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In this sense, specialists and Mexico. In Chapter 4, Nezahualcoyotl Xiuhtecutli examines non-specialists alike can both be producers and consumers the importance of narratives of migration in building and of archaeological knowledge. Thus, a complex dialectic maintaining Mesoamerican communities past and present.

Later in Chapter of archaeological knowledge production and patterns of 12, Geoffrey McCafferty returns to this issue, examining consumption among the various stakeholders—specialist how archaeological interpretation influences and is influ- and non-specialist—that ultimately influence not just how enced by migration narratives that have been integral to the ancient cultures are perceived, but how the archaeological construction of shared heritage in Nicaragua.

It is interest- past was, is, and potentially may be used in modern social, ing to compare these cases to the historiography presented cultural, economic, and political contexts. Mexico has been at the lized by them to produce their own hi stories Ardren , forefront of the development of the ethnographic study of ; Holtorf ; Joyce ; Meskell ; Morehart archaeology, analyzing the positions of researchers, descen- ; Wylie This study authors of these four chapters utilize ethnographic and shows how a transculturated figure related to an Aztec deity ethnohistorical approaches to analyze the relationship and sacred place is, over time, adopted by community mem- between Mesoamerican traditions and collective identity at bers as a sacred ancestor, a symbol of unity used to mobilize the local level, which in many ways is more tangible in a resistance to outside forces threatening local identity.

This reminds us that educators, parents, and children the ancient game, this essay focuses on how understanding are consumers of archaeological and cultural narratives of and playing the game reifies ethnic identity in the context the ancient past, but also producers who pass on percep- of labor migration outside of Oaxaca.

Only very recently tions to subsequent generations. Again, indigeneity comes The Production and Consumption of Archaeological Legacies in Mexico 5 to the foreground in this chapter as differential perceptions another external mode of heritage construction into dia- of descent affect how Yucatec children perceive their rela- logue and conflict with local perceptions and management, tionship to Maya archaeological resources. The proximity though not completely obscuring it, as seen in Cancun.

Fash With the growth of heritage-tourism, in ume to Section IV, in which three chapters engage with contrast to beach-tourism, archaeological sites are touted as the Role of Archaeological Practice in the Construction of economic resources with broad potential impact.

Anthropo- Heritage and Cultural Patrimony; each examining how col- logical interest in tourism and heritage has generated criti- laboration and conflict with the producers of the past affect cal ethnographic and sociological analyses of the multiple public perceptions of that past. When sites are restored ing the archaeological record Gamio ; Redfield ; and restructured for tourism in their dual roles as both Sullivan In Chapter 8, Marcie Venter and Sarah Lyon tle these power inequalities through collaboration and address the politics of Mesoamerican heritage in the co-management with various publics in the process of growing tourism industry of the Tuxtla Mountains of archaeological knowledge production Ardren ; Derry Veracruz.

Here historical narratives are multivocal and, and Malloy ; Little ; Marshall ; McAnany at times conflicting, as a result of the various motivations et al.

The authors compare and contrast the process promotes accessibility and multivocality, moving approaches to representing heritage of professional archae- from critical theory to practice Little ; McGhee ologists, municipal government, and private entrepreneurs Anderson face current challenges such as sustainable development The final chapter of this section by Geoffrey McCaf- Sabloff ; cf.

Little There are several points of in- Geurds ; Magnoni et al. In Chapter 10, J. An- public archaeology.

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Camzed frei chatten kostenlos chatten als Gast chatten ohne Anmeldung Chatten per Webcam ohne Anmeldung, Benutzung der Cam ist selbstredend freigestellt und kein Muss. Wir hoffen, dass Dir unser Beitrag gefallen hat! Fruits of domesticated peppers remain firmly attached to the plant. Mature wild chile pepper fruits are consumed and effectively dispersed by a variety of frugivorous Neotropical birds. Domesticated peppers are either too large, or are not attractive to nor dispersed by most Neotropical birds.

Different SMs may mediate seed dispersal in wild chiles, but carotenoids in the fruit pulp probably are likely the most important due to bird attraction by their red color. The pyrazine fragrances of chile peppers may also serve to attract certain birds. Loss of Seed Dormancy Most wild chile pepper seeds have staggered seed dormancy, which allows germination and recruitment when optimal conditions occur in a more variable and uncertain environment. Domesticated chiles do not exhibit any seed dormancy Pickersgill, Therefore, domesticated chiles would likely have poor recruitment, survival and fitness if placed in most naturally wild environments.

Seed dormancy in most wild Capsicum species is mediated by SMs such as ABA, a plant regulator that inhibits seed germination Marrush et al. Wild chile pepper seeds with thick lignified testas become increasingly impermeable to water on drying.

This feature is disadvantageous for—if not absent from—most domesticated crop seeds, not only because these seeds germinate slowly, but also because they may require prolonged soaking to remove inhibitors from the seed coat Randle and Honma, ; Pickersgill, ; Carlo and Tewksbury, Therefore, domesticated chile peppers generally have thinner testae than their wild progenitors.

Changes in Organ Size and Quantity As part of the domestication syndrome, changes in secondary metabolite content may be correlated with other physical and chemical traits, such as nutrient content, size, or biomass Chen et al. Compared to most domesticated landraces, wild Capsicum species exhibit smaller leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, but a larger number of these organs per plant Pickersgill, These characteristics—such small but numerous leaves and seeds—confer adaptability, stress reduction, survivability, and bet-hedging strategies to wild chile peppers for the production and dispersal of their seeds in Neotropical habitats Tewksbury et al.

Increased Morphological Variation According to Chen et al.

This factor also is especially marked in the parts of the chile pepper plant used by Mesoamerican cultures. While domesticated chile peppers vary greatly in fruit size and shape, and to a lesser extent in color, wild C.

In certain coastal Neotropical habitats, chile pepper fruits are selected for particular colors and shapes, said to be the best for seasoning turtle meat, while others, of different color and shape, are known as perfume peppers because they have a fragrant aroma as well as pungency.

All SMs in Capsicum species, including carotenoids, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, and ascorbic acid, are to some extent, linked with these morphological traits. Boster has deftly summarized the many references documenting the pronounced differences in morphology between wild and domesticated peppers.

Changes in Plant Habit Related to Resource Partitioning Selection for increased harvest index ratio of harvested to total biomass produced per plant may result in reduced or suppressed lateral branching Pickersgill, Reduced number of inflorescences per plant and producing more synchronous fruit ripening on an individual plant and within a stand, facilitating harvesting of the stand as a whole. Fewer nodes and shorter internodes, greater synchronization of maturation of vegetative branches and fruit ripening is also favored by a determinate habit.

Changes in Reproduction In Capsicum species, floral phenology and pollination, as well as fruit and seed development are influenced by different SMs. For example, carotenoid and flavonoid derivatives are secondary metabolites in the flower that attract pollinators.

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Similarly, fruit and seed dispersal are mediated by SMs which serve to attract seed dispersers. Simultaneously, fruit and seed protection is mediated by particular SMs capsaicinoids and phenolics that repel predators of fruits and seeds. Wild C. Flower initiation is late, but once initiated is persistent and very prolific, with overlapping stages of flower and fruit development over the season.

Fully domesticated C. Most of the fully domesticated chile pepper land races exhibit determinate growth under cultivation, with more rapid onset of flower initiation, fruit development and ripening. For such reasons, fruit and seed production of fully domesticated chile landraces would be almost impossible under natural wild environments in the Neotropics.

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Loss of Chemical or Physical Protection Against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses Many other domesticated crops have partially or completely lost the SMs that protect their wild relatives against predators herbivores, plant pests and pathogens , and abiotic stresses drought, salinity, heat, frost, daming radiation, etc. However, this trend does not necessarily hold true for most domesticated C. Capsaicinoids and other SMs are synthesized in the placental tissue of domesticated chile fruits after flowering as part of fruit development.

In other words, in domesticated chiles, SMs may play a small role in chemical defense of plant tissues before fruit and seed development Meyer et al. Protection of wild chile pepper fruits in populations against predators is mostly conferred by capsaicinoids, although flavonoids and phenolics may also play protective roles against predators. Where they lack nurse plant protection in Mesomerican milpas, domesticated chile peppers must rely on farmers themselves to evict or to reduce the damage potentially wreaked by mammalian predators and browsers Pickersgill, ; Gepts, ; Padilha and Barbieri, With regard to protection against abiotic stresses, wild chile pepper plants employ SMs such as flavonoids, phenolics and vitamin C for protection against drought, heat and daming radiation.

In particular, carotenoid derivatives confer protection against plant cell oxidative reactions caused by lethal radiation, such as direct sunlight and UV light Wahyuni et al. The hottest chile peppers belong to C.

Domesticated landraces of C. Agroecological Context of Milpa Cultivation as a Selective Pressure Lack of both seed dormancy and a facultatively perennial plant habit probably enabled the shift from avian dispersal of fruits under nurse plant canopies in the wild to open cultivation of annual plants with non-dormant seeds in milpa agro-ecosystems.

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The loss of ecological interactions with birds and nurse plants due to intentional seed-saving and dispersal by humans must have generated incidental changes in SMs. Shifting the patterns of SMs through such selection could explain, in part, the emergence of new chemotypes, genotypes and morphotype landraces under cultivation in milpas within the Neotropics.

The Mesoamerican milpa agroecosystem may have gradually replaced the nurse plants in agroforestry systems during the early domestication of C.

Curiously, this is roughly the time period when a new meme —a chile-processing technology and associated culinary techniques—first became evident in the prehistoric cultures of south-central Mexico.

This technology was called mollicaxtli in Nahuatl now molcajete today in Spanish, and consists of a round three-legged, grinding bowl and pestle for crushing dried spices, made out of fired clay or volcanic stone Vela, The molcajete's sudden emergence and wide diffusion suggests that domesticated chile pepper were not merely being eaten fresh, but surplus harvests were being dried and stored between growing seasons for use as a dried spice, condiment, medicine or vermifuge.

Thus, a new technology molcajetes and its associated culinary uses, as well as seed saving and trade beyond their ancestral habitats may have accelerated selection for a wider range of Neotropical habitats and overall diversification of domesticated chile pepper landraces. There is limited evidence that the mixes of capsaicinoids found in cultivated chile varieties are also more variable than those in wild populations, but comparable sampling has been poor.

Neverthless, we see evidence for both H2 —a diversification of the levels of potency—and H3 —an intensification of potency of selected SMs with chile pepper domestication. In the case of milder less pungent chile peppers, we assume that farmers' protection of the plants compensates to some extent for lower levels of chemical defenses. Haak et al.

While capsaicinoids remain the most important plant chemical defenses in most domesticated chiles as they are in wild peppers, the roles of other secondary metabolites found in lower concentrations should not be dismissed. Brown et al. Nevertheless, several lines of research agree that the origin of the domesticated C.

In other words, the precise location or locations of domestication of C. Based on linguistic analyses, Brown suggests that the earliest plant management in Mesoamerica was of grain, succulent and oil crops; they became cultivated as staples no later than years ago. The earliest cultivation of spices including chiles for seasoning these staples came centuries later.

In short, staples such as maize, maguey, nopal and avocado were probably cultivated to provide seasonal surpluses for storage and consumption at least a thousand years before the earliest detectable onset of chile pepper cultivation as a spice, anthelmentic medicine, vermifuge or condiment but most likely not as a fresh green vegetable.

The pervasiveness of the use of chile peppers in treating illnesses in Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica N Mexico and SW USA is without peer, among any of the other crops domesticated in these regions. This fact alone suggests that the culinary uses of Capsicum were not the only catalysts to domestication.Auch hier handelt es sich um einen Chat ohne Anmeldung und Registrierung, der kostenlos und ohne Verpflichtungen ist. The identities of most SMs remains incomplete among wild C.

ABSTRACT The material expressions of the powerful symbols and cultural traditions of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations have long played vital roles in constructing social and political discourses, collective identities, and worldviews in the Mexican present.

Here historical narratives are multivocal and, and Malloy ; Little ; Marshall ; McAnany at times conflicting, as a result of the various motivations et al.

The earliest cultivation of spices including chiles for seasoning these staples came centuries later.

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