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Free download of Hard Times by Charles Dickens. Available in PDF, ePub and site. Read, write reviews and more Book Description HTML. This three book . mad elephants, like the Hard Fact men, abated nothing of pursued Eachael, " times are" when I think my mind .. and I 've his books at home to show it! Aye. Hard Times. Charles Dickens. First published in This web edition published by [email protected] Last updated Wednesday, December 17, at
While the second type is used for location and proximity scale. Hereafter, Table 4 illustrates these two types: Nominal or Head or Pre- adverbial group: Adverbial group: The personal reference system is shown in Table 5 below: They become anaphoric in quoted speech and they are normally so in many other varieties of English such as narrative fiction. In narration, the context includes a context of reference.
Other roles of personals are typically anaphoric. These personals may be exophoric whenever they are judged by the speaker to be part of the context of situation. Below, Table 6 summarizes these forms: Table 6: Demonstrative reference is basically a form of verbal pointing. The referent is identified by being placed on a scale of proximity. The following Figure 2 shows the personal reference system.
Demonstratives may also be either exophoric or anaphoric; in their original form, they are like third person forms, but they are more deictic than the personals. They have distinct and private anaphoric functions.
As shown below in Table 7: Table 7: Particular comparisons are made with respect to quality and quantity and also presented by other non-classified adjectives and adverbs.
General comparisons are used to denote objects likeness. The type of likeness may be of identity in case, a pair of objects represent the same thing or of similarity if the objects are identical.
Furthermore, Halliday and Hasan Likeness is a referential property. Hence comparison is a form of reference, alongside personal and demonstrative reference; and it embraces the same set of possibilities. The referent of the comparison may be in the situation, or it may be in the text.
If it is in the text, the reference may be backwards or forwards, and it may be structural or non-structural cohesive. With comparison, however, there is one further possibility: Comparative reference is created by the nominal and adverbial items; and the comparison done with reference to general features of identity, similarity and difference or certain aspects of quality and quantity Halliday, Table 8 explains this henceforward: Substitution refers to the process by which linguistic item is replaced by another while ellipsis is another form of substitution indicates zero replacement to the omitted item.
The two categories mainly share a common set of mechanisms, but ellipsis is a more complex one. It is differentiated from reference in being concerned with wording rather than meaning.
But the two devices interfere in many cases where a semantic component has a different interpretation from that of the grammatical one. In such case, we have to adopt the two depending on certain general conventions. Generally, substitution is a relation that occurs inside the text. It is a kind of strategy used to avoid repetition. As a general condition, the substitute item should have the same structural function Halliday and Hasan, As a textual cohesive category, substitution shares reference as a potential anaphoric and a text linking device.
But the two also posses a different feature in that reference is a non-verbal relation and has the priority of pointing at any direction. Since substitution is a grammatical category that depends on words resources rather than on semantics, three types of substitution categories are introduced based on the function of the substitute item: Hereunder, Table 9 explains the three types of substitution and reference: Residue] Is he at home?
Who is at home? Who will help us? Group verbal do nominal one 2. Normally, verbal substitution cross over the limits of sentence.
Words that are used to do so are so , and not. In clausal substitution the entire clause is presupposed and the contrasting element is outside the clause. For example: The common view of ellipsis is that it is something- unsaid but understood.
Understood in the sense that language does not function in isolation: A plethora of definitions are available to the concept of ellipsis. Biber et al.
It can occur at the beginning, middle, or end of an utterance. Cruse It happens when an utterance takes the form of an incomplete sentence, usually in a situation where a the missing parts are basic to the correct interpretation of the utterance and b the hearer can easily recover them.
Answers to questions are often elliptical. Another definition by Meyer It is similar to substitution except that involves deleting information recoverable from some prior context rather than replacing the information with a word like DO or SO.
From another point, substitution differs essentially from reference as a textual relation; it exists primarily as an anaphoric device, and in its rare exophoric. These points are summarized in the Table 10 below: Textual ellipsis is a way of avoiding unnecessary and redundant repetition of previous elements which are predictable and recoverable from the preceding co-text.
Situational ellipsis is the non-realization of lexical items which are understood from the situational context. Ellipsis happens to the syntactic and semantic components of discourse. Syntactic ellipsis is the non-expression of a word or phrase that is expected to occupy a place in the syntactic structure of a sentence.
It represents the default interpretation of the term ellipsis. These three types will be highlighted as follows: The common structure of the nominal group consists of a head with an optional modification. The modifying items may precede the head as pre-modifier or follow it as post modifier. This kind of ellipsis occurs within the verbal group. An elliptical verbal group presupposes one or more words from a previous verbal group.
Technically, it is defined as a verbal group whose structure does not fully express its systemic features - a1l the choices that are being made within the verbal group systems like positive vs. In verbal ellipsis, both operator ellipsis and lexical ellipsis involve ellipsis that is external to the verb itself, affecting other items in the structure of the clause. Therefore, this type of ellipsis look at these two types from another angle, taking the clause as the point of departure.
Conjunction is not an anaphoric relation and this what distinguishes it from other categories. Conjunctive items are not self-cohesive, but cohesiveness is attributed to their own senses. Nonetheless, Halliday and Matthiessen The cohesive system of conjunction as a complementary resource for creating and interpreting text.
It provides the resources for making logico-semantic relationships that obtain text spans of varying extent, ranging from clauses within clause complexes to long spans of a paragraph or more. Consequently, the role of cohesive conjunctives should not be overlooked in text interpretation. Halliday This presents a relationship between processes, a sequence of events that follow one another in time is an example of its simple pattern such as: In this level, the semantic links are between the debate phases not between phenomena of experience.
There are three subtypes of conjunctive items according to their functions that enable a text stretch to: The first function is elaboration, which is achieved by two categories a apposition and b clarification. Apposition is realized when an item is re-introduces or re- explained either by exposition or by example. The second sub-class is called extension and made either by a addition or b variation. They adopt a classification of four types of cohesive conjunction as: Henceforward, Figure 3 illustrates the English conjunction system: Other words such as nor, and or, are used as additive conjunctives.
Instances of this are: Semantic relations of this types are expressed by items such as so, thus, hence, therefore, consequently, accordingly, as a result of while to and by can express means-purpose and therefore can indicate ground-conclusion relations Yeh, The adversative form of conjunction is similar to its additive one in having the two levels of external and internal. A simple form of this cohesion is expressed by then.
Items that perform the same sequential role are next, after that, subsequently, and a group of other words. More specific temporal relations may be made by means of additional elements of meaning and time sequence. Examples of this are: Another definition by Yeh It serves to create cohesive bonds between two or more referring expressions by means of lexis. A lexical element in that anaphor makes a semantic connection to an item within the antecedent.
Moreover, Wu It establishes a cohesive effect when associations are made among items within and beyond confines sentence.
This connection may be of equivalent meaning relation or a contrastive or of co-occurrence. Halliday and Hasan introduce the taxonomy of lexical relations as mainly classified into Reiteration and Collocation.
In turn, Reiteration is divided into five types as Repetition, Synonymy, Superordinate , and general noun. Yet, Hasan recognizes that the chain-forming aspect of lexical cohesion, rather concentrating on individual ties. She is interested in finding out how cohesive means and ties combine to create more meaningful cohesion. She indicates that cohesive ties should be considered in combination with other ties, and not as isolated ones, and that the occurrence of cohesive devices and ties is best explained when this integration is taken into account.
This model was developed for the analysis of Narrative, and it is within this type of discourse that it seems to function most efficiently and some linguists see that it is inapplicable to non-narratiev texts Cited by Tanskanen, He adopted a taxonomy of three categories of repetition, synonymy and collocation.
Under Synonymy , a number of categories are presented such as superordinates, hyponymy, meronymy, co-hyponymy co- meronymy and antonymy. Contrary to Hasan, collocation is added to these categories and more elaboration given. Table CHAPTER TWO 40 This is not the only case, a lexical element coheres with a preceding occurrence of the same element whether or not the two have the same referent, or indeed whether or not there is any referential relationship between them.
Synonyms are two or more forms that have a very close meaning and are often, but not always used interchangeably in discourse. In this respect sameness is partial and sometimes we have an item which suits some sentence while its synonym does not Yule, In Halliday there are subclasses of synonyms such as Hyponymy indicating a relation of specific- general, or a part-whole relation called Meronymy as stated in Figure 4.
Hyponymy is a meaning relation that expresses hierarchical order of notions and class membership of concepts. Most of time, collocations are linked with a certain kind of register or a function as a variety of language. Collocation is an important device to provide connectedness to text segments. It is not limited to a couple of items, but it builds up lexical links of long cohesive chains within the whole text.
A collocation of longer cohesive chain is a stronger one in having more cohesive force because these long chains contribute to the expansion of the discourse topic.
It studies Dickens's stylistic features as configured in the style, rhetorical tropes, imagery, and choice of words that the novelist adopts in the novel. In addition, it examines the structure of Hard Times as being traced through some other types of non-linguistic cohesion which are structural cohesion , thematic cohesion, and social cohesion.
The second is tackled through the continuity of certain themes that are found throughout the novel. While the last section attempts to link Hard Times social themes to their relevant and real social issues that were old and contemporary parallel to the installments of the novel that was originally issued not as a whole book, but in serials as Dickens was writing at the spur of the moment responding to the happenings of his era.
Leavis Likewise, Hawes However, as a novelist Dickens has been viewed and studied from different perspectives by literary critics. They attribute his fictional style to a varied number of literary and artistic schools and affiliations and give him the identity of a realist, feminist, naturalist, and a satirist novelist. Also, they refer to his works as influenced by and having some touches of pantomime, fairy tales, drama, and of philanthropy. Dickens is seen as one of the antecedents of realism whose fiction mostly seems to be realistic.
Also, he is seen to have some kind of exaggeration or hyperrealism in his novels. His novels are realist in spite of being a point of debate. He was not content to challenge only few principles of the masculine behaviour, but he wanted to assault culture itself, or at least attacking that kind of culture which defines itself as male, adult, and public Schacht, Then again, McKnight Does Dickens rely on gender stereotypes?
Certainly, [D]oes he reveal the contradictions and dangerous tensions in these stereotypes? Absolutely, [D]oes he transcend the gender stereotypes? Almost always. Much of it explores what cannot be said or depicted in the Victorian society. The women of this fictional world specifically are bounded by their social positions. Gradgrind serves as an alternative to that masculine discourse.
The mother in Hard Times is comically depicted as an indecisive and trivial, represented as a person but as an object. Yet she is even not a satisfactory object. Gradgrind is three times represented as a faint transparency. Like Louisia and Mrs.
Gradgrind, Dickens must articulate his view of fancy Carr, While Cowles He is said to be one of the naturalist writers of his era Makati; Accordingly, an instance of this is a study of heredity in a family story.
They also deal with the dark side of life with absolute frankness such as their depiction of human sufferings, diseases, sexual affairs, filths and disease Williams, In which he assumes that the factors of heredity and social conditions form the minds of his characters.
These include Louisa and Tom whose father wants them to be good examples of him, but the social conditions defy this desire and lead to a failure of his Utilitarian philosophy. In contrast, Sissy Jupe inherits the fanciful manners of her father and resists the social circumstances in which she has been obliged to live. It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood, it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage.
It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It contained several large streets all very like one another, and many small streets still more like one another, inhabited by people equally like one another, who all went in and out at the same hours, with the same sound upon the same pavements, to do the same work, and to whom every day was the same as yesterday and to-morrow, and every year the counterpart of the last and the next.
As a satirist novelist, Dickens usually separates his satire to certain zones of life that are often romanticized Matz, Dickens uses all types of irony such as: Accordingly, Hard Times is one of his novels which is full of satire and irony from beginning to end in its different aspects of characterization, way of description, and setting system. In this novel, however, Dickens also shows himself as a great satirist. It is chiefly a satirical novel, and it shows in an abundant measurs his masterly use of irony, his awesome capability for sarcasm, and his great power of ridicule http: Hard Times ridicules utilitarianism, materialism and greed for money, class distinctions, conceit, hierocracy and trade unionism.
All these evils have been satirized in the person of Gradgrind, Bounderby, Mrs. Even the people of Coketown collectively have been satirized. The very opening of the novel is satirical. We are introduced to Gradgrind who is explaining his utilitarian theory of education to the new schoolmaster, and is emphasizing the supreme importance of facts, and only facts http: Also, the sad reality of the industrial town, Coketown, is ironically portrayed in the novel.
It is also clear in the final scenes in which the great employer, Bounderby, loses his honour through the revelation about his childhood Halima, In another aspect, Lodge Lodge justifies his view for some reasons such as: Never breathe a word of such destructive nonsense any more. Bounderby, this is a case for rigid training, and I shall observe it with interest. Lousia and Tom are the same figures of pair of brothers that appear in the fairy tale.
Bounderby is a giant in a castle; Stephen is like that boastful soldier or comic figure. Lousia becomes a princess threatened with enchantment by bad witch Mrs. Sparsit willing to see Louisa descend at the bottom of the staircase.
Tom is a thieving knave, and Harthouse is a demon king invariably wreathed in smoke Lodge, Smoking his cigar in his own easy way, and looking pleasantly at the whelp, as if he knew himself to be a king of agreeable demon who had only to hover him, and he must give up his whole soul if required. Hard Times is a novel which exhibits a flurry number of metaphoric and metonymic tropes.
Accordingly, this third mode is ironic in a certain kind of way having suitable language to the operation of machines to the behavior of human beings. One of the most obvious tropes that Dickens uses in Hard Times is repetition, throughout the novel , he utilizes this device to stress certain ideas or images. Dickens prefers to repeat some words and statements for rhetorical effect Hyaland, cited by Halima, Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts.
Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else, and root out everything else. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts: This is the prin-ciple on which I bring up my own children, and this is the principle on which I bring up these children. Stick to Facts, sir! As it is in the way Mr. Gradgrind depicted; such details come throughout: A man of realities. A man of facts and calculations.
A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and two are four, and nothing over, and who is not to be talked into allowing for anything over. Thomas Gradgrind, sir - peremptorily Thomas — Thomas Gradgrind. With a rule and a pair of scales, and the multiplication table always in his pocket, sir, ready to weigh and measure any parcel of hu-mannature, and tell you exactly what it comes to.
It is a mere question of figures, a case of simple arithmetic. You might hope to get some other nonsensical belief into the head of George Gradgrind, or 1 Emphasis is added by the researcher. Dickens utilizes this device to portray his characters and his fictional places in the novel.
His representation of Coketown stands as an instance of the use of simile: In all these devices, Dickens attempts to reveal the bleak reality of this industrial town and uncover the true reality of the industrial philosophies Halima, Gradgrind is also a colourless character who is entirely opposed to the blackness of Mrs. Sparsit, while Mr. Gradgrind is a modulation between the stark black and white.
Stephen carries the white and black colour schemes of the tentative title, his blackness reflects an inescapable suffering in his life and whiteness may refer to his paleness. Sissy is linked with brightness, whereas Bounderby is mainly black. In contrast, Louisa and Harthouse are associated with light instead of colour Al-Malky, Gradgrind at the circus at the beginning of the novel, when he has been taunting Sissy, foreshadows his run-in with Mr.
Gradgrind at the circus at the end of the novel, when Tom is fleeing the country Sparks Notes, Yet, It is observed that he rarely uses this trope. One of these few instances may be in the description of Mr. Gradgrind bald and square head which is filled of facts. Respectively, metaphor can play a decisive role in structuring novels and that, consequently, the inclusion of imagery into narrative. Hard Times imageries are not flurry, but they fulfill the demands of the thematic scheme of the novel.
Most of these images are linked to the physical depiction of the events, while others are relevant to certain characters. In addition, there are many other imageries such as rain, star, rope etc.
In fact, imageries function cohesively within the novel by having more than one reference and by being private to certain characters and events. As cited below, we see the writer mentions the Fire imagery in three different parts of the novel. Here, We see the novelist uses this imagery throughout his novel from beginning to end. It made me think, after all, how short my life would be, and how little I could hope to do in it. Her brother glanced at her face with greater interest than usual, and, encircling her waist with his arm, drew her coaxingly to him.
How much of the future might arise before her vision? It rests with you and me, whether, in our two fields of action, similar things shall be or not. Let them be! We shall sit with lighter bosoms on the hearth, to see the ashes of our fires turn gray and cold. James Harthouse. Then, he asserts that mathematical and mechanical imagery plays a crucial role in Hard Times. Yet, this significance is attributed to the treatment of Utilitarianism as a basic theme in the novel.
Dickens uses images to suggest unused powers that are related to fire and water. The image of a short robe that all characters were tied by is also a pervasive one in playing a large part in the novel. By that robe Louisa and Tom were tied to material life. In view of that, Ingham The importance of linking Louisa through the fire trope with illicit sexuality depends on the anomalous fact that it is managed without compromising her womanly status.
Her loveless marriage, her half seduction and her desertion of her husband are overwritten by the natural imagery of sowing seed and reaping a harvest. For instance, in the final part of the novel, we may smell the polluted air of the coal chimneys as Rachael and Sissy pass the fields looking for Stephen: They walked on across the fields and down the shady lanes, sometimes getting over a fragment of a fence so rotten that it dropped at a touch of the foot, sometimes passing near a wreck of bricks and beams overgrown with grass, marking the site of deserted works.
They followed paths and tracks, however slight. Mounds where the grass was rank and high, and where brambles, dock- weed, and such-like vegetation, were confusedly heaped together, they always avoided; for dismal stories were told in that country of the old pits hidden beneath such indications. River is depicted as the lowest, most abandoned elements, decaying houses, a scene of poverty, filth and crime, odious and discolored with industrial waste. It was only rain, beginning to fall fast, in heavy drops.
Likewise, Levy adds that time has an important level in Coketown. This is the time watched in Mr. The sameness of Coketown space assures sameness of time. Commenting on the metaphoric use of time in Hard Times, Bodenheimer In contrast with city, country is depicted as a source of relief in Hard Times.
Sissy and Rachael begin their walk of a Sunday afternoon in the fields. Heaps of coal blot the landscape here and there, but it was largely green and trees that were visible, while, even though it was Sunday, larks were singingin the pleasantly scented air—Dickens the satirist unable to avoid Schilling, The diction that he uses, gave the novel its unique and complex identity of interpretation.
Dickens choices of language are not randomly presented, but preplanned and intended. Watkin Some of these possible titles included: These are: Hard Times is full of unique and unforgettable names of both persons and places. These are skillfully chosen to suit the novel thematic structure. Evidently, Dickens fiction is enhanced by its references to the biblical ideas, words, phrases, and episodes got embedded early, and stuck.
As did words and phrases from the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, especially from the great rites-of-passage services for marriage and burial. In this respect, Cunningham Dickens is, of course, a Christian writer. A very English, Protestant, and Anglican-inflected one. He is steeped, as most Victorian writers were, in the knowledge, the words, the stories, the rhetoric, the practices of the national religion, but to a quite outstanding degree.
His parents, worldly theater-lovers, notoriously did not go much to church, but he, it would seem, could hardly stay away. Wherever he was, in London, in Europe, in America, he was drawn to Christian assemblies. Yet, Ingham presumes that pronunciation and syntax of some words or idioms in Hard Times are not standard English, particularly those uttered by the labours and the meanings of these words are taken from their industrial context.
I need 't over much. I were married on Eas'r Monday nineteen year sin, long and dree. She were a young lass - pretty enow - wi' good accounts of herseln. She went bad - soon. Not along of me.
Sleary, who was troubled with asthma, and whose breath came far too thick and heavy for the letter s, 'Your thervant!
Thith ith a bad piethe of bithnith, thith ith. You've heard of my Clown and hith dog being thuppothed to have morrithed? At that era, there were already stylized markers of dialect in use.
For instance, certain spellings indicating non-standard forms were already familiar. For Cockney speech, there were vfor w , wfor v , and loss of the initial aspirate h-. Spellings like hoonger hunger and love love indicated the usual north- country pronunciation.
We feel doubtful of sweet or noble expressions of melancholy or elevating deathbed scenes, though such feelings and such scenes were grounded in fact. This is apparent in Mrs.
Philpotts Yet, Carter Humphreys Then, he shifted from stories of identity towards the wider screen of social novel including Hard Times in which the adultery plot was his serviceable tool which helped him to do so by questioning the relations between individual and the forces of historical transformation Schor, However, Gallagher Though the major plot in Hard Times is the adulterous love story between the protagonist Lousia Gradgrind and her lover James Harthouse.
This story almost ended Mr. While the discovery of Mrs. Pegler revealed to the public the fake persona of Mr. Gradgrind as a self-made man and led the flattering woman Mrs.
Jupe is dead and she will no more wait his coming. While in another view by Bodenheimer He plays with Mrs. We see that the solution of each one leads to solution or progress on the other. Accordingly, this reflects how these plots are linked to each other throughout the novel. Yet, Pykett Parrinder Many of his most famous satirical creations gleefully debunk the professional classes and holders of minor public office—beadles, midwives, lawyers, clerks, schoolteachers, and ministers of religion—and figures such as Bumble, Gradgrind, and Squeers have become proverbial monsters outliving the fictional contexts in which they first appeared.
Smiley While Booden Nonetheless, Matz All characters in the novel are either capable of sympathy with others or incapable of sympathy, with two exceptions: Bounderby shows his unsympaty in many occasions as ignoring his workers troubles and his wife unhappiness. The former shows a radical change in his views at the final part of the novel and the latter devotes herself to the humanitarian work https: McLucas admits that: The characters in Hard Time have both the simplistic characteristics of a character developed for allegorical purposes, as well as the intricate qualities of "real" people.
These characters think and feel like we do and react to their situations in the same way that most of us would. These attributes are what give the characters life and allow us to relate to their decisions. Lodge In the narrative members of these clusters brought in contact with each other, and occasionally shift from one cluster to another thus, Louisa and Tom move from 1 to 2, Sissy from 4 to 1, and Mrs. Pegler from 3 to 2 in ways which produce enigma and suspense and at the same time explain in moral terms certain ideas about culture and society which are explicitly formulated by the authorial voice.
In Hard Times, Dickens places villains, heroes, heroines, and bystanders who are representative of his times. Even though many of these characters have names which indicate their personalities or philosophies, they are not caricatures but people endowed with both good and bad human qualities.
Shaped by both internal and external forces, they are like Shakespeare's characters — living, breathing beings, who love, hate, sin, and repent. From another perspective, Shaw Louisa is a figure of poetic tragedy; and there is no question of naturalness in her case. She speaks from beginning to end as a prophetess, conscious of her own dream and finally bearing to her father the judgment of Providence on his blind conceit. I am quite sure that you can mitigate in no otherway the wrong and harm you have done.
I am quite sure that it is the only compensation you have left it in your power to make. I do not say that it is much, or that it is enough; but it is something, and it is neces-sary.
Therefore, though without any other authority than I have given you, and even without the knowledge of any other person than yourself and myself, I ask you to depart from this place to-night, under an obliga-tion never to return to it.
Sparsit Al- Maliky, Hereunder, is Figure 5 showing the distribution of Hard Times major characters throughout the novel. Major Charcters Book I: Sowing Book II: Reaping Book III: Gradgrind Mrs. Gradgrind Mr. Sparsit Mr. Harthouse Mrs. Yet, Fludernick By making moral beliefs about the characters, the narrator forms our understandings of the novel. His tone fluctuates radically, but it is repeatedly ironic, scornful, and even satirical, especially when he describes Bounderby, Harthouse, and Mrs.
When describing Stephen and Rachael, his tone is pathetic, evoking sympathy. The narrative is presented in the past tense; though, at the end, the narrator shows what the future will bring to each of the main characters http: The Polyphonic representation refers to the co-presence of independent but interconnected voices.
In view of that, Fowler Then the novel has a large number of varied characters and groups of characters of very diverse social origins and memberships, presenting forward many and conflicting viewpoints.
But polyphonic structure is by no means limited to these circus performers: Moreover, Fowler goes on to explain the vital role that the language of characters and their speech style play to the dialogic structure of the novel via encoding their world-views as dialectical alternatives to the world- view of the author and that of the other characters Fowler, Consequently, different worldviews and meanings thread themselves through the novel by using an omniscient narrative voice who controls and links the events due to the requirements of the story development.
Hence, many cuts and stoppages are here and there, but finally we understand the reasons behind these as soon as the story ends up and all these varied voices are all relevant to the main plot. The chapters are distributed as: Hyland The running headlines of the novel in its two forms: Forester Hard Times reads admirably in a volume. The divisions into three parts, headed respectively Sowing—Reaping—Garnering, and the prefixing of a title to each chapter, help to give additional sharpness to the outline of the story, and to make its purpose, and the closeness with which it is followed, more distinct to every reader.
A new sense of its design and beauty in its various particulars is awakened by the reading of it as a whole. In terms of textual format, Hard Times in its one-volume form consists of three books and 37chapters. It is also apparent to the reader, the three books subtitles: Sowing, Reaping, and Garnering that collocates with each other and have a significant role in the thematic mapping of the novel since these three have unbalanced number of chapters which clearly and strongly reflects the sowing of too much ideas within sixteen chapters devoted to this long process , reaping the outcome of that sowing which fewer than what has been sowed in only twelfth chapters, the results gained in a shorter time and less gains , moreover, the garnered is also less fewer than the reaped outcomes only nine chapters are devoted to the process of storing that long-worked-on facts.
The following figure shows Hard Times chapters distribution. Below, Table 12 exhibits these divisions: As discussed in section 3. Besides, the appearance of an old woman also represents a good suspense elements who is later revealed to the reader as Mrs. It is a thought or idea the author presents to the reader that may be deep, difficult to understand, or even moralistic. Generally, a theme has to be extracted as the reader explores the passages of a work. The author utilizes the characters, plot, and other literary devices to assist the reader in this endeavor http: However, themes are known by lexemes, ideas, and titles of chapters, and they are identifiable as something about which the character s or another seems to have much to say Watkin, He is well-known for his treatment of the social ills of his industrial society to which he has devoted a lot of his thematic issues.
However, Hard Times is one of these social novels which severely attack the Utilitarianism system in its different aspects. But also there are three Utopian elements that gave Hard Times this identity: Yet, The third reason for the failure of utopia is central to the novel Toker, Dickens depicts in his novels a conflict between the individuals and society, and this offers a harsh criticism towards the 19th century social structure Makati, Hard Times is mainly structured on the three themes: Essentially, Hard Times is based on the thematic opposition of fancy and fact.
Firstly, in the cases of both Sissy and the trade union scenes, Dickens makes use of these two epistemological categories to propose the difficult moments of perception where they coincide. Secondly, he uses this opposition to set up a figure of reversal that is vital to the complexity of Hard Times as a novel Cited by Al- Maliky, In doing so, we will encounter a variety of themes that serve each of the above mentioned points.
Nevertheless, Tain He seeks out poor artisans, mountebanks, a founding, and crushes beneath their common sense, generosity, delicacy, courage, and sweetness, the false science, false happiness, and false virtue of the rich and powerful who despise them. Humpherys In terms of the human behaviour, all people should act to avoid pain and seek pleasure via self- interest.
Utilitarianism also argued for laissez-faire1 in government, based on the belief that the economic system was naturally balanced and any intervention by government to address perceived ills would result in greater harm by throwing that equilibrium off balance.
Marriage and divorce are linked to the industrial and education themes in Hard Times through both Stephen and Louisa, even as the industrial and education themes are linked symbolically by the friendship of Gradgrind and Bounderby.
The phraselaissez-faire is French and literally means "let [them] do," but it broadly implies "let it be," "let them do as they will," or "leave it alone. On the same line, she is throwing herself into an adulterous love relation with James Harthouse because of her loveless marriage to the banker Bounderby.
In doing so she is betraying her husband and committing an adulterous and illegal relation. To conclude, themes in Hard Times are built on cohesive grounds in relation to the development of its varied plots. The presentation of these themes in a scattered method comes as a result to serve the continuity of the novel general and private purposes. Some of these themes appear at the beginning and remain to the climax and fall of the action, while other themes appear only for one occasion.
At the opening of Hard Times, the thematic focus is on Education. The novel opens in a schoolroom in which Mr. The whole novel pivots around the antithesis between factual people and fanciful people.
However, this theme appears many time in the last episodes of the novel when Mr. Gradgrind begs Bitzer to allow his son Tom to flee from justice. Bitzer reminds Mr. Gradgrind about the way he taught them about factual thinking and self-interest. This unhappy marriage collapses soon when she meets the young and smart Mr.
Harthouse with whom she plan to elope, but she resists that seduction and resorts to her father. Crime is another important theme in Hard Times, which plays an effective role to the story plot. This theme is presented in the middle of the story and is linked to the final episodes, the discovery of Stephen Blackpool, and the uncover of the true thieve of the bank.
Death is also present in Hard Times as a theme, we have four death scenes in the novel.
The first is Mrs. Gradgrinds death in her house dying in her emotionless family and the only person feeling her pains was Sissy Jupe. Social Cohesion In the previous section, we tackled Hard Times thematic cohesion. Here, we will study its social cohesion with the social context within which it has been brought to existence. Industrialism is the most dominant ideology of the Victorian era, hence Hard Times is referred to as an industrial novel. The meaning and significance of writing can only begin to be understood in relation to its cultural environment.
Likewise, McQuillan In a letter to his influential friend and the person to whom Hard Times is dedicated, Dickens writes to Thomas Carlyle on July14, about his composition of the novel: I have constructed it patiently, with a view of its publication altogether in a compact cheap form. It contains what I do devoutly hope will shake some people in a terrible mistake of these days, when so presented. I know it contains nothing in which you do not think with me, for no man knows your books better than I.
I want to put in the first page of it, that it is inscribed to Thomas Carlyle. May I? Hereunder, two photocopy images are presented. The first is Household Words No. Household Words, IX, Jun. He is a hard-worked hand who is fired due to his own rejection to join the Union of weavers because he has his own opinion in this respect. That happened in spite of his beloved Rachael encourages him to do so, but he does not. Slackbridge is one of the strike leaders that Dickens have seen in Preston.
He is a good orator who urges labours to strike against their masters. Likely, Coketown is an accurate portrait of the Victorian industrial towns. Readers of Dickens links the city either to Manchester to Preston.
As shown in the previous two images of the Household Words issues on which the article appears as well as Hard Times. In addition, Brown In another point, Parrinder While, Bradbury Dickens had a reputation as a reformer. He has contributed to the reforms of education, public health, and criminal law that helped to make Britain a safer society.
He was also famous as a critic of the existing structures of power, politicians and other office-holders Cunningham, Yet, Schramm Similarly, Makati He sympathised with the deprived in society such as the poor, women and children.
Dickens was also enthusiastically concerned in charities which sponsored schools for the poor and also reformation organizations for prostitutes. His essay writing and the delivery of speeches also acted as vehicles for social change. These are like: However, many critics assert that Hard Times represents many actual events that coincided its writing time. Bradley Relevantly, Johnson Likewise, Schor Dickens does not move the setting of the novel to even a slightly different period from the one in which he is writing.
But critics are in debate about his description of the third one. It is argued that Dickens did not understand Utilitarianism, and that Gradgrind philosophy misrepresents the philosophical position of Jeremy Bentham3. In defense of Dickens it could be said that even if his understanding of Utilitarian philosophy was incomplete, he nevertheless had a shrewd understanding of the Utilitarian temperaments illustrated by his creation of Mr.
And in this nation, there are fifty millions of money. But that had nothing to do with it. Dickens was also an anti-capitalist novelist who condemns all its merciless principles.
Makati Dickens like German socialist Karl Marx also criticized capitalism for its oppression of the poor. Bayley chooses Hard Times as a typical novel to study the relations between mathematics and literature in the 19th century. This includes the establishment of three new British statistical associations: In his article published in the Household Words on March 25, , Dickens writes about the need for the judiciary to raise good relations between the social classes.
In Hard Times this view is reflected in the episodes involving encounter between Stephen Balckpool and Bounderby, and between Sissy and Mr. Gradgrind Al-Maliky, It is evident that the English society was very patriarchal and strongly confined women to domesticity. Women were also expected to uphold virtue and purity and if they lost both, they were despised and not tolerated at all by society. Although Dickens creates both the Victorian stereotypical woman and the antitypical women who comprise of the prostitutes, those who bear children out of wedlock and the larger than life characters like Mrs.
Joe Gargery and Molly in Great Expectations, he is revealing the different types of women one can find in society Makati, But matrimonial issues are an integral thread in the novel, and linked in their symbolic reference to procreation with its three major parts: Divorce at the time Dickens was writing Hard Times was difficult to achieve.
Based on the above discussed social happenings and themes, we may bring these all together as shown below in Table Hereunder, we may notice how most of Hard Times themes have parallel contemporary social events which are either related to the general social and state atmospheres or to the novelist Charles Dickens himself. Besides, the novel is highly cohesive in terms of its themes and imageries which operate in its close and far discourse parts to provide connection wherever it is needed.
Furthermore, the novel social connections are significant in helping the novelist to create his textual contexts appropriate for his discourse requirements Table Here, cohesion is investigated in terms of the proposed model for this study introduced by Hallidy and Hasan Cohesion in English. Besides, the study adopts their later views about the concept and taxonomy of cohesion which provides five cohesive categories for analyzing texts as: Furthermore, the sub-categories of these devices are analysed and exhibited.
Consequently, this side of the thesis displays the methodology of data selection and analysis and the obtained results and their discussions. This includes procedures of data management and data analysis with illustrated tables and figures. In order to accomplish the announced objectives of the study, data assortment procedures have been carried out in line with its demands and limitations. This includes sorting out the text cohesive items according to their types, number of ties, distances, and the presupposed items.
Part One: However, these three parts are not limited to the original divisions of the novel in its one-volume format, but extends over them. The first part spreads over book one and book two, while part two extends from book the second to the third book and part three covers the third book only.
The text sentences are numbered thoroughly from the first sentence in Part One to sentence number in Part Three. The second step is conducted by surveying the whole text and selecting a set of thirty extracts from the novel flow of discourse which all created a reliable sample to the original text to be analysed as shown in Table However, this is not a haphazard decision, but after a consultation received from Professor Emeritus Dr. Ruqaiya Hasan, the co-author of the present study model.
She has been asked about the best method via which Hard Times should be analysed in terms of cohesion and she said that: I am delighted to hear that you are embarking on this project…. I am wondering though, because clearly you cannot do the whole book, so you will have to create a reliable sample so I am wondering how you might create that sample which will actually be analysed from the perspective of cohesion.
Hasan, personal communication, December 5, Table Part Two: Part Three: Here, the analysis exhibits that the total number of the utilised cohesive ties is ties. It is found that the grammatical categories occupies the highest percentage of P1CTC. They share approximately ties signifying about The conjunctive devices accounts an amount of about ties which represents a percentage of While the lexical cohesion categories share about ties and stand for However, Table 15 below summarizes these results: Also, the analysis examines the density and distribution of the cohesive categories in each of the selected extracts in order to measure their relevance to some of the structural elements of the text.
hard times by charles dickens
A detailed account of these is presented hereunder in Table Total No. In all instances, reference and lexical cohesion have the highest dominant ratios. As illustrated above, reference scores the highest percent by ties; In addition, the other three categories have marked as: Below, Figure 6 explains this distribution within Part One extracts: The Distribution of the Cohesive Categories in Part One Next, the analysis proceeds to inspect this part density of texture of the text by finding ties categories distances.
Accordingly, it has been found that this part has a high density of cohesive ties in which immediate, mediated and remote mediated distances dominate in contrast the other types. In contrast, remote and cataphoric categories mark low percentages as ties; Figure 7 hereafter explains areas of ties intensity within this part: The Density of Texture in Part One 4.
As the statistics indicate, cohesive reference items signify a total of ties with an average of More specifically, anaphoric reference is the most dominant type in comparison with the cataphoric. The analysis shows that there are anaphoric ties of Furthermore, the writer makes use of all the three kinds of cohesive reference, but he uses them with great divergence in terms of their density and distribution in this part of the text discourse. Most of the employed reference items are of the personal type.
They compose about The second high average of the reference items is that of the demonstrative class in being of Gradgrind's request, Louisa dutifully marries his older friend, Mr.
Josiah Bounderby, who is a blustering manufacturer in Coketown. She agrees to marry Bounderby not because she loves him, but because she thinks it will help her brother Tom, who is apprenticed to Mr. Tom is the only person she cares for and, knowing this, Tom wheedles her into the marriage. Now both Louisa and Tom live with Mr. Bounderby, and Sissy stays back with Mr. Gradgrind and Jane, the youngest Gradgrind.
Bounderby's factory workers, also called "Hands," do not live happy lives under his rule. One factory worker by the name of Stephen Blackpool is daily worn out by his work at the factory, but what plagues him more is his unhappy marriage, for his wife has become a hideous drunk. He wishes to free himself from her and marry Rachael, a sweet, gentle woman in the village, but he cannot because of the ties of marriage.
After he asks Bounderby for help on the matter, Mr. Bounderby informs him that he might be able to get out of the marriage if he had enough money to pay for a lawyer, but as he doesn't the cause is hopeless. As he resignedly leaves Mr. Bounderby's home, he runs into an old woman, who for some reason is very interested to hear any news about Mr.
Bounderby and his successes. Tom is now a dissolute, lazy young man, very much in debt and inclined to a sulky attitude in front of everyone. His, Louisa's, and Mr. Bounderby's lives are somewhat enlivened by the arrival of a Mr. James Harthouse from London.
Harthouse is a wealthy, pleasing young gentleman who is bored out of his mind and has come to work for Mr.
Bounderby in hope of finding something entertaining. He quickly becomes very interested in Louisa, for he sees that a strong fire burns under the cold, impassive mask of a face she wears. Noticing that she softens and shows emotion only towards Tom, Harthouse sets about seducing her by pretending to be Tom's good friend. Sparsit, an old widow who used to live with Mr.
Bounderby before he married Louisa and was then unceremoniously kicked out, watches the progression of his seduction of Louisa with glee. Bounderby's factory workers, restless with their bad lot and stirred on by the fiery words of a sleazy union orator named Slackbridge, decide to form a union.
Stephen, present at the rowdy meeting at which they come to this decision, tells them that he cannot join because of a promise he has made to someone. The entire town then decides to shun him as a result of his decision. Bounderby brings Stephen in for questioning, but fires him when he won't reveal anything about the union. Louisa and Tom visit Stephen to give him some money before he leaves town in search of a new job, and before they leave, Tom secretly tells Stephen to hang around the bank the few nights before he leaves town…there might be something good in it for Stephen.
Stephen does so, but nothing happens. Soon after that, the bank is robbed, and as a result of his suspicious activity, Stephen is the main suspect. By a coincidence of events, Louisa is left alone at home one night while her husband is out of town, and Harthouse finds her, passionately declares his love for her, and begs her to elope with him.
Louisa tells him that she will meet him somewhere later that night. Sparsit, hiding in the vegetation near to where those two are standing, hears all this with a vengeful delight and follows Louisa when she leaves the house, but then loses her track.
She hastily runs to tell Mr. Bounderby that his wife has all but eloped with Mr. Louisa, in the meantime, has actually gone to her father's house and is at her wits' end.Most of time, collocations are linked with a certain kind of register or a function as a variety of language.
Thematic Topic Ref. Bounderby attempts to show his affection for his bride-to-be by showering her with jewels and fine clothes, but she remains impassive. This begins in almost three parts of her roles in first part of the novel. Strictly speaking, the two concepts are not synonymous, but they are closely related and for Dickens they came to the same thing in the end. For instance, at the beginning of Chapter 11 , the narrator describes the awakening of the Coketown factories: The Fairy palaces burst into illumination before pale morning showed the monstrous serpents of smoke trailing themselves over Coketown.
Drunk and angry at his wife, Michael sells his wife and baby to a sailor during an auction at a co She seems to feel that something is missing from her life, but when she wonders what it might be, Mrs. Yet, Schramm
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