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Or do they commit the same error by only focusing on his later life…Or is it, when it is all said, that out of ten possible heads we have only seen one tail? Has our vision been incomplete, transient, not always well informed, uncompromising? Such accounts may also effectively offset the many posthumous works that, according to Fidel Castro, have sought to skew and discredit the truth. Specifically, the essay conceptualizes how his sport and leisure experiences contributed to making Guevara the revolutionary and guerilla fighter.
To be sure, a number of works on Guevara do recount his participation in sport but few specifically reflect on how these For Full Revised Paper See: International Journal of the History of Sport, 31 7 , experiences may have influenced his later life. The goal of this work is to provide a paradigmatic lens that argues sport and leisure may have played a significant role in the development of a young Ernesto Guevara.
These early experiences influenced and, in some cases, altered the path of the ambiguous adolescent who would later become the iconic twentieth century Latin American revolutionary known around the world as Che. As biographer John Lee Anderson notes, the young family was initially financially privileged and spent much of their time at the beach of the San Isidro Nautical Club, which is located on the Rio de La Plata estuary.
That evening, young Ernesto suffered through an intense coughing episode and, despite medical intervention, the condition developed into chronic asthma. Since the early decades of the twentieth century Argentineans had sought out the many spas and resorts in this region that specialized in caring for individuals suffering from a range of respiratory ailments, including tuberculosis. Initially, he did not attend school and his parents held him to a strict diet and physical activity regimen they thought helped control the severity of the asthma.
Beyond leisure, the diary also reveals Guevara leveraged his swimming prowess as a means to build rapport with some of the individuals he encountered on the journey. For example, the interns of the San Pablo Peru leper colony on the site watched in awe as Guevara swam the width of the river.
In total, the round trip feat lasted for over two hours.
The accomplishment made a profound impression on the patients at the colony and served as a source of respect and admiration for the aspiring doctor. Consequently, the family found itself in financial turmoil, but often attempted to disguise the reality of their situation by continuing to indulge in a lifestyle they could not afford. Guevara Lynch eventually garnered a contract to expand and upgrade the local Sierras Golf Course Hotel and it is here where young Guevara first became acquainted with the sport of golf.
Perhaps more important than his passion to play golf was the opportunity it provided for socialization. On the contrary, the most meaningful relationships he developed at the golf club were with individuals of modest means whose purpose at the club was specifically related to labor. Football Soccer Interestingly, golf was one of the few sports Guevara Lynch condoned for his asthmatic son given the risks involved with strenuous physical activity.
However, young Guevara longed to participate in the same childhood games and activities as his comrades. Fortunately for him, his mother Celia was supportive and insisted Ernestito be For Full Revised Paper See: International Journal of the History of Sport, 31 7 , permitted to have a normal childhood. Ultimately, Guevara Lynch was unable to impose his will on his son, who was carried home by his friends on more than one occasion in the midst of a severe asthma attack brought on by his participation in one of the many physical activities they enjoyed.
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These experiences did not deter Guevara from engaging in such activities. Further, Guevara began to demonstrate a particular class affinity when organizing the informal football matches. Football has always been considered the most popular sport in Argentina and its popularity transcends the social classes unlike golf, tennis, and rugby.
Guevara, realizing he lacked an affinity for a particular club, decided to assert an For Full Revised Paper See: International Journal of the History of Sport, 31 7 , allegiance for a particular team.
While many across Argentina were drawn to the superior technical skills, scoring efficiency, and success of River Plate, Guevara decided to support a hapless Rosario Central team.
After all, Rosario was his birthplace and equally important for Ernesto, they were the clear underdog at the bottom of the standings. As a medical student just a few short years later, Guevara and his motorcycle companion and lifelong friend Alberto Granado developed a mutual passion for studying and attempting to discover a cure for leprosy.
The soccer matches served as a means of escape for the leprosy patients and ultimately provided a means for Guevara and Granado to establish common ground with the many people they encountered and treated while touring the continent.
Once he had the rules mastered, young Guevara frequently played chess with neighbors, further developing the advanced skills of strategic planning and tactful response he would later call upon on as Comadante Che Guevara in Cuba during the revolution. On the latter occasion, Guevara earned a draw with the chess legend. Throughout the s and s central Argentina received a significant influx of Spanish exiles and Guevara would soon become captivated by the firsthand accounts of the conflict.
After initially seeking exile in France, he joined his family and many friends in Alta Gracia. Due to his fearless tackling ability, Furious Serna played in the back, though the scrum cap he wore on the field was likely the brunt of many jokes.
He immediately resigned from his post and joined his family to be closer to his grandmother, where he would carefully watch over her until she passed away. According to his family, Guevara was emotionally moved by his caretaking experience.
It is here where Guevara received training in medicine and later his licensure as a doctor. Playing with the reserve team, he found creative ways to mitigate the limitations brought on by his asthma. Perhaps offering a glimpse into the resolve and rebellious nature that would later give rise to the Che legend a decade later, Guevara continued playing rugby for the Atalaya Polo Club. He also enjoyed writing poetry and on occasion penned short stories throughout his youth.
The publication began as an in depth review of select rugby matches from the previous week and Guevara, along with his brother Roberto and ten of his friends, provided the For Full Revised Paper See: International Journal of the History of Sport, 31 7 , content under pseudonym names.
The weekly magazine lasted for eleven issues, spanning the Argentine fall and winter months from May-July of Most references to the publication, like this one, are descriptive and are based on second hand accounts.
This buttressed his evolving philosophical and ideological position that scorned the societal structures that created class divisions. Perhaps equally important, his participation in For Full Revised Paper See: International Journal of the History of Sport, 31 7 , rugby provided an opportunity to channel his aggression as well as a practical learning experience that emphasized the importance of teamwork, discipline, and respecting the opponent while cultivating a sense of courage and perseverance.
On the one hand it entailed an exceptional physical challenge that resulted in the development of willpower. Much work has been done to both trace the origins of the ideology as well as its integral role in forging modern societies. In the United States, the early pioneers who fought for the institutionalization of physical education in schools, as well as a place for organized sporting competition and informal play for children in everyday life, borrowed heavily from this ideology and, like the British, they placed additional emphasis on the health benefits associated with physical activity.
Although the Argentine system evolved over time, it continued to emphasize the health, psychological, and social benefits associated with sport and team games.
The first football clubs established in the country were set up by British railway workers in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. As the clubs increased in number and size so too did the network of British private schools. As Archetti explains, football was initially practiced within the structured setting of the British schools and athletic clubs. Winning in the absence of these ideals was to undermine its purpose.
Consequently, they remained cultural activities reserved for middle class Argentineans seeking to conserve the ideals of Athleticism as well as a signifier of social class status. This is very much the context in which young Guevara engaged sport and leisure in Argentina during the s and early s.
The development of these character traits during his childhood would prove significant during the successful campaign that overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in There was no obstacle too great for willpower.
While some seemingly attribute the beginning of his fight for social justice to his motorcycle trip with Alberto Granado in isolation of the context of his childhood, this position unjustly marginalizes the influence his childhood sport and leisure experiences likely had on the future revolutionary.
Finally, Guevara leveraged his sport and leisure background during his trips across South America. By organizing football matches and demonstrating his swimming prowess, he was able to build rapport and establish a sense of solidarity with those he and Alberto Granado met on their journey, particularly the patients at the various leprosariums they visited along the way.
As Granado himself expressed years later, Guevara insisted that the stigmatized lepers be treated in a more humane and friendly way. The enduring legacy of Ernesto Guevara is firmly grounded in his revolutionary efforts, as it should be. These are certainly his enduring contributions and claim to fame or infamy.
Through For Full Revised Paper See: International Journal of the History of Sport, 31 7 , swimming, golf, soccer, rugby, and even chess, young Guevara developed important character traits, mainly a will to persevere. Further, the opportunity for socialization through some of these activities shaped his political position and passion for social justice.
See also the documentary Chevolution. Directed by Luiz Lopez and Trisha Ziff. Salles, dir. The Motorcycle Diaries, See Guevara Lynch, Young Che, See also Ablard, Madness in Buenos Aires, See Havelin, Che Guevara, Also, it is important to point out this is the dominant version of the origin of the nicknames and that others do exist.
For an in depth look at the essence, foundation, limits, and interaction of peronism with oppositional political positions see Finchelstein, Transatlantic Fascism, ; Healey, The Ruins of the New Argentina, ; James, Resistance and Integration, ; Karush and Chamosa, ed.
Manliness and Morality, Aguero, Silvia B. Iglesias, and Ana E. Bibliography Ablard, Jonathan.
Madness in Buenos Aires: patients, psychiatrists, and the Argentine State, Aguero, Abel L. ISSN Anderson, John Lee. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York: Grove Press, Archetti, E. Masculinities: Football, Polo, and the Tango in Argentina.
New York: Berg, Armus, Diego. La ribera — Enrique Wernicke. El gran cobarde — Abelardo Arias. Memorias de un hombre de bien — Pedro Orgambide. Vencedores y vencidos — Bernardo Kordon.
Cuaderno del delirio — Tulio Carella. Boris Spivacow Citado en Boris Spivacow. La historia de la literatura argentina.
Historia de la literatura argentina 1. El desarrollo — Roger Pla. Lucio V. Mansilla — Rodolfo Vinacua. Leopoldo Lugones — Guillermo Ara. Modernismo y narrativa: Enrique Larreta — Rodolfo Borello. Realismo y picaresca: Roberto J. Modernismo y naturalismo: Horacio Quiroga — Eduardo Romano. Realismo tradicional: narrativa urbana — Jorge Lafforgue y Jorge B. Realismo tradicional: narrativa rural — Estela Dos Santos. Florida y la vanguardia — Guillermo Ara. Boedo y el tema social — Carlos Giordano.
La novela moderna: Roberto Arlt — Luis Gregorich. Madurez del teatro: Samuel Eichelbaum — Luis Ordaz. Intelectualismo y existencialismo: Mallea — Attilio Dabini. El ensayo: del 30 a la actualidad — Rodolfo Borello. El mapa literario — Horacio Jorge Becco. Biblioteca argentina fundamental 1. La gallina degollada y otros cuentos — Horacio Quiroga. Los fundadores. La literatura virreinal. La cautiva. Facundo — Domingo Faustino Sarmiento.
Santos Vega y otros poemas. Sin rumbo — Eugenio Cambaceres. La gloria de Don Ramiro — Enrique Larreta. En familia. Los caranchos de la Florida — Benito Lynch. El juguete rabioso — Roberto Arlt. Un guapo del La sala de espera — Eduardo Mallea. Cuentos — Jorge Luis Borges. Informe sobre ciegos — Ernesto Sabato. La cola de la sirena. Literatura y folklore I.
Literatura y folklore II. Susana Santos docente e investigadora especializada en literatura latinoamericana. Pulgarcita — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Ilustraciones: Ayax Barnes. El gigante y el viento — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El gato con botas — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Ilustraciones: Oscar Grillo.
El patito feo — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Juan y la planta de habas — Texto: Beatriz Ferro.
La bella durmiente — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El soldadito de plomo — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El viaje de los animales — Texto: Beatriz Ferro.
El traje del emperador — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Caperucita Roja — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. La Cenicienta — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Los tres deseos — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Ilustraciones: Agi. El sastrecillo valiente — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El ganso de oro — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El fuego y los cuentacuentos — Texto: Beatriz Ferro.
Ilustraciones: Amalia Cernadas. Hansel y Gretel — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El pozo de las monedas — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. Simbad el marino — Texto: Horacio Clemente. La bolsa encantada — Texto: Horacio Clemente. El caballo volador — Texto: Horacio Clemente. Brita y las normas — Texto: Yali. Ilustraciones: Chacha. Ilustraciones: Alba Ponce. Los dioses campeones — Texto: Beatriz Ferro. El atado de heno — Texto: Yali. Ilustraciones Ayax Barnes. La pajarita de papel — Texto: Yali. Ilustraciones: Ruth Vasavsky.
La cigarra y la hormiga — Texto: Beatriz Barnes. Ilustraciones: Marta Gaspar. El rey y el leopardo — Texto: Beatriz Barnes. El hombre de la luna — Texto: Yali.
Ilustraciones: Ruth Varsavsky. Ilustraciones: Gioia Fiorentino.
Las alas de bolita — Texto: Yali. La zorra y las uvas — Texto: Beatriz Barnes. El tesoro de los incas — Texto: Yali.
El castillo del sol — Texto: Yali. La hija de la tierra — Texto: Yali. El elefante triste — Texto: Antonio Queirolo.
La tortuga y los patos — Texto: Beatriz Barnes. Los mellizos de la Pachamama — Texto: Yali. El gato perejil — Texto: Beatriz Mosquera. David y Goliat — Texto: Beatriz Barnes.
O en las siluetas tiernas de Pinocho, Don Quijote y Sancho con fuertes trazos en negro y pinceladas de color. Descartes — Risieri Frondizi. Keynes — Enrique Silberstein. Husserl — Jacobo Kogan.
Marcel — Mario Presas. Bello — Juan Carlos Ghiano. Montesquieu — Alberto Ciria. Pareto — Leopoldo Portnoy. Sartre — Guillermina Garmendia de Camusso. Hartmann — Ricardo Maliandi. Lavoisier — Leticia Halperin Donghi.Discover Prime Book Box for Kids. site Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Informe sobre ciegos — Ernesto Sabato. Che Deportista.
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Pareto — Leopoldo Portnoy. El mundo era pausible de ser asido, entendido y explicado. Mio Cid. Such accounts may also effectively offset the many posthumous works that, according to Fidel Castro, have sought to skew and discredit the truth.