Design Drawing (2nd Edition). Author: Francis D. K. Ching, Steven P. Juroszek. Category: Architecture. pdf download: PDF icon Design_Drawing_(2nd_Edition). Design drawing / Francis D.K. Ching with Steven P. Juroszek. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN (pbk.); ISBN (ebk); . In Design Drawing, Second Edition, he unmasks the basic cognitive Goes beyond basic drawing books Ching not only covers the.

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Cover design: C. Wallace Cover image: Courtesy of Francis D.K. Ching This book is Current graphics applications range from 2D drawing programs to 3D. FRANCIS D. K. CHING is Professor Emeritus of Architecture at the University of cover image of Design Drawing cover image of Interior Design Illustrated. Ching, Francis D. K. - Drawing, A Creative Process - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) Download as PDF or read online from Scribd Operative Design.

But in order to distinguish a section drawing from a floor plan—the other type of drawing that involves a slice—we usually assume the plane of the cut for a section is vertical.

As with other orthographic projections, all planes parallel to the picture plane maintain their true size, shape, and proportions. In architectural graphics, however, the building section is the premier drawing for revealing and studying the relationship between the floors, walls, and roof structure of a building and the dimensions and vertical scale of the spaces defined by these elements.

After a vertical plane slices through the construction, we remove one of the parts. The building section is an orthographic projection of the portion that remains, cast onto a vertical picture plane parallel or coincident with the cutting plane. Use jogs or offsets in the cutting plane only when absolutely necessary. Remember, too, that the building section is only part of a series of related orthographic views. In order to convey a sense of depth and the existence of spatial volumes, we must use a hierarchy of line weights or a range of tonal values.

The technique we use depends on the scale of the building section, the drawing medium, and the required degree of contrast between solid matter and spatial void. It is difficult to discern what is cut and what is seen in elevation beyond the plane of the cut. Note that these profiles are always continuous; they can never intersect another cut line or terminate at a line of lesser weight.

The farther back an element is from the plane of the section cut, the lighter their profile should be. These lines do not signify any change in form.

They simply represent the visual pattern or texture of wall planes and other vertical surfaces parallel to the picture plane. If shown, they are part of the surrounding soil mass and should be drawn lightly.

This is especially important in large-scale sections, when large areas of black can carry too much visual weight or create too stark a contrast. In this value scheme, use progressively lighter values for elements as they recede into the third dimension.

Any tonal value given to cut elements should therefore continue into this mass. The primary emphasis should remain on articulating the section cut and the relative depth of elements beyond the plane of the cut.

The upper building section uses a vector-based drawing program while the lower drawing uses a raster image to convey the character of a site as well as serve as a contrasting background for the white section cut.

This alignment makes horizontal relationships easier to read and understand. A general knowledge of how buildings are constructed is therefore extremely beneficial when executing large- scale sections.

They are capable of describing the relationship of a proposed structure to the surrounding ground plane and disclosing whether a proposed structure rises from, sits on, floats above, or becomes embedded within the ground mass of the site. In addition, section drawings can effectively illustrate the relationship between the interior spaces of a building and adjoining exterior spaces, as well as the relationships among a number of buildings.

Unlike a plan, an elevation mimics our upright stance and offers a view that closely resembles the natural appearance of the object. Even though elevation views of vertical surfaces are closer to perceptual reality than either plans or section views, they cannot represent the spatial depth of a perspective drawing.

When we draw objects and surfaces in elevation, we must rely on graphic cues to convey depth, curvature, or obliqueness.

Building elevations convey the external appearance of a building, compressed onto a single plane of projection.

They therefore emphasize the exterior vertical faces of a building parallel to the picture plane and define its silhouette in space. They can also illustrate the texture and pattern of cladding materials, as well as the location, type, and dimensions of window and door openings. This distance varies according to what information we wish to display in front of the building and to what degree this context will obscure the form and features of the building.

They can form a horizontal sequence of drawings, or be related in a single composite drawing around a common plan view. This relationship will not only facilitate the construction of the drawings but will also East Elevation make them more understandable as a coordinated set of information.

For example, once a plan is drawn, we can efficiently transfer the horizontal dimensions of length vertically on the drawing surface to the elevation below. In a similar manner, we can project the vertical dimensions of height horizontally on the drawing surface from one elevation to one or more adjacent elevations.

In architectural graphics, the orientation of a building to South Elevation the compass points is an important consideration when studying and communicating the effect of sun and other climatic factors on the design. We therefore most often name a building elevation after the direction the elevation faces: For example, Main Street Elevation would be the elevation facing Main Street, or Lake Elevation would be the elevation seen from the lake.

We may use a smaller scale for large buildings and complexes. A general knowledge of how buildings are constructed is therefore extremely beneficial when executing large-scale building elevations. To convey a sense of depth, therefore, we must use a hierarchy of line weights or a range of tonal values. The technique we use depends on the scale of the building elevation, the drawing medium, and the technique for depicting the texture and pattern of materials. In a line drawing, discernible differences in line weight can aid in suggesting the relative depth of planes.

Extending this ground line beyond the building serves to describe the topographical nature of the setting. These lines do not signify any change in form; they simply represent the visual pattern or texture of surfaces. This series of drawings illustrates in a more discrete and abstract way how visual cues can enhance the sense of depth in any orthographic projection.

We tend to perceive a shape as being in front of another when it has continuity of outline and disrupts the profile of the other shape. Since this visual phenomenon relies on nearer objects overlaying or projecting in front of objects farther away, we often refer to this depth cue simply as overlap. However, we can achieve a greater sense of intervening space and depth if we combine overlap with other depth cues, such as by varying the line weights of a pure-line drawing.

Darker and thicker profile or contour lines tend to advance and appear to be in front of lighter and thinner outlines. A progressive muting of hues, tonal values, and contrast occurs with increasing distance from the observer. Objects seen up close in the foreground of our visual field typically possess more saturated colors and sharply defined contrasts in value. As they move farther away, their colors become lighter in value and more subdued, and their tonal contrasts more diffuse.

In the background, we see mainly shapes of grayed tones and muted hues. This depth cue reflects the fact that we normally associate clarity of vision with nearness and blurring of outlines with farness.

The graphic equivalent of perspective blur is a diminishing or diffusion of the edges and contours of more distant objects. We can use either a lightly drawn line or a broken or dotted line to delineate these edges of shapes and contours of forms that exist beyond the focus of a drawing. The density of the texture of a surface gradually increases as it recedes into the distance. The graphic technique for depicting the visual phenomenon of texture perspective involves gradually diminishing the size and spacing of the graphic elements used to portray a surface texture or pattern, whether they be dots, lines, or tonal shapes.

Proceed from identifying units in the foreground to delineating a textured pattern in the middleground and finally to rendering a tonal value in the background. Any abrupt shift in brightness stimulates the perception of a spatial edge or profile separated from a background surface by some intervening space.

This depth cue implies the existence of overlapping shapes and the use of contrasting tonal values in a drawing. See Chapter 7 for more information on the use of tonal values in architectural graphics.

While normally included in the drawing of building sections, they may stand alone to study and present highly detailed spaces, such as kitchens, bathrooms, and stairways.

In this case, instead of profiling the section cut, we emphasize the boundary line of the interior wall surfaces. Each type offers a slightly different viewpoint and emphasizes different aspects of the drawn subject. As a family, however, they combine the measured precision and scalability of multiview drawings and the pictorial nature of linear perspective. Because of their pictorial quality and relative ease of construction, paraline drawings are appropriate for visualizing an emerging idea in three dimensions early in the design process.

They are capable of fusing plan, elevation, and section into a single view and illustrating three- dimensional patterns and compositions of space. Portions of a paraline drawing can be cut away or made transparent to see inside and through things, or expanded to illustrate the spatial relationships between the parts of a whole.

Pa r a l i n e D r aw ings Paraline drawings communicate the three-dimensional nature of an object or spatial relationship in a single image. Hence, they are also called single-view drawings to distinguish them from the multiple and related views of plans, sections, and elevations. They can be distinguished from the other type of single-view drawing, linear perspective, by the following pictorial effects.

Axial lines naturally form a rectangular grid of coordinates that we can use to find any point in three-dimensional space. We cannot measure dimensions along these nonaxial lines, nor can we draw Hor them to scale. To draw nonaxial lines, we must first izon s Axi tal locate their end points using axial measurements and Axi tal s then connect these points.

Once we establish one izon Hor nonaxial line, however, we can draw any line parallel to that line, since parallel lines in the subject remain parallel in the drawing. They lack the eye-level view and picturesque Looking from above quality of linear perspectives.

Two of the most common in architectural drawing are discussed in this chapter: In both isometric and oblique drawings: The images that emerge from oblique projections are distinct from isometric views that develop from orthographic projection.

The ease with which we can construct an oblique drawing has a powerful appeal. If we orient a principal face of the subject parallel to the picture plane, its shape remains true and we can draw it more Isometric Drawings easily. They preserve the Vertical Axis relative proportions of a subject or scene and are not subject to the distortion inherent in oblique views.

This ambiguity results from the alignment of lines in the foreground with those in the background. In such cases, a plan oblique might be a better choice. Digital graphics programs, however, allow the use of any desired angle.

This should be the longest, the most significant, or the most complex face of the subject. In sketching or when using digital drawing tools, we need not be as precise, but once we establish an angle for the receding lines, we should apply it consistently.

By varying the angle, the horizontal and vertical sets of receding planes can receive different degrees of emphasis. When constructing and presenting a paraline drawing, keep in mind that paraline views are easiest to understand if vertical lines in space are also oriented vertically on the drawing surface. It involves constructing a paraline view of a transparent rectangular box that encompasses the entire volume of the subject, and then working in a subtractive manner to remove material and reveal the form.

It requires drawing a paraline view of the parent form first, and then adding the subordinate forms. It begins with a paraline view of a horizontal plane of the subject or the profile of a vertical section cut. We can then extrude the shape vertically or extend it back into the depth of the drawing. To draw such a circle in a paraline drawing, we must first draw a paraline view of the square that circumscribes the circle. Then we can use either of two approaches to drawing the circle within the square.

By dividing the square into quadrants and drawing diagonals from each corner to quarter points along the sides of the square, we can establish eight points along the circumference of the circle. We can use a grid to transfer curvilinear or free-form shapes from an orthographic view to the paraline view. This grid may either be uniform or correspond to critical points in the shape. The more complex the shape, the finer the grid divisions should be. It may therefore be difficult to define this hierarchy of line weights without first transferring the graphic image to a two-dimensional environment.

These techniques allow us to gain visual access to the interior of a spatial composition or the hidden portions of a complex construction. We categorize these techniques into expanded views, cutaway views, phantom views, and sequential views. Expanded Views To develop what we call an expanded or exploded view, we merely shift portions of a paraline drawing to new positions in space. The finished drawing appears to be an explosion frozen at a point in time when the relationships between the parts of the whole are most clear.

Remember that, as with other drawing types, the larger the scale of a paraline drawing, the more detail you have to show. This strategy can also effectively manifest the relation of an interior to the exterior environment.

Removing a floor permits a view up into a space. When a composition exhibits bilateral symmetry, we can make this cut along the central axis and indicate the footprint or plan view of the part removed. In this case, the trajectory of the cut should clarify the nature of the overall form building as well as the organization and arrangement of interior spaces. Indicating the external form of what is removed helps the viewer retain a sense of the whole.

This strategy effectively allows us to unveil an interior space or construction without removing any of its bounding planes or encompassing elements. Thus, we are able to simultaneously see the whole composition and its internal structure and arrangement.

By organizing elements and assemblies of a three-dimensional construction into separate groups or layers, we can selectively control their location, visibility, and appearance, as illustrated on this and the facing page. In this case, each floor level successively builds upon the preceding one. Linear perspective is a technique for describing three-dimensional volumes and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional surface by means of lines that converge as they recede into the depth of a drawing.

While multiview and paraline drawings present views of an objective reality, linear perspective offers scenes of an optical reality. It depicts how a construction or environment might appear to the eye of an observer looking in a specific direction from a particular vantage point in space.

L i n e ar Pe r s pe ctive Linear perspective is valid only for monocular vision. A perspective drawing assumes that the observer sees through a single eye. We almost never view anything in this way. Even with the head in a fixed position, we see through both eyes, which are constantly in motion, roving over and around objects and through ever-changing environments.

Thus, linear perspective can only approximate the complex way our eyes actually function. Still, linear perspective provides us with a method for correctly placing three-dimensional objects in pictorial space and illustrating the degree to which their forms appear to diminish in size as they recede into the depth of a drawing. The uniqueness of a linear perspective lies in its ability to provide us with an experiential view of space.

This distinct advantage, however, also gives rise to the difficulty often connected with perspective drawing. The challenge in mastering linear perspective is resolving the conflict between our knowledge of the thing itself—how we conceive its objective reality—and the appearance of something—how we perceive its optical reality—as seen through a single eye of the observer.

This convergence of sight lines differentiates perspective projection from the other two major projection systems—orthographic projection and oblique projection—in which the projectors remain parallel to each other. The picture plane is always perpendicular to the central axis of vision CAV. The cone of vision serves as a guide in determining what is to be included within the boundaries of a perspective drawing.

Only a small portion Elevation of the immediate foreground falls within the cone of vision. As the cone of vision reaches out to gather in what the observer sees, it widens its field, and the middleground and background become more expansive. Being familiar with these pictorial effects helps us understand how lines, planes, and volumes should appear in linear perspective and how to place objects Pa c ral correctly in the space of a perspective drawing.

If the lines are extended to infinity, they will appear to meet at a point on the picture plane PP. This point is the vanishing point VP for that particular pair VP for ab, cd of lines and all other lines parallel to them. VP for ad, bc The first rule of convergence is that each set of parallel lines has its own vanishing point.

A set of parallel lines consists only of those lines that Perspective View are parallel to one another. If we look at a cube, for example, we can see that its edges comprise three 3 principal sets of parallel lines, one set of vertical lines parallel to the X-axis, and two sets of horizontal lines, 3 perpendicular to each other and parallel to the Y- and 3 Z-axes.

Each line in the PP set, however, will diminish in size according to icular to Perpend its distance from the observer. If it Fall slopes downward as it recedes, its vanishing ing awa point lies below HL. Therefore, the projected size of an element remains the same regardless of its distance from the picture plane. In linear perspective, however, the converging projectors or sight lines alter Orthographic Projection the apparent size of a line or plane according to its PP distance from the picture plane.

As the same-size tiles recede, they appear smaller and flatter as they rise and approach the horizon. Other Pictorial Effects Perspective drawings also possess other pictorial characteristics found in multiview and paraline drawing systems. As this viewpoint changes—as the observer moves up or down, to the left or right, forward or back—the extent and emphasis of what the observer sees also change.

SP of the perspective. A distinct advantage in using 3D CAD and modeling programs is that once the necessary data is entered for a three-dimensional construction, the software allows us to manipulate the perspective variables and fairly quickly produce a number of perspective views for evaluation.

Judgment of what a perspective image conveys, whether produced by hand or with the aid of the computer, remains the responsibility of its author. Illustrated on this and the facing page are examples of computer-generated perspectives, showing how the various perspective variables affect the resulting images.

The differences in the perspective views may be subtle but they do affect our perception of the scale of the spaces and our judgment of the spatial relationships the images convey. However, one should perspective view. Widening the angle of view to include more always attempt to maintain a reasonable position for of a space within a perspective can easily lead to distortion of the observer within the space being represented. The closer PP is to the station point SP , the smaller the perspective image.

The farther away PP is, the larger the image. Assuming all other variables remain constant, the perspective images are identical in all respects except size.

Based on these three major sets of lines, there are three types of linear perspective: The subject does not change, only our view of it, but the change of view affects how the sets of parallel lines appear to converge in linear perspective.

The lines that are parallel with CAV, however, will appear to converge at the center of vision C. This is the one point referred to in one-point perspective. The two sets HL of horizontal lines, however, are now oblique to the picture plane PP and will appear to converge, one set to the left and the other to the right. These are the two points referred to in two- point perspective. These are the three points referred to in three-point perspective. Note that each type of perspective does not imply that there are only one, two, or three vanishing points in a perspective.

For example, if we look at a simple 4 gable-roofed form, we can see that there are potentially five 1 5 vanishing points, since we have one set of vertical lines, two 2 sets of horizontal lines, and two sets of inclined lines.

All lines parallel to these axes are also parallel to the picture plane PP , and therefore retain their true orientation and do not appear to converge. For Parallel to PP this reason, one-point perspective is also known as parallel perspective. This is the particular n dic rpe vanishing point referred to in one-point perspective. Pe The one-point perspective system is particularly Parallel to PP effective in depicting the interior of a spatial volume because the display of five bounding faces provides a clear sense of enclosure.

For this reason, designers often use one-point perspectives to present experiential views of street scenes, formal gardens, courtyards, colonnades, and interior rooms. The three-dimensional network of uniformly spaced points and lines enables us to correctly establish the form and dimensions of an interior or Plan Views Perspective Views exterior space, as well to regulate the position and size of objects within the space. What do we wish to illustrate in the perspective view and why?

PP need not be drawn at the same scale as the plan setup. The position of C can be determined from the plan setup. The unit of measurement is typically one foot; we can, however, use smaller or larger increments GL depending on the scale of the drawing and the amount of detail desired in the perspective view. We call this vanishing point a diagonal point DP.

A half-distance point will cut off two- foot increments in depth for every one-foot increment in width: With the same grid, we can also locate the positions and relative sizes of other elements within the space, such as furniture and lighting fixtures. Note that, particularly in interior views, properly cropped foreground elements can enhance the feeling that one is in a space rather than on the outside looking in. The center of vision C is closer to the left-hand wall so that the bending of the space to the right can be visualized.

The change in scale between the right-hand shelving and patio doors beyond, and a similar change between the foreground table and the window seat beyond, serve to emphasize the depth of the perspective.

It therefore is able to illustrate both the constructional aspects of a design as well as the quality of the spaces formed by the structure. Because the section cut is assumed to be coincident with the picture plane PP of the perspective, it serves as a ready reference for making vertical and horizontal measurements for the HL C DPR perspective drawing.

The height of HL and position of C determine what is seen within the perspective view. As a rule of thumb, the distance from C to DPL or DPR should be at least as great as the width or height of the building section, whichever is larger. The principal vertical axis is parallel to PP, and all lines parallel to it remain vertical and parallel in the perspective drawing.

The two principal horizontal axes, however, are oblique to PP. All lines parallel to these axes therefore appear to converge to two vanishing points on the horizon line HL , one set 3 to the left and the other to the right. These are the two points referred to in two-point perspective.

Unlike one-point Horizonta nta l l Horizo perspectives, two-point perspectives tend to be neither 1 2 symmetrical nor static. A two-point perspective is par- ticularly effective in illustrating the three-dimensional form of objects in space ranging in scale from a chair to the massing of a building.

The orientation of the two horizontal axes to PP determines how much we will see of the two major sets of vertical planes and the degree to which they are foreshortened in perspective. Determine what you wish to illustrate. Look toward the most significant areas and try to visualize from your plan drawing what will be seen in the foreground, middleground, and background.

Review the perspective variables on pages — Remember that the vanishing point for any set of parallel lines is that point at which a line drawn from SP, parallel to the set, intersects PP. The diagonal point in one-point perspective is one example of such a measuring point.

In two-point perspective, you can establish two measuring points MPL and MPR for transferring dimensions along the ground line GL to the two major horizontal baselines that are receding in perspective. This intersection is MPR. For example, if you have a series of parallel diagonals in your design, establish their vanishing point as well.

This scale need not be the same as the scale of the plan setup. The unit of measurement typically is one left baseline in perspective by drawing lines to foot; we can use smaller or larger increments, however, MPR. Transfer scale measurements on GL to the depending on the scale of the drawing and the amount right baseline by drawing lines to MPL. These are of detail desired in the perspective view. It is important measurements along the major horizontal baselines to see the perspective grid as a network of points in perspective.

When one-foot squares The grid of squares facilitates the plotting of become too small to draw accurately, use two-foot points in three-dimensional space, regulates or four-foot squares instead. Each unit of measurement can represent a foot, four feet, a hundred yards, or even a mile.

Rotating and reversing the grid can also vary the point of view. Therefore, you can use the same 8 grid to draw an interior perspective of a room, an exterior perspective of a courtyard, as well as an aerial view of a city block or neighborhood. Note that the left vanishing point VPL lies within the drawing, enabling three sides of the space to be shown and a greater sense of enclosure to be felt. Because VPL lies within the drawing, greater emphasis is placed on the right- hand portion of the space.

If the left-hand side of the space is to be emphasized, use a reverse image of the grid. But there are techniques we can use to determine the relative heights, widths, and depths of objects in the pictorial space of a perspective drawing. Measuring Height and Width In linear perspective, any line in the picture plane PP displays its true direction and true length at the scale of the picture plane.

We can therefore use any such line as a measuring line ML to scale dimensions in a perspective drawing. While a measuring Vertical ML line may have any orientation in the picture plane, it typically is vertical or horizontal and used to measure true heights or widths.

The ground line GL is one example of a horizontal measuring line. Digital Measurements Perspective measurements are not a major issue in 3D-modeling programs because the software uses mathematical formulas to process the three-dimensional data we have already entered. Various methods of perspective construction establish depth in different ways. Once we establish an initial depth judgment, however, we can make succeeding depth judgments in proportion to the first.

Subdividing Depth Measurements There are two methods for subdividing depth measurements in linear perspective: Method of Diagonals In any projection system, we can subdivide a rectangle into four equal parts by drawing two diagonals.

Lines drawn through this midpoint, parallel to the edges of the plane, will subdivide the rectangle and its receding sides into equal parts. We can repeat this procedure to subdivide 5e par qual sp a rectangle into any even number of parts. These mark off the desired spaces, which diminish as they recede in perspective.

If the receding line is horizontal in space, then ML will be a horizontal line in the drawing. These lines subdivide the receding line into the same proportional segments. B A Extending a Depth Measurement If the forward edge of a rectangular plane is parallel to the picture plane PP , we can extend and duplicate its depth in perspective. The distance from the first to the second edge is identical eq. The reason for this is that, in the latter perspective drawing.

If perpendicular or oblique to PP, however, an inclined set of lines will appear to converge at a vanishing point above or below the horizon line HL. The easiest way to do this is to visualize the inclined line as being the hypotenuse of a right triangle.

If we can draw the sides of the triangle in proper perspective, we can connect the end points to establish the g isin inclined line.

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An inclined l set of parallel lines is not horizontal and therefore z onta Hori will not converge on HL. If the set rises upward as it recedes, its vanishing point will be above HL; if it falls as it recedes, it will appear to converge L in ef below HL.

This intersection is the vanishing point VPi for the inclined line and all other lines parallel to it. Mark this point A. The horizon line, Plan for example, is the vanishing trace along which SP all horizontal sets of parallel lines converge.

This is the vanishing trace for the vertical plane containing the inclined set of parallel lines. We are not concerned yet with the individual treads of the stairway. This occurs most frequently when the plane of the circle is horizontal and at the height of the horizon line HL , or when the plane of the circle is vertical and aligned with the central axis of vision CAV.

The larger the circle, the more subdivisions are necessary to ensure smoothness of the elliptical shape. Checking the relationship Tangent between the major and minor axes of elliptical shapes helps to ensure accuracy of the foreshortening of circles in perspective. A reflecting surface Object presents an inverted or mirror image of the object being reflected. For example, if an object is resting SP directly on a reflecting surface, the reflected image is a direct, inverted copy of the original.

Thus, in a perspective view of the reflection, the reflected image follows the same perspective system of lines already established for the original image.

Each reflection therefore doubles the apparent dimension of the space in a direction perpendicular to the mirrored surface. Therefore, the major sets of parallel lines in the reflection appear to converge to the same vanishing points as do the corresponding sets of lines in the subject. For example, the waterline establishes the horizontal reflecting plane. Point o lies in this plane. While lines are essential to the task of delineating contour and shape, there are also visual qualities of light, texture, mass, and space that cannot be fully described by line alone.

In order to model the surfaces of forms and convey a sense of light, we rely on the rendering of tonal values. Ton a l Val u e s Vision results from the stimulation of nerve cells in the retina of the eye, signaling patterns of light intensity and color. Our visual system processes these patterns of light and dark, and is able to extract specific features of our environment—edges, contours, size, movement, and color.

If seeing patterns of light and dark is essential to our perception of objects, then establishing contrasts in value discernible to the eye is the key to the graphic definition of light, form, and space. Through the interplay of tonal values we are able to: The visual effect of each technique varies according to the nature of the stroke, the medium, and the texture of the drawing surface.

Regardless of the shading technique we use, we must always be fully aware of the tonal value being depicted. For example, a tonal value superimposed upon a darker tone will appear lighter than the same value set against a lighter tone. Covering the paper surface entirely can cause a drawing to lose depth and vitality. The strokes may be long or short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either a pen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper.

When spaced close enough together, the lines lose their individuality and merge to form a tonal value. We therefore rely primarily on the spacing and density of lines to control the lightness or darkness of a value. While thickening the linear strokes can serve to deepen the darkest values, using too thick of a line can result in an unintentional coarseness and heaviness of texture. Maintaining the diagonal direction of the strokes in this manner avoids confusion with the underlying drawing and unifies the various tonal areas of a drawing composition.

Remember that direction alone, however, has no impact on tonal value. With texture and contour, the series of lines can also convey material characteristics, such as the grain of wood, the marbling of stone, or the weave of fabric. Be careful not to use too dense a grade of lead or press so hard that the pencil point embosses the drawing surface. You can only control the spacing and density of the hatching. As with hatching, the strokes may be long or short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either a pen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper.

The multidirectional nature of the hatching also makes it easier describe the orientation and curvature of surfaces. While simple hatching creates the lighter range of values in a drawing, crosshatching renders the darker range. The freehand nature of scribbling gives us great flexibility in describing tonal values and textures. We can vary the shape, density, and direction of the strokes to achieve a wide range of tonal values, textures, and visual expression.

Applying stippling is a slow and time-consuming procedure that requires the utmost patience and care in controlling the size and spacing of the dots. The best results occur when using a fine- tipped ink pen on a smooth drawing surface. The procedure involves applying stippling over faintly drawn shapes of the areas to be toned. We use tightly spaced dots to define sharp, distinct edges, and a looser spacing of dots to imply softer, more rounded contours.

If the scale of the dots is too large for the toned area, too coarse a texture will result. Image-processing software further allows the creation and application of visual textures, some of which mimic the traditional techniques outlined on the previous pages. Shown on this and the facing page are two digital examples using simple gray tones and gradients. The first illustrates a line-and-tone technique to model the forms.

Instead, the range of tonal values serves primarily to define the orientation of the surfaces relative to an assumed light source. In between exists an intermediate range of grays.

Francis D. K. Ching

A familiar form of this range is represented by a gray or value scale having ten equal gradations from white to black. It is worthwhile to practice producing both a stepped series and a graduated scale of tonal values using a variety of media and techniques. It can also describe the characteristic surface qualities of familiar materials, as the hewn appearance of stone, the grain of wood, and the weave of a fabric. This is tactile texture that can be felt by touch.

Our senses of sight and touch are closely intertwined. As our eyes read the visual texture of a surface, we often respond to its apparent tactile quality without actually touching it. We base these physical reactions on the textural qualities of similar materials we have experienced in the past. In most cases, tonal value is more critical than texture to the representation of light, shade, and the way they model forms in space. Shading with tonal values extends a simple drawing of contours into the three-dimensional realm of forms arranged in space.

Since the definition of edges gives rise to shape recognition, we look to edges to discover the configuration of the surfaces of a three-dimensional form. We must therefore be careful how we define the nature of the edge or boundary wherever two shapes of contrasting values meet.

The skillful manipulation of tonal edges is critical to defining the nature and solidity of a surface or object. We define hard edges with an abrupt and incisive shift in tonal value. We create soft edges with a gradual change in tonal value or diffuse tonal contrast. Light is the radiant energy that illuminates our world and enables us to see three-dimensional forms in space. We do not actually see light but rather the effects of light. Within these patterns of light and dark shapes, we can recognize the following elements: The simplest approach is ray casting.

Ray Casting Ray casting is a technique that analyzes the three-dimensional geometry of forms and determines the illumination and shading of surfaces based on their orientation to an assumed light source. The primary advantage of ray casting is the speed with which an illuminated three-dimensional image or scene can be generated, often in real-time.

This makes ray casting a useful tool in preliminary design to study the solar consequences of the massing and composition of building forms and the shadows they cast.

See pages — for examples. Ray casting, however, does not take into account the way light travels after intersecting a surface and therefore cannot accurately render reflections, refractions, or the natural fall off of shadows.

For this, ray tracing is necessary. Ray tracing is a digital technique for tracing these paths to simulate the optical effects of illumination. Local illumination is a basic level of ray tracing that is limited to direct illumination and the specular reflections of light rays. While local illumination does not take into account the diffuse inter-reflection of light among the surfaces in a three-dimensional space or scene, some ray tracing programs can approximate this ambient light in their lighting algorithms.

Local illumination: Global illumination techniques use sophisticated algorithms to more accurately simulate the illumination of a space or scene. These algorithms take into account not only the light rays that are emitted directly from one or more sources. They also track the light rays as they are reflected or refracted from one surface to another, especially the diffuse inter- reflections that occur among the surfaces in a space or scene.

This enhanced level of simulation comes at a cost, however. The process requires time and is computationally intensive, and should therefore be used only when appropriate to the design task at hand.

Global illumination: These two drawings of the Piazza San Marco in Venice illustrate how the tonal contrast can be achieved either by rendering the building as a dark figure against a light background or by reversing the figure-ground relationship and rendering the tonal values of the site. These values can effectively isolate and provide a base for elements that are situated above the floor plane.

The lower the floor plane, the darker its value. Be sure, however, that there is sufficient contrast to emphasize the dominance of the cut elements. If necessary, outline the cut elements with a heavy line weight.

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The most important distinctions to establish are between the cut through the ground plane in front of the building elevation and the building itself, and between the building elevation and its background. Tonal values are therefore used primarily to articulate the orthogonal relationship between horizontal and vertical planes.

Toning the horizontal planes not only establishes a visual base for the drawing but also aids in defining the shape and orientation of the vertical planes. Perspective drawings should use the principles of atmospheric perspective to enhance the sense of spatial depth. Digital Rendering Although improvements continue to be made, the rendering of atmospheric and texture perspective remains problematic in many graphics programs.

Image-processing software, however, allows us to modify digital drawings and simulate the pictorial effects of atmospheric and texture perspective.

The depiction of light, shade, and shadow can model the surfaces of a design, describe the disposition of its masses, and articulate the depth and character of its details. The sun is so large and distant a Su source that its light rays are considered to be parallel.

The ne corollary to this is that any point that is not in light cannot do w li Sha cast a shadow because light does not strike it. A shadow can never be cast on a surface in shade, nor can it exist within another shadow.

It generally requires two related views—either a plan and elevation or two related L ig elevations—and the transferring of information back ht ray Pro Pro and forth from one view to the other. This convention produces shadows of width or depth equal to the width or depth of the projections that cast the shadows.


This feature can be especially useful in the schematic design phase to study the form of a building or the massing of a building complex on a site and to evaluate the impact of the shadows they cast on adjacent buildings and outdoor areas. While efficient and useful for preliminary design studies, ray casting does not take into account the way the light rays from an illuminating source are absorbed, reflected, or refracted by the surfaces of forms and spaces.

For a visual comparison of digital lighting methods, see pages — The hypotenuse of the triangular shadow end points. If the line intersects the surface, plane establishes the direction of the light rays, its shadow must begin at that juncture. This is also true when the line is parallel to the straight lines in a curved surface receiving the shadow.

The shape of the shadow is elliptical since the section of a cylinder cut by any plane oblique to its axis is an ellipse. The most convenient method of determining the shadow of a circle is to determine the shadow of the square or octagon circumscribing the given circle, and then to inscribe within it the elliptical shadow of the circle.

It is usually best to begin by determining the Plan View shadows of significant points in the form, such as the end points of straight lines and the tangent points of curves. The shadow of the line will appear to be straight regardless of the shape of the surface receiving the shadow. In clarifying the relative depth of projections, Elevation View overhangs, and recesses within the massing of a building, shade and shadows can also model the relief and texture of surfaces.

Rather, they merely indicate the relative heights of the parts of a building above the ground plane. However, they may be used to emphasize the cut elements and the relative heights of objects within the space. However, they can be used effectively to distinguish Alti tud e between horizontal and vertical elements, and the three- dimensional nature of their forms.

To construct shade and shadows in a paraline drawing, it is necessary to assume a source and direction of light. Deciding on a direction of light is a problem in composition as well as communication. It is important to remember that cast shadows should clarify rather than confuse the nature of forms and their spatial relationships.

There are occasions when it may be desirable to determine the actual conditions of light, shade, and shadow. For example, when studying the effects of solar radiation and shadow patterns on thermal comfort and energy conservation, it is necessary to construct shades and shadows using the actual sun angles for specific times and dates of the year.

Within the shadow or area in shade, there is usually some variation in value due to the reflected light from adjacent lit surfaces. This intersection s represents the source of the light rays, and is above HL when the light source is in front of the observer and below HL when behind the observer. The shadow and the bearing direction therefore share the same vanishing point.

Determine where the bearing of the shadow meets the vertical surface. Both the casting edge and its shadow therefore VP for light rays share the same vanishing point. In each of the major drawing systems, we do this by extending the ground line and plane to include adjacent structures and site features. In addition to the physical context, we should indicate the scale and intended use of spaces by including human figures and furnishings. We can also attempt to describe the ambience of a place by depicting the quality of light, the colors and textures of materials, the scale and proportion of the space, or the cumulative effect of details.

Pe op l e The viewer of a drawing relates to the human figures within it and is thus drawn into the scene. Therefore, in the drawing of architectural and urban spaces, we include people to: Scale Important aspects to consider in the drawing of human figures are: We can Use and Activity therefore simply scale the normal height of people in elevations and section drawings. Since the view is three- dimensional, however, the figures should have some degree of roundness to indicate their volume.

Then we can extend this spot vertically and place the eyes of the head of each figure on the horizon line. The principles of linear perspective can be used to shift the figure right or left, up or down, or into the depth of the perspective. We therefore need to draw human figures in proper size and proportion.

Instead, figures should be given a sense of volume, especially in paraline and perspective views. Then the established proportions are used to draw the same person sitting down.

What activity should occur in important spatial features or distract from the focus of this room or space? The same principles that govern the scale, clothing, placement, and gesturing in hand drawing should apply to the use of digital images of people in architectural settings. The ability to produce photorealistic images of people is seductive. Keep in mind that the graphic style with which we populate architectural drawings should not distract or detract from the architectural subject matter.

The figures should have a similar level of abstraction and be compatible with the graphic style of the drawn setting.

Their placement should remind us that there should be places on which to sit, lean, rest our elbow or foot, or simply touch. Digital Libraries Many CAD and modeling programs include ready-made libraries or templates of furniture elements. These can be easily copied, resized, and placed directly into drawings. These include: With these landscaping elements, we can: Different types of branch structures are illustrated below. The amount of detail rendered should be consistent with the scale and style of the drawing.

Draw these outlines freehand to give the foliage a textural quality. It is therefore necessary to differentiate between deciduous trees, conifers, and palms. As always, the type of trees selected should be appropriate to the geographic location of the architecture. The outline of foliage can be suggested with dotted or lightly drawn freehand lines. Foreground elements typically possess dark, saturated colors and sharply defined contrasts in value.

As elements move farther away, their colors become lighter and more subdued, and their tonal contrasts more diffuse.

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This can sometimes be accomplished simply with an articulated profile line. This area therefore requires more detail and sharp contrasts in tonal value. Trees and landscaping are shown merely as shapes of tonal value and texture.

As with digital images of people, the ability to produce photorealistic images of trees and other landscape elements can be seductive. Keep in mind that the graphic style of site and contextual elements should not distract or detract from the architectural subject matter.

Their graphic description should have the same level of abstraction and be compatible with the graphic style of the drawn setting. These drawings describe a design proposal in a graphic manner intended to persuade an audience of its value. The audience may be a client, a committee, or merely someone browsing for an idea. Although the drawings that comprise a presentation may be excellent two-dimensional graphics worthy of an exhibition, they are merely tools for communicating a design idea, never ends in themselves.

A rc hi te c tural Presentatio ns Unless presentation drawings are comprehensible and persuasive—their conventions understood and their substance meaningful—a presentation will be weak and ineffective. An effective presentation, however, also possesses important collective characteristics. Point of View Be clear about design intent. A presentation should communicate the central idea or concept of a design scheme. Graphic diagrams and text are effective means of articulating and clarifying the essential aspects of a design scheme, especially when they are visually related to the more common types of design drawing.

Efficiency Be economical. An effective presentation employs economy of means, utilizing only what is necessary to communicate an idea. Any graphic elements of a presentation that are distracting and ends in themselves can obscure the intent and purpose of the presentation.

Clarity Be articulate. At a minimum, presentation drawings should explain a design clearly and in enough detail so that viewers unfamiliar with it will be able to understand the design proposal. Eliminate unintended distractions, such as those caused by ambiguous figure-ground relationships or inappropriate groupings of drawings. Too often, we can be blind to these glitches, because we know what we want to communicate and therefore cannot read our own work in an objective manner.

Accuracy Avoid presenting distorted or incorrect information. Presentation drawings should accurately simulate a possible reality and the consequences of future actions so that any decisions made based on the information presented are sound and reasonable. Als Download kaufen. Jetzt verschenken.

In den Warenkorb. Sie sind bereits eingeloggt. Klicken Sie auf 2. Alle Produkte. He is the author or coauthor of numerous architecture and design books, including Architectural Graphics; Architecture: Drawing from Observation. Drawing Systems. Drawing from the Imagination.Asif Syed. Ones that have square- models are especially handy.

The Elements of Photography. Instead, figures should be given a sense of volume, especially in paraline and perspective views. Equipped with tubular tips and waterproof, pigment- based ink, these pens are suitable for writing, freehand drawing, as well as drafting with straightedges. In either case, the subject matter presented should progress in sequence from small-scale to large-scale graphic information, and from the general or contextual view to the specific.

Whenever possible, orient plan drawings with north up or upward on the sheet. While digital tools can augment traditional techniques, the tactile, kinesthetic process of crafting lines on a sheet of paper with a pen or pencil remains the most sensible medium for learning the graphic language of drawing.

Assuming all other variables remain constant, the perspective images are identical in all respects except size.

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