CompTIA (Computer Technology Industry Association) is an association whose members components from either the A+ Core Hardware exam or the A+ OS. Computer Hardware Engineering. Lecture 9: Parallelism, Concurrency, Speedup, and ILP. David Broman. Associate Professor, KTH Royal Institute of. Ron Gilster, one of the top best-selling authors of hardware and certification books, has been involved with computer hardware and software for over 33 years .
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The PC can only process concise, simple data formats. Also "The Winn L. Rosch Hardware Bible" from Brady covers the same subjects. You will find the online version and the latest PDF version at HwB .. pc-hardware-faq/part1>, maintained by Ralph . Barrie Sosinsky has written about computers and technology for over 25 years inside your computers' operating systems, inside your networking hardware.
Blow away dust from keyboard 3. Tighten screws of a PC 4. Bundle cables inside the computer 5. Test functionality of the printer port Note: Each YES for accurate use of tools will be equivalent to 2 points. Fill up the diagram below with the things you think will be harmful when doing a hardware repair.
Occupational Health and Safety Procedures Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control Occupational safety and health OSH is a planned system of working to prevent illness and injury where you work by recognizing and identifying hazards and risks. Health and safety procedure is the responsibility of all persons in the computer and technology industries. You must identify the hazards where you are working and decide how dangerous they are.
Eliminate the hazard or modify the risk that it presents. There are three steps to manage health and safety at work: Spot the Hazard Hazard Identification , 2. Assess the Risk Risk Assessment and 3. Make the Changes Risk Control. Spot the Hazard A hazard is anything that could hurt you or someone else.
Examples of workplace hazards include: If you see, hear or smell anything odd, take note.
If you think it could be a hazard, tell someone. Assess the Risk Assessing the risk means working out how likely it is that a hazard will harm someone and how serious the harm could be.
Whenever you spot a hazard, assess the risk by asking yourself two questions: Always tell someone your employer, your supervisor or your health and safety representative about hazards you can't fix yourself, especially if the hazard could cause serious harm to anyone. If you are not sure of the safest way to do something during work experience, always ask your supervisor. Make the Changes It is your employer's responsibility to fix hazards.
Sometimes you may be able to fix simple hazards yourself, as long as you don't put yourself or others at risk. For example, you can pick up things from the floor and put them away to eliminate a trip hazard.
Common hazards encountered by computer technicians and users A hazard is a situation in the workplace that has the potential to harm the health and safety of people or to damage plant and equipment.
The situation could involve a task, chemical or equipment used. Hazard management is a continuous process that can be used to improve the health and safety of all workplaces. Physical Hazards One of the most common physical hazards involving computer technicians is cables running across the floor.
If someone trips, falls, and hurts himself because of a cable you ran across the floor, someone you, your employer, or your customer has a serious legal negligence problem. If you need to temporarily run a cable across the floor, place a Danger sign similar to those "wet floor" signs used by cleaning services. For cables that are temporary but will need to run across the floor for a longer period of time, use "gaffers tape".
Gaffers tape is a heavy tape with strong adhesive to stick to the floor. For long term cable routing there is a wide variety of cable organizing devices like cable ties, cable wraps, and cable raceways which can be used to run cable safely along the wall or ceiling.
Mechanical Hazards When working on electronic equipment, ask yourself "Is there any way this equipment could hurt me? You might move your hand past a computer chassis and lose a chunk of flesh because it is razor sharp.
When working on electronic equipment always be alert to any possibility of being hurt by moving parts, hot components, or sharp edges. Chemical Hazards There is a wide array of chemicals used with electronic equipment.
There are display cleaning chemicals, keyboard cleaning chemicals, compressed gas dirt and dust removers, and many cleaning solvents. Some of these chemicals can be harmful if accidentally swallowed, get on bare skin, or get in eyes. Before using any chemicals for electronic equipment always read the warnings and instructions on the label.
Also be very careful when dealing with inkjet printer cartridges, or laser printer toner cartridges. Ink and toner can stain skin, clothing and carpet. Electric Shock Hazard Inside computers and electronic equipment, there is a range of voltages from 3. But at the power supply, you will find line voltage, which is a lethal volts. The workplace should have safety guidelines to follow to: Always ground or discharge yourself before touching any part of the computer.
Do not work alone so that there is someone who can take care of you in case of accident or emergency. Be careful with the tools that may cause short circuit. Always full the cable connector on the handle and not hold on the cable itself.
Use only rubber shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Make sure that the pins are properly aligned when connecting a cable connector.
Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Take away any liquid such as mineral water or soft drinks near your working area or near computers. Contingency measures during workplace accidents, fire, and other emergencies are recognized.
Personal protective equipment is correctly used in accordance with organization procedures and practice. Take necessary precautions to protect the component of the computer from damaged caused by Electrostatic Discharge ESD.
Read and follow instructions on the manual carefully. Do not use excessive force if things do not quite slip into place.
Identifying Safety Precautions A. On the table provided below, list down the safety precautions applicable for people, equipment and the environment. Use the safety precautions when working as your reference.
People Equipment Environment B. Identify what hazard is being illustrated in the situation below. Short Interview Directions: Conduct an interview with a skilled computer technician and ask the following guide questions: What are your personal preparations for your own safety when working?
What are the other safety precautions that you apply when working? What are your tips for beginners like us in adhering with the safety precautions? Task 2: Time to Browse Directions: Using the internet, read more eBooks about occupational health and safety precautions. Also you can watch video presentations featuring safety precautions when working. Have a note or hard copy of what you have researched.
You may use the following web sites as your reference: I Care for Safe Work Direction: Pay attention to the procedures and arrangement being practiced and used in the workplace. Identify hazards and assess the risk based on your observations. Spot the hazard If you spot something hazardous, what should you do? Skills Test Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order for you to render quality service when you enter the real world of Computer Hardware Servicing.
Read carefully the skills then put a check mark in Not much if you are not really familiar, A little if you have a little knowledge and A lot if you are familiar with the skill.
Lesson 4: Assembly and Disassembly of a Personal Computer One of the basic skills that you must acquire in computer hardware servicing is to independently assemble and disassemble a personal computer or simply setting up a PC. After familiarizing with all the tools and safety precautions I believe that you are now ready to gain another experience in CHS by going through this lesson.
Unplugging - The first thing you do is to unplug every cable that is plugged in to your computer. Just unplug all the cables for safety purposes. Now that your computer is fully unplugged, move your PC to a clean work space, preferably a carpet. The carpet is better than tile, because screws and other small parts will roll around.
On most computer cases, there will be large knobs that you can unscrew by hand or by screw driver on the back-right side of the computer. The left side has small screws because on that side you can't access much on the inside. Screw at the back of computer chasis Once the screws are removed, you can remove the side panels. On most computers, they just slide off. Start with the left side panel the side that once had the knobs , slide it towards the back of the computer.
Now you can remove the left panel. Just like the other side, slide it towards the back of the computer. This is done so you do not shock your motherboard or other parts.
Removing the System Fan - First, unplug the fan from the motherboard. You can find the plug by following the wire from the fan. Next, you will have to unscrew the fan from the outside.
You should now be able to lift the fan out of the PC. System Fan Figure Removing the system fan Step4.
The CPU fan plugs into the motherboard in an awkward place, that is hard to access. To remove the fan from the heat sink, remove the four screws securing it in place. CPU Fan Figure Removing the CPU fan Step5. Power Supply - The first thing to do is unplug every wire coming from the power supply. Once everything is unplugged, unscrew the four screws holding the power supply in place, on the back of the computer. Next, push the power supply from the outside, and then lift it out.
Once that is completed, pull on the tab securing the drive in place, then push it out from the inside. Hard Drive - First, unplug the connector at the back of the slot, and unplug the other end from the motherboard. Also unplug the SATA cable from the motherboard and the hard drive. Pull on the tab, then slide the slot out. Unplugging the Hard Drive connector To remove the hard drive from the side of the slot, unscrew the four screws securing it in place.
You must be very careful not to drop the hard drive, since it is very delicate! Removing the hard drive from the side of the slot Step8. Removing the Memory Step9.
The Winn L. Rosch Hardware Bible, 6th Edition
Motherboard - The motherboard has seven screws holding it to the frame, which are indicated by large white circles around them. Remove them and then lift the motherboard out of the frame.
Next in line is the PC Assembly, exert more effort and patience. Just follow the step by step procedures and illustrations below and surely you can make it. Good Luck!!! Step by Step Computer Assembly Step 1. Prepare your workplace 1. Take Inventory: Before you start, take an inventory of your parts. Do not begin assembling your computer if you don't have everything you need.
Begin the step-by-step process once you are ready with everything you need. Take inventory of the Different Computer Parts 2. Make Space, Make Time: Building a PC takes up space - about a dining room table worth.
So make sure you have plenty of working room and a few hours to proceed with minimal interruption. Work on a flat, stable table top surface, or bare floor, where you have room to layout all of the items. Prepare Grounding Protection: Use an inexpensive antistatic wrist strap.
It is the perfect preventive measure if you have no alternative to working on carpet. Remember, a table top or bare floor is always the best place to build your system. Look at Figure 42 for details. Wearing the Anti- static Wrist Strap Correctly 4. Have the Drivers Ready: Assuming you have another internet connected PC, download the latest drivers from the vendors' websites for each component you will be installing.
Sometimes drivers are updated between the time the component was manufactured and the time you are installing it. It is always best to have the latest.
Copy them to a CD for easy access. Step 2. Prepare the Motherboard 1. Great care should be taken when installing the motherboard. First, take the board out of its packaging and put it on top of the antistatic bag it came in see Figure Remember, you always want to safeguard your components from potentially hazardous static electricity wear your strap. Next, review the motherboard manual, to make sure you are familiar with the motherboard layout and understand which socket is which.
Manuals are extremely helpful, usually easy to read, and include illustrations. Below you can find instructions on how to install the processor, the heat sink and the memory modules on the motherboard. You should not place the motherboard in the computer case until you are told to do so. Step 3. Install the CPU 1. Use the unlocking mechanism to open the CPU socket which is usually a lever. Carefully line up the pins and place the chip in its socket; it will fit only when oriented the proper way.
An arrow or a missing pin on one corner of the chip will show you how to line things up. Lower the lever to lock the CPU into place. Install CPU Step 4.
Follow the manufacturer's directions to install the heat sink and the fan that will cool the processor. If you bought an OEM CPU and a separate heat sink, you may need to spread a thin layer of the thermal grease that came with the heat sink over the chip to ensure proper transfer of heat some heat sinks come with this grease already applied.
Attach the clip that holds the heat sink in place keeping in mind that it may require a fair amount of force. Again, follow the instructions that came with the heat sink. They will show you how to fit it correctly.
Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, 13th Edition ...
If you are in doubt, you can visit the manufacturer's website for more information. Plug the CPU fan's power connector into the proper connector on the motherboard. Step 5. Install Memory RAM Modules In order to install the memory modules, insert them into the proper sockets Figure 48 and push down firmly but evenly until the clips on both sides of the socket pop into place. If your motherboard supports dual-channel memory, consult the user manual to determine which pairs of RAM sockets you should use.
The motherboard and the CPU are the brain and nerve center of your PC, so selecting these components is the most important decision you'll make. Place the motherboard into the case 1. Some PC cases have a removable motherboard tray. If yours does, remove the screws holding it in place and pull it out of the case Figure Remove Motherboard Tray 2.
Note the pattern of the holes in your motherboard Figure 50 , and screw brass standoffs into the motherboard tray or into the PC case in the correct locations ALWAYS check the manual and follow their instructions to the letter.
Screw Brass Standoffs Into the Motherboard 3. Carefully position the motherboard on top of the brass standoffs Figure 51 , line up all the holes, and use the screws that accompanied the case to fasten down the motherboard.
If you are using a removable tray in your system, slide the tray and motherboard back into the case and then secure the tray. Mount the Motherboard Step 7. Connect the Power Supply Making the proper connections is crucial to successfully assembling your PC system. Fortunately, manufacturers provide color-coded power cables and unique connector shapes to make the job easy. First, plug the large ATX power connector Figure 53 from your power supply into the matching port on your motherboard. Look Figure X for details.
Locate the smaller, square processor power connector Figure 54 you cannot miss it - it is the one sprouting the yellow and black wires and attach it to the motherboard. As always, refer to your motherboard's manual for the exact locations. Use your motherboard user manual and find the description about front-panel connectors. Attach each of the tiny leads from the power and reset switches Figure 56 , the hard- disk activity lights, the PC speaker, and any front-panel USB and FireWire ports to the corresponding pin on your motherboard.
The needle-nose pliers are useful for manipulating small pieces. Connect the different Leads Step 8. Install the graphics board in that slot, and then secure the card with a screw Figure Install the Graphics Board Step 9.
Install Internal Drives Now it is time to install your drives. This is an easy process, but it requires attention to detail. Make any necessary changes to jumpers on the drives before mounting them in the case. Many cases have removable drive rails or cages to house drives.
Use the included screws to attach your drives to the rails or cage, and slide them into the case. For externally accessible drives such as a DVD recorder, you can save time by installing one drive rail and sliding the drive in for a test fitting to make sure that its front is flush with the case Figure When the drives are installed, connect power and data cables to each one.
Parallel ATA drives use wide, flat data cables that can be installed only in the correct way. Floppy drives use a similar but smaller cable; SATA drives use a thin, 1cm-wide data cable. SATA drives use a new type of power connector that many power supplies don't come with.
Attach your devices Figure Connect Power Connector Step Install the Add- in Cards 1. For each add-in card, you must choose a free PCI slot. Remove its backplane cover to allow access from the rear of the case.
Carefully position the card above the slot, and press down firmly to seat the card Figure Secure the card with a screw. Add- in Cards Many motherboards have additional sound connectors or ports housed on small add-in boards.
Some of these plug into slots on the motherboard; others screw into the back of the case in place of slot covers. Usually the additional ports are not essential to your PC's operation. For example, if you install a sound card, you do not need connectors to the motherboard's built-in sound chip.
Check your motherboard manual to determine what each of these boards does. Congratulations for doing a great job, but hold on with your patience because you still need to complete another topic which is connecting the PC peripherals.
So, keep moving. Connecting Peripherals of a Personal Computer When attaching hardware and peripherals of the computer, ensure that they are connected to the correct locations or ports. So, you must know first the different ports that can be found in the back panel of the computer. When attaching cables, never force a connection.
Plug in the power cable after you have connected all other cables. Attach the monitor cable to the video port.
Secure the cable by tightening the screws on the connector. Attach the Monitor Cable Step 3. Plug the Keyboard Cable Step 4. Plug the network cable into the network port. Plug the Network Cable Step 7. Plug the power cable into the power supply.
Plug the Power Cable After connecting all the cables into their proper places, the picture in the next page should be the appearance of the back panel of your PC.
Good luck! Process Task: Rearrange the Procedures Direction: Rearrange the following procedures in their proper order. Use numbers to indicate their order of precedence. The first number is done for you. Prepare your workplace Reflect and Understand Task 1: Time to Browse!
Utilizing the internet, watch video presentations about connecting PC parts and read additional books for computer hardware servicing to broaden your ideas and skills. You can use the following URLs for your reference. Group and Learn Direction: Have a group of five 5 people and discuss about the video presentations, have a brain storming about the helpful tips given in the video and try to acquire the techniques on the PC Assembly and disassembly by having an actual activity.
Follow the given procedures below and safety precautions must be observed when working. You will be rated in accordance with the rubrics provided below: Personal Computer Assembly C.
Answer the essential questions below according to your experience in connecting hardware and peripherals of a computer. What is the essence of following the correct procedures in connecting the PC parts?
What do you think is the main reason why we should never exert too much force when attaching the cables of PC parts? What is your perspective why the power cable should always be the last on the procedure of attaching parts? What do you feel when you are doing the activity? As a computer technician, why do think skills is a crucial factor?
Team up and Learn!! After completing all the lessons in this module you need to accomplish the final activities provided here.
Have an evidence of your activity. Have a journal or narrative report of your performance. Perform the following: Clean all the dirty computers in the computer laboratory 2.
Show or exhibit skills in PC assembly and disassembly using the defective computers in the computer laboratory.
You did great!!! Lesson 1 covers the different components and parts of a computer system. There are different tools and equipments that are required to accomplish a certain task in a given span of time. In lesson 2, different useful tools are featured as well as the proper way of using them. Understanding computer system is really a brain breaking job, but of course all starts from a little knowledge and eventually into a broader one.
This module would help the reader to have at least the basic and primary knowledge of computer system. Process 1. Printer cable jack 5. Speaker jack 6. Anti- Static Wrist strap 2. Flat head screw driver 3. Flashlight 4. Lint free cloth 5. Multi- tester 6. Anti static mat 7. Philips head Screw driver 8. Part Retriever 9. Compressed air Loop back adapter Torx Tweezer Hex Process People Equipment Environment 1.
These drives are lightning fast and have extremely low power demands, but they tend to be more expensive with less storage capacity. Logos can only be installed on one drive at a time. The application and the content cannot be separated. In actuality, Logos uses a lot of graphics processing power to render multiple panels, floating windows, menus, visual filters, search filters, graphs, maps and even videos. Using a stronger video processor can make for big speed improvements.
Major factors to consider when downloading a video card GPU or new computer are: Dedicated Memory RAM Does the video processor have its own, dedicated video memory, or does it share the system's memory? We recommend at least 1GB of dedicated video memory.
On-Board or Integrated An "on-board" or "integrated" video card is more likely to share memory from the system. Some even share CPU power. These are usually a better choice, if possible.
If this seems confusing, a good rule of thumb is "Can I play games on it? This is an easy quality to ask about when downloading. Was this article helpful? Tell us why.Audio Port Intended for plugging in the speaker or headset. Muhammad Arief 'ismed' Ismaidi. Power Port Intended for power cord.
If POST tone is normal then go through the next step, otherwise check individual devices. It starts the Startup necessary to start the system. The CPU fan plugs into the motherboard in an awkward place, that is hard to access. Table 4. After copying the files the system will be restarted automatically.
If someone trips, falls, and hurts himself because of a cable you ran across the floor, someone you, your employer, or your customer has a serious legal negligence problem. I know how to attach RAM in the memory socket.
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