Petroliferos, E Squemas De Fabricacion (pdf) J-P Wauquier Filename, Wauquier, J. P. - El Refino del bestthing.info . fundamentos de bestthing.info . Observaciones Generales: donde se explica el fundamento y las generalidades del sistema aquellos que puedan ser más propios del Refino de Petróleo. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Feb 1, , C. B. SOUSA and others published Fundamentos do Refino de Petróleo: Tecnologia e Economia. Jan
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21 mar. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Mar 15, , Álvaro Gustavo Paulo Fundamentos do Refino do Petróleo: Tecnologia e Economia. IMPACTOS SOBRE O PARQUE DE REFINO Fonte: Fundamentos do Refino de Petróleo, Tecnologia e Economia, 3ª Ed, Image of page Subscribe to. Portuguese (pdf) · Article in xml format; How to cite this article; SciELO Analytics O petróleo é constituído por uma mistura de compostos químicos orgânicos A dessalgação normalmente é feita em uma refinaria de petróleo. .. Thomas, J. E.; Fundamentos de Engenharia de Petróleo, Interciência: Rio de Janeiro,
Al-Otaibi, M. American Society for Testing Materials; Standard D Standard test method for salt in crude oils potentiometric method , Fortuny, M. Nova , 31 , All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
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Tecnologia y Margen Del Refino Del Petroleo
Secretaria Executiva Av. Until the Thirteenth Round, local content was the criteria for judging the offers in the bidding rounds. However, the high local content indices required were difficult to achieve due to the lack of capacity of the national industry.
At the beginning of , the CNP published Resolution n. With regard to the government take on the Brazilian concession agreement, the Petroleum Law establishes the following modalities: signature bonus, with payment being a condition for the signature of the contract; royalties, required after the start of production; special participation, charged in cases of high volume of production or high profitability; payment for occupation or retention of area, due to the beginning of the contract term .
The Petroleum Law also establishes for the Brazilian concession agreement, when the block is located onshore, the payment to the landowners of equivalent participation, at a variable percentage between 0. The concession agreement requires the concessionaire to take measures to preserve reservoirs and other natural resources, adopting the best practices of the international oil industry, and performing all operations assuming the risks and costs of the activity .
The concessionaire is still required to notify the ANP of the operations development and of any damage and injury caused by such operations. Before the end of the concession period, the concessionaire is required to carry out the activities of decommissioning and abandoning wells.
They should also remove equipment and facilities, and the ANP might demand the reversion of assets . The concession agreement requires the procedure of unitization when the deposit extends beyond the boundaries of the block to which the exploration rights were granted. Thus, it can be said that the onerous assignment agreement is a hybrid form of the concession agreement since it grants property rights over the oil produced and requires the payment of royalties, essential characteristics of the concession agreement.
Therefore, it fits into the concession system .
This is because the risk arrangement of the onerous assignment agreement is quite different from the risk arrangement of the concession agreement . In the concession, an IOC or even Petrobras, if it has not made any commercial discovery after the conclusion of the exploratory period, should finalize the contract.
In the onerous assignment agreement, as Petrobras has been granted the right to explore and produce up to 5 billion barrels of oil, if this company cannot produce all this volume, there must be an adjustment through the revision of the agreement.
Thus, the onerous assignment agreement will only be concluded when the 5 billion barrels are reached, even if Petrobras paid in advance for these barrels. The term of the onerous assignment agreement is 40 years and may be extended for another five years, at the request of the assignee, under the terms of the agreement. The onerous assignment agreement has two phases: exploration, which includes appraisal activities and production, which includes development activities.
The exploration phase has a maximum duration of four years for the execution of the activities of the Mandatory Exploratory Program, defined in the agreement, and of any additional work. Failure to comply with this program will result in the imposition of a fine for Petrobras, up to twice the amount listed in the agreement for the activities previewed for the block, and in a case of a delay of more than twenty-four months .
The extension of this stage is allowed for another two years. The production phase shall commence after delivery of the declaration of commerciality. The assignee, Petrobras, is obliged to take on an exclusive basis all the investment costs and risks related to the operations.
In case there is a commercial discovery, the assignee is entitled to the ownership of oil produced as of the measurement point of production. However, its rights are limited to the production of 5 billion barrels of oil equivalent.
In relation to local content, the assignee is required to meet the minimum percentage of 37 per cent during the exploration phase, and 65 per cent in the production phase, also the assignee must meet the requirements of minimum percentages of local content of specified items and subitems in Annex IV of the contract. However, for the development phase, the contract establishes a progressive percentage, as follows: 55 per cent for the units starting production until 58 per cent for the units starting production between and , and 65 per cent for the units starting production as of With regard to the government take, royalties will be due only over the mined product worth 10 per cent of production, paid monthly to the Federal Government as of the start of the production.
However, the contract requires the assignee to realize qualified expenditures such as research and development in an amount equivalent to 0.
After the production of 5 billion barrels, or upon termination of the contract by lapse of time or by any other reason, the assignee shall submit to the ANP the oil field relinquishment report.
If this report shows the possibility of depletion of production during the contracted period, the assignee must submit a program of decommissioning, proposing the form of plugging and abandonment of wells, decommissioning and removal of plants and equipment. With regard to the assets employed by the assignee, the general scheme of the contract of the onerous assignment agreement is the non-reversion of assets, which may occur in exceptional cases to ensure the continuity of the operations or when they might be of some use by public need.
Onerous Assignment and Petrobras Capitalization Law provides that the onerous assignment agreement is not transferable, thus blocking the possibility of assignment. The unitization shall be mandatory whenever the deposit extends beyond the contract area.
As the onerous assignment agreement area is entirely located in the pre-salt polygon, the provisions of Production Sharing Law must be adopted. Onerous Assignment and Petrobras Capitalization Law establishes the possibility of contract revision to be held after the submission of a commerciality report. Thus, the process of reviewing the onerous assignment contract started. Considering that from the end of the financial situation of Petrobras was compromised due to the effects of the corruption scandals, the political situation in Brazil, and the fall in the price of the oil barrel, the processes for reviewing the onerous assignment agreement and direct contracting of Petrobras have not yet been concluded .
According to PIW Jan. The granting of such rights may be performed by direct contracting of Petrobras with the CNPE proposing the parameters of the agreement, or by means of a bidding round process. In latter case, Petrobras is entitled to preemptive rights in the operation of the areas to be tendered.
Postratamiento de productos de FCC.
1. Organizations of players in Brazilian oil sector
Balance global del proceso. Todo ello. Este libro. Para un mismo consumo de crudos. Este es un libro esperado. Esto es resultado. Un maestro no solo conoce. La solidez que la experiencia y autoridad del autor ha reflejado en el texto. Se puede considerar. Los productos. Una vez conocidos los rendimientos se describe el.
Es necesario aclarar. Marzo Nafta pesada Corresponde al corte oC. Como en el caso de la nafta ligera.
De la misma forma. Gasoil pesado Es la 4. Los contenidos en azufre empiezan a ser importantes. El procedente de crudo Maya presenta mayor contenido en azufre. Como ya se ha indicado anteriormente. Para el procedente de crudo Amna el valor de punto de niebla es de 14 oC.
Gasoil Es la 3. Las diferencias entre crudos pueden llegar a ser muy importantes. De entre los crudos analizados destaca la alta viscosidad y azufre del procedente del crudo Maya. Agua procesos. El aire se utiliza en procesos y en instrumentos. Los tipos de agua utilizados son tres: Puesto que los productos finales de refino no contienen agua. El aire. La electricidad.
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FOE y unidades monetarias. Desde el punto de vista de productos. Al no existir en este esquema procesos de refino posteriores. El aire no tiene precio de compra.
Ministerio Medio Ambiente. Tabla 7.
Tecnologia y Margen Del Refino Del Petroleo
Las 2. FOE o electricidad. La nafta ligera a gasolinas y la nafta pesada a nafta comodity. Sistema de topping.
Mezcla de componentes Nafta ligera Intervalo. Este esquema se indica en la Tabla 7. Utilizando los valores de rendimientos y propiedades de cada uno de los componentes indicadas en las Tablas 7. En este libro.Crudo Arabia ligero. Among the requirements of the concessionaire established in the Brazilian concession agreement, there are local content commitments in the exploration production phases. Talanta, v. The main objective of this paper is to review the use of microwave irradiation technology as an alternative technique applied during petroleum refining and primary processing of petroleum fluids, presenting and discussing successful applications of this technology as a tool for petroleum emulsion separation and catalytic reactions normally found at hydrorefining plants.
Coupling of photocatalytic and biological process as a contribution to the detoxification ofwater: catalytic and technological aspects. The unitization shall be mandatory whenever the deposit extends beyond the contract area.
In the eventual discovery of oil or natural gas, it must carry out the appraisal activities to determine its commerciality. This ebook fundamentos do refino de petroleo , content history is opinion on arc clear report friends, expanding cosmetics within the already including patron, server and hope account withNo outlook shells. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Conceitualmente, coloca-se o tripartismo como substituto mais restrito do interdisciplinar.
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