by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra, leading to significant losses of animal life. Although the etymology of the name Kaziranga is not certain, there exist a number of possible explanations derived from local legends and records. According to one legend, a girl named Rawnga, from a nearby village, and a youth named Kazi, from Karbi Anglong , fell in love.
This match was not acceptable to their families, and the couple disappeared into the forest, never to be seen again, and the forest was named after them. Testimony to the long history of the name can be found in some records, which state that once, while the Ahom king Pratap Singha was passing by the region during the seventeenth century, he was particularly impressed by the taste of fish, and on asking was told it came from Kaziranga. Some historians believe, however, that the name Kaziranga was derived from the Karbi word Kajir-a-rong , which means "the village of Kajir" kajiror gaon.
Among the Karbis , Kajir is a common name for a girl child, [ citation needed ] and it was believed that a woman named Kajir once ruled over the area.
Fragments of monoliths associated with Karbi rule found scattered in the area seem to bear testimony to this assertion. Other notable rivers within the park are the Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri. Kaziranga has flat expanses of fertile, alluvial soil , formed by erosion and silt deposition by the River Brahmaputra. Many artificial chapories have been built with the help of the Indian Army to ensure the safety of the animals. Kaziranga is also surrounded by lush green tea plantations, most of them contributing heavily to Assam's economy.
The park experiences three seasons: The flooding causes most animals to migrate to elevated and forested regions outside the southern border of the park, such as the Mikir hills. Kaziranga contains significant breeding populations of 35 mammalian species,  of which 15 are threatened as per the IUCN Red List.
Small herbivores include the Indian muntjac , wild boar , and hog deer. Kaziranga is one of the few wild breeding areas outside Africa for multiple species of large cats, such as Bengal tigers and leopards. Birds such as the lesser white-fronted goose , ferruginous duck , Baer's pochard duck and lesser adjutant , greater adjutant , black-necked stork , and Asian openbill stork migrate from Central Asia to the park during winter.
Kaziranga was once home to seven species of vultures , but the vulture population reached near extinction, supposedly by feeding on animal carcasses containing the drug Diclofenac. Other families of birds inhabiting Kaziranga include the great Indian hornbill and wreathed hornbill , Old World babblers such as Jerdon's and marsh babblers , weaver birds such as the common baya weaver , threatened Finn's weavers , thrushes such as Hodgson's bushchat and Old World warblers such as the bristled grassbird.
Other threatened species include the black-breasted parrotbill and the rufous-vented grass babbler. Two of the largest snakes in the world, the reticulated python and rock python , as well as the longest venomous snake in the world, the king cobra , inhabit the park.
Other snakes found here include the Indian cobra , monocled cobra , Russell's viper , and the common krait. Four main types of vegetation exist in this park. Based on Landsat data for , percent coverage by vegetation is: There is a difference in altitude between the eastern and western areas of the park, with the western side being at a lower altitude.
The western reaches of the park are dominated by grasslands. Tall elephant grass is found on higher ground, while short grasses cover the lower grounds surrounding the beels or flood-created ponds.
Common tall grasses are sugarcanes , spear grass , elephant grass , and the common reed. Numerous forbs are present along with the grasses.
Amidst the grasses, providing cover and shade are scattered trees—dominant species including kumbhi , Indian gooseberry , the cotton tree in savanna woodlands , and elephant apple in inundated grasslands.
Thick evergreen forests, near the Kanchanjhuri, Panbari, and Tamulipathar blocks, contain trees such as Aphanamixis polystachya , Talauma hodgsonii , Dillenia indica , Garcinia tinctoria , Ficus rumphii , Cinnamomum bejolghota , and species of Syzygium.
Tropical semi-evergreen forests are present near Baguri, Bimali, and Haldibari. Common trees and shrubs are Albizia procera , Duabanga grandiflora , Lagerstroemia speciosa , Crateva unilocularis , Sterculia urens , Grewia serrulata , Mallotus philippensis , Bridelia retusa , Aphania rubra , Leea indica , and Leea umbraculifera.
There are many different aquatic floras in the lakes and ponds, and along the river shores. The invasive water hyacinth is very common, often choking the water bodies, but it is cleared during destructive floods. The Wildlife wing of the forest department of the Government of Assam, headquartered at Bokakhat , is responsible for the administration and management of Kaziranga. A divisional Forest Officer is the administrative chief executive of the park.
He is assisted by two officers with the rank of Assistant Conservator of Forests. The park area is divided into five ranges, overseen by Range Forest Officers.
Ghorakati , Western HQ: Baguri , Central HQ: Kohora , Eastern HQ: Agaratoli and Northern HQ: Each range is further sub-divided into beats, headed by a forester, and sub-beats, headed by a forest guard. Additional funding is received under the Project Elephant from the Central Government.
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park has been granted maximum protection under the Indian law for wildlife conservation. Various laws, which range in dates from the Assam Forest Regulation of and the Biodiversity Conservation Act of have been enacted for protection of wildlife in the park. Between and , rhinoceroses were hunted by poachers. Preventive measures such as construction of anti-poaching camps and maintenance of existing ones, patrolling, intelligence gathering, and control over the use of firearms around the park have reduced the number of casualties.
Perennial flooding and heavy rains have resulted in death of wild animals and damage to the conservation infrastructures. Water pollution due to run-off from pesticides from tea gardens, and run-off from a petroleum refinery at Numaligarh , pose a hazard to the ecology of the region.
To control the growth and irradiation of invasive species, research on biological methods for controlling weeds, manual uprooting and weeding before seed settling are carried out at regular intervals. Observing the wildlife , including birding , is the main visitor activity in and around the park.
Guided tours by elephant or Jeep are available. Hiking is prohibited in the park to avoid potential human-animal conflicts. Observation towers are situated at Sohola, Mihimukh, Kathpara, Foliamari, and Harmoti for wildlife viewing.
The Lower Himalayan peaks frame the park's landscape of trees and grass interspersed with numerous ponds. An interpretation centre is being set up at the Bagori range of Kaziranga, to help visitors learn more about the park.
Four tourist lodges at Kohora and three tourist lodges outside the park are maintained by the Department of Environment and Forests, Government of Assam. Private resorts are available outside the park borders. It houses more than species of orchids, varieties of sour fruits and leafy vegetables, 12 species of cane, 46 species of bamboo and a large varieties of local fishes.
Authorised guides of the forest department accompany all travelers inside the park. Mahout -guided elephant rides and Jeep or other 4WD vehicles rides are booked in advance. Starting from the Park Administrative Centre at Kohora , these rides can follow the three motorable trails under the jurisdiction of three ranges—Kohora, Bagori, and Agaratoli.
These trails are open for light vehicles from November to end Apr. Visitors are allowed to take their own vehicles when accompanied by guides. Major cities near the park are Guwahati, Dimapur and Jorhat. Kaziranga has been the theme of, or has been mentioned in, several books, songs, and documentaries. The park first gained international prominence after Robin Banerjee , a physician-turned-photographer and filmmaker, produced a documentary titled Kaziranga , which was aired on television in Berlin in and became a runaway success.
Sprague de Camp wrote about the park in his poem, " Kaziranga, Assam ". It was first published in in Demons and Dinosaurs , a poetry collection, and was reprinted as Kaziranga in Years in the Making: Sprague de Camp in Kaziranga Trail Children's Book Trust , , a children's storybook by Arup Dutta about rhinoceros poaching in the national park, won the Shankar's Award.
The book went on to win the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award and the Prix Litteraire d'Amis , providing publicity simultaneously to the profession of mahouts as well as to Kaziranga. Economic Valuation of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve estimated its annual flow benefits to be 9. Important ecosystem services included habitat and refugia for wildlife 5. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the poem, see Kaziranga, Assam poem. Main article: History of Kaziranga National Park. Geography of Kaziranga National Park.
Climate of Kaziranga National Park. Fauna of Kaziranga National Park.
See also: Indian rhinoceros. Wild boar. Kaziranga is one of the last strongholds for the wild water buffalo. Barasingha deer. Golden langur. Hog deer.
Rose-ringed parakeets. Pallas's fish eagle. Asian elephants. Red junglefowl. Governance of Kaziranga National Park. Conservation Management of Kaziranga National Park.
Tourism in Kaziranga National Park.Authorized forest department guides accompany all travellers inside the park. It is a special treat to the travelers to move in the open grounds on these majestic animals.
Besides, the famous Kamakhya Temple, dedicated to Goddess Durga attracts many devotees around the year. Orthoptera from Bhutan, Nepal, and north India confirmation of specimens. The Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri flow within the park. Kaziranga is also surrounded by lush green tea plantations, most of them contributing heavily to Assam's economy.
An interpretation centre, under construction at the Bagori range of Kaziranga, will help visitors learn about the park. The Sanctuary also has plantations also calculated as per Ludwig and Reynolds Climate The park experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter.