human resource management semester notes week what is hrm? the focus of hrm is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. it involves. Ans. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the process of managing people in Q.2 Explain the difference between Personnel Management and HRM?. goes here. no profile picture user. Post · uriwatas · PDF TECH at PDF TECH. DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT.
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This book is not just one of the many introductions to Human Resource Management that are published, year after year, for use in HRM classes. Authors of those. Human Resource Management is about the managerial and leadership .. His analysis of the masses of detailed notes on exactly how managers spent their. Lecture notes for students. An introduction to integrated HR. Chapter 1 PDF Document (Mb). HR in an organisational context. Chapter 2 PDF Document .
The last function of maintenance involves keeping the employees' commitment and loyalty to the organization. Some businesses globalize and form more diverse teams.
HR departments have the role of making sure that these teams can function and that people can communicate across cultures and across borders.
The discipline may also engage in mobility management, especially for expatriates ; and it is frequently involved in the merger and acquisition process.
HR is generally viewed as a support function to the business, helping to minimize costs and reduce risk. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession , institutions of higher education, professional associations , and companies have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function.
Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. One of the frequent challenges of HRM is dealing with the notion of unitarism seeing a company as a cohesive whole, in which both employers and employees should work together for a common good and securing a long-term partnership of employees and employers with common interests.
Generalists support employees directly with their questions, grievances, and work on a range of projects within the organization. They "may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer's needs.
Some practitioners will spend an entire career as either a generalist or a specialist while others will obtain experiences from each and choose a path later. The position of HR manager has been chosen as one of the best jobs in the US, with a 4 ranking by CNN Money in and a 20 ranking by the same organization in , due to its pay, personal satisfaction, job security, future growth, and benefit to society.
Many professors conduct research on topics that fall within the HR domain, such as financial compensation , recruitment , and training. Virtual human resources[ edit ] This article needs more links to other articles to help integrate it into the encyclopedia. Please help improve this article by adding links that are relevant to the context within the existing text.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message Technology has a significant impact on human resources practices. Human resources is transitioning to a more technology-based profession[ when? HR professionals were not able to post a job in more than one location and did not have access to millions of people, causing the lead time of new hires to be drawn out and tiresome.
With the use of e-recruiting tools, HR professionals can post jobs and track applicants for thousands of jobs in various locations all in one place.
Interview feedback, background and drug tests, and onboarding can all be viewed online. This helps HR professionals keep track of all of their open jobs and applicants in a way that is faster and easier than before.
E-recruiting also helps eliminate limitations of geographic location. This recognition of the importance of HRM extends to small businesses, for while they do not generally have the same volume of human resources requirements as do larger organizations, they too face personnel management issues that can have a decisive impact on business health.
Personnel problems do not discriminate between small and big business. You find them in all businesses, regardless of size. Perhaps the paramount principle is a simple recognition that human resources are the most important assets of an organization; a business cannot be successful without effectively managing this resource. Another important principle, articulated by Michael Armstrong in his book A Handbook of Human Resource Management, is that business success "is most likely to be achieved if the personnel policies and procedures of the enterprise are closely linked with, and make a major contribution to, the achievement of corporate objectives and strategic plans.
Other HRM factors that shape corporate culture-;whether by encouraging integration and cooperation across the company, instituting quantitative performance measurements, or taking some other action-;are also commonly cited as key components in business success. HRM, summarized Armstrong, "is a strategic approach to the acquisition, motivation, development and management of the organization's human resources.
It is devoted to shaping an appropriate corporate culture, and introducing programs which reflect and support the core values of the enterprise and ensure its success.
Individual management entails helping employees identify their strengths and weaknesses; correct their shortcomings; and make their best contribution to the enterprise.
These duties are carried out through a variety of activities such as performance reviews, training, and testing. Organizational development, meanwhile, focuses on fostering a successful system that maximizes human and other resources as part of larger business strategies.
This important duty also includes the creation and maintenance of a change program, which allows the organization to respond to evolving outside and internal influences.
Finally, there is the responsibility of managing career development. This entails matching individuals with the most suitable jobs and career paths within the organization. Human resource management functions are ideally positioned near the theoretic center of the organization, with access to all areas of the business. Since the HRM department or manager is charged with managing the productivity and development of workers at all levels, human resource personnel should have access to-;and the support of-;key decision makers.
In addition, the HRM department should be situated in such a way that it is able to communicate effectively with all areas of the company. HRM structures vary widely from business to business, shaped by the type, size, and governing philosophies of the organization that they serve.
But most organizations organize HRM functions around the clusters of people to be helped-;they conduct recruiting, administrative, and other duties in a central location. Different employee development groups for each department are necessary to train and develop employees in specialized areas, such as sales, engineering, marketing, or executive education.
In contrast, some HRM departments are completely independent and are organized purely by function. The same training department, for example, serves all divisions of the organization. In recent years, however, observers have cited a decided trend toward fundamental reassessments of human resources structures and positions.
Today, senior management expects HR to move beyond its traditional, compartmentalized 'bunker' approach to a more integrated, decentralized support function. This increases the likelihood that HR is viewed and included as an integral part of the business process, similar to its marketing, finance, and operations counterparts.
However, HR will retain a centralized functional relationship in areas where specialized expertise is truly required," such as compensation and recruitment responsibilities.
HRM, then, is engaged not only in securing and developing the talents of individual workers, but also in implementing programs that enhance communication and cooperation between those individual workers in order to nurture organizational development. The primary responsibilities associated with human resource management include: job analysis and staffing, organization and utilization of work force, measurement and appraisal of work force performance, implementation of reward systems for employees, professional development of workers, and maintenance of work force.
Job analysis consists of determining-;often with the help of other company areas-;the nature and responsibilities of various employment positions. This can encompass determination of the skills and experiences necessary to adequately perform in a position, identification of job and industry trends, and anticipation of future employment levels and skill requirements. Bateman and Carl P. Zeithaml in Management: Function and Strategy. Staffing, meanwhile, is the actual process of managing the flow of personnel into, within through transfers and promotions , and out of an organization.
Once the recruiting part of the staffing process has been completed, selection is accomplished through job postings, interviews, reference checks, testing, and other tools. Organization, utilization, and maintenance of a company's work force is another key function of HRM. This involves designing an organizational framework that makes maximum use of an enterprise's human resources and establishing systems of communication that help the organization operate in a unified manner. Other responsibilities in this area include safety and health and worker-management relations.
Human resource maintenance activities related to safety and health usually entail compliance with federal laws that protect employees from hazards in the workplace. These regulations are handed down from several federal agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency EPA , and various state agencies, which implement laws in the realms of worker's compensation, employee protection, and other areas.
Maintenance tasks related to worker-management relations primarily entail: working with labor unions; handling grievances related to misconduct, such as theft or sexual harassment; and devising communication systems to foster cooperation and a shared sense of mission among employees. Performance appraisal is the practice of assessing employee job performance and providing feedback to those employees about both positive and negative aspects of their performance.
Performance measurements are very important both for the organization and the individual, for they are the primary data used in determining salary increases, promotions, and, in the case of workers who perform unsatisfactorily, dismissal.
Reward systems are typically managed by HR areas as well. This aspect of human resource management is very important, for it is the mechanism by which organizations provide their workers with rewards for past achievements and incentives for high performance in the future. It is also the mechanism by which organizations address problems within their work force, through institution of disciplinary measures.
Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials. Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: What are the criteria for evaluation? Defining objectives of job evaluation a. Wage Survey 3. Job is not broken down into factors etc.
The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values. Employee Classification 4. How much time involved?
Establishing wage and salary differentials. Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content. Who should evaluate job? In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills. This establishes Job Hierarchies. Job Rotation: When incumbents become bore of routine jobs. On the negative side.
Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3. On the positive side. To be more specific. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation. Specification of Individual Tasks 2. Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization. Workers become more competent in several jobs. Definition 1: Integration of work. Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. Job is simplified or specialized.
Here jobs remain unchanged. The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual. Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. Job Enlargement: It means expanding the number of tasks. Benefits of Job enrichment 1. There is only horizontal expansion.
Human Resource Management - Notes for Bcom
An enriched job will have more responsibility. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice. Task Variety 2. Workload increases 5. Benefits of Job Enlargement: Jobs may still remain boring and routine Job Enrichment: Productivity may not increase necessarily 4.
In other words. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation. Worker Paced Control 5. It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc. Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control.
Unions demand pay—hike 6. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation. Redesigning existing work system required 3. High Training Costs 2. Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification.
Full Ability Utilization 4. Meaningful Work Modules 3. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed. Further training costs also rise and it can also de-motivate intelligent and ambitious trainees who seek specific responsibilities in their chosen specialties. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power. It means passing on more authority and responsibility.
It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach. Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility. Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts.
A self —directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment. Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost. Job design affects employee productivity. It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job.
Demerits of Job Enrichment 1. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor. Unions resistance. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do.
Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work.
Autonomous of Self-Directed Teams: Empowerment results in self-directed work teams. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility. Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design. Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision.
As per the two-factor motivation theory. High Performance Work Design: Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design. It should be preceded by hygienic factors etc. Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating. Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job.
The attitudes related to job may be wages. Size of plant Management controlled factors: All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated.
Considering above examples. So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs. Education and Personality. Job inherent factors: Type of work. In short job satisfaction is a general attitude. An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities.
Occupational status. Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition. Advancement opportunities and Working conditions.
Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators. Fringe benefits. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. Components of Job Satisfaction Personal factors: It also improves workers self image. Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction.
When enough samples are taken. When properly used. Advantages of Work SamplingIt is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations.
Measuring and quantifying activities"A measurement technique for the quantitative analysis of non-repetitive or irregularly occurring activity. Many studies make use of off-shift technicians or operators to take the observations.
Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine. Work sampling Methodology Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle. Meet legal and social obligations 6. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost 3.
Identify and prepare potential job applicants 7. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs.
Note that random observations are very critical for a work sampling study.
Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly 5. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications.
The ratio of the number of observations of a given state of the activity to the total number of observations taken will approximate the percentage of time that the activity is in that given state. Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over- qualified applications. Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities 2.
The result is a pool of application from which new employees are selected. We might then conclude. The Process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted.
Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants. Labor laws A brief example might be that 77 of observations showed a machine to be running. It abets raiding organization 3. Benefits of new skills and talents 1.
Compliance with reservation policy denied becomes easy 2. Candidates already oriented towards 2. Old concept of doing things 2. Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4. Less Costly 1. Benefits of new experiences associated with internal recruiting is 3.
It is costly method Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. Candidates current work may be 3. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Politics play greater roles 4. Better morale and motivation 2. Selection is the process of picking up individuals out of the pool of job applicants with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization.
Selection is concerned with picking up identifying and encouraging the right candidates from a pool of prospective employees to apply for applicants. Panel Interview. Employment Interview: The next step in selection is employment interview. These tests can be Aptitude Tests.
Graphology Test Handwriting. Selection Tests: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests. Interviews can be One-to-One. Recruitment Selection 1. A formal definition of Selection is as under Definition of Selection: Chances of creeping in false positive heartburn are avoided. Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Personality Tests.
On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise. Recruitment refers to the process of 1. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. Scope for resentment.
Preliminary Interview: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms. There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. Psychometric Tests etc. Besides this there are some other tests also like Interest Tests activity preferences. The basic objective is to reject misfits. Selection on the other hand is negative 2. Recruitment is said to be positive in its in its application in as much as it seeks approach as it seeks to attract as many to eliminate as many unqualified candidates as possible.
Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people. Here is a need to prepare a formal contract of employment.
Job Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles.
Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews. Stress Interviews. We all perceive the world differently. Physical Examination: After the selection decision is made. Involve line managers at all stages 6. Behavioral Interviews. A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. Contract of Employment: After the job offer is made and candidates accept the offer. The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee.
However it does not predict the job success accurately. Trained the selectors 3. Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates. Attempt to validate the procedure 7. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it. Determine aids to be used for selection process 4.
Detailed job descriptions and job specifications prepared in advance and endorsed by personnel and line management 2. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination. Selection Decision: After obtaining all the information.
Barriers of fairness includes discrimination against religion. A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not. It is made by way of letter of appointment. Reference checks can be through formal letters. Check competence of recruitment consultants before retention 5.
The final decision has to be made out of applicants who have passed preliminary interviews. Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. Any such program has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to discuss.
The education is more important for managers and executives rather than low cadre workers. No training program is complete without an element of education. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives.
The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. Anyways education is common to all employees. Development is not primarily skills oriented. CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Pressure brought on selectors by politicians. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well understood by HR Specialists.
Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes. Development and Education. Development provides knowledge about business environment. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on part time basis. To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization Difference between Training and Development Training Development Training is skills focused Development is creating learning abilities Training is presumed to have a formal Development is not education dependent education Training needs depend upon lack or Development depends on personal drive deficiency in skills and ambition Trainings are generally need based Development is voluntary Training is a narrower concept focused on Development is a broader concept focused job related skills on personality development Training may not include development Development includes training wherever necessary Training is aimed at improving job related Development aims at overall personal efficiency and performance effectiveness including job efficiencies What are the Training Inputs?
Creating self awareness 3. Develop inspiring leadership styles 4. Teach them about effective communication 6. Instill zest for excellence 5.
Organizational Climate Indices 4. Attitude Surveys 5. Work Sampling 7. Organizational Goals and Objectives 2. Interviews 3. Exit Interviews 6. Efficiency Indices 5. Performance Appraisals 2. Training Progress Feedback 6.
Analysis of Current and Anticipated Changes Quality Circles 8. Questionnaires 4. Customer Satisfaction Survey 9. Advantage — employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function.
Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards On the Job Training Methods 1.
Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education. It may consist a part of their educational courses. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved. Job Coaching: Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisorsTrainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants 3.
It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized. Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance 2. Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done Methods of Training On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working.
Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function. In this method. Benefits of Training Needs Identification 1. Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job. Disadvantage — It may become too much for an employee to learn. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities.
Following are the on-the-job methods.
Human resource management
Advantages — Self paced. Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Trainers are usually experienced enough to train It is systematically organized Efficiently created programs may add lot of value Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: It is not directly in the context of job It is often formal It is not based on experience It is least expensive Trainees may not be highly motivated It is more artificial in nature Off the Job Training Methods 1. Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience.
It is One-way communication. It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships. Disadvantage — Participants may resort to their old habits after the training. Advantages — Wide range of realistic examples. It can be done using Films. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing.
No flexibility for different audience. Advantage — It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low. No feedback mechanism. Disadvantages — One- way communication. Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings.. Advantages — increased ability to empathize. Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer.
Following are the off-the-job methods. It is not learning by practice. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. No authentic feedback mechanism. These are generally used in MDP. There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant. Likely to boredom. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings a.
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Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience. The cases are generally based on actual organizational situations. Disadvantages — Low popularity. Sensitivity Trainings: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment. Attitudinal change is another result.
Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends 6. Laboratory Training Barriers to Effective Training: To remove their inadequacies about new peers 4. Importance of Jobs to the organization 4. Promoting Learning as Fundamental Value 6. Employers and B Schools operating distantly 7. Lack of Management commitment 2. To make new employees feel at home in new environment 2. Advantages — Provides accountabilities.
To remove their anxiety about new workplace 3. Detailed Orientation PresentationsPurpose of Orientation 1. Comprehensive and Systematic Approach 4. Management Commitment 2. Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method. Daily Work Routine 2. Education degrees lack skills 4. Disadvantages — High cost. Continuous and Ongoing approach 5. Inadequate Training budget 3. Disadvantages — Scope for learning is less.
To provide them job information. To remove worries about their job performance 5. Organization Profile 3. Large scale poaching of trained staff 5. Formal or Informal In this method.
Steps in HR Planning - Planning the Human resources
The rater is forced to make a choice. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. The position of HR manager has been chosen as one of the best jobs in the US, with a 4 ranking by CNN Money in and a 20 ranking by the same organization in , due to its pay, personal satisfaction, job security, future growth, and benefit to society.
Sheer numbers may weigh the solution towards the dominant group. Critical Incidents Method: Generally it is high in the production department. Preparation of checklist is a challenging job itself. Hence it is a challenge for HRM to redesign the profile of workers.
To achieve effective personal change.
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