Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition. Robert J. Sternberg and. Karin Sternberg. Acquisitions Editor: Jaime Perkins. Developmental Editor: Tangelique Williams. Arthur Brisbane was a run-of-the-mill newspaperman, no better and no worse than a he receives free publicity in newspa. Cognitive. Psychology. Greg Francis. MWF am - pm. Matthews Hall, Room PSY Intro. to Cognitive Psychology . Adobe Acrobat (pdf).
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E D I T I O N. Cognitive Psychology This page intentionally left blank 6 E D I T I O N. Cognitive Psychology ROBERT J. STERNBERG Oklahoma State University. PDF | On Dec 1, , Michael I. Posner and others published Cognitive Psychology. PDF | On Jan 1, , R. Versace and others published Journal of Cognitive Psychology.
An assumption that is related to isomorphism is that there is localisation of function, meaning that any specific function or process occurs in a given location within the brain Figure 1. The notion of localisation of function seems to be in conflict with the connectionist account, according to which a process e. There is as yet no definitive evidence to support one view over the other. Evaluation Are the various theoretical assumptions underlying cognitive neuropsychology correct?
It is hard to tell. Therefore, the issue of whether the theoretical assumptions are valuable or not is probably best resolved by considering the extent to which cognitive neuropsychology is successful in increasing our knowledge of cognition. In other words, the proof of the pudding is in the eating.
According to Farah , p. It undercuts much of the special appeal of neuropsychological architecture. This three-dimensional PET scan shows the metabolic activity within the brain during a hand exercise. The exercise involved moving the fingers of the right hand. The front of the brain is at the left. The most active area appears white; this is the motor cortex in the cerebral cortex where movement is coordinated. One of the most serious problems with cognitive neuropsychology stems from the difficulty in carrying out group studies.
This has led to the increasing use of single-case studies. Such studies are sometimes very revealing. However, they can provide misleading evidence if the patient had specific cognitive deficits prior to brain damage, or if he or she has developed unusual compensatory strategies to cope with the consequences of brain damage. For example, Baddeley , p. While it may in principle one day be possible to map one theory onto the other, it will still be useful to have both a psychological and a physiological theory…Neurophysiology and neurochemistry are interesting and important areas, but at present they place relatively few constraints on psychological theories and models of human memory.
Why was Baddeley doubtful that neurophysiological evidence could contribute much to psychological understanding? The main reason was that psychologists and neurophysiologists tend to focus on different levels of analysis. In the same way that a carpenter does not need to know that wood consists mainly of 1.
Adapted from Churchland and Sejnowski A different position was advocated by Churchland and Sejnowski , p. Unfortunately, it is difficult, if not impossible, to theorise effectively on these matters in the absence of neurobiological constraints. The primary reason is that computational space is consummately vast, and there are many conceivable solutions to the problems of how a cognitive operation could be accomplished.
Neurobiological data provide essential constraints on computational theories, and they consequently provide an efficient means for narrowing the search space. Equally important, the data are also richly suggestive in hints concerning what might really be going on. In principle, it is possible to establish where in the brain certain cognitive processes occur, and when these processes occur.
Such information can allow us to determine the order in which different parts of the brain become active when someone is performing a task. It also allows us to find out whether two tasks involve the same parts of the brain in the same way, or whether there are important differences.
As we will see, this can be very important theoretically. Some techniques provide information about the single-cell level, whereas others tell us about activity over much larger groups of cells. In similar fashion, some techniques provide information about brain activity on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis which corresponds to the timescale for thinking , whereas others indicate brain activity only over much longer time periods such as minutes or hours.
The spatial and temporal resolutions of some of these techniques are shown in Figure 1. High spatial and temporal resolutions are advantageous if a very detailed account of brain functioning is required, but low spatial and temporal resolutions can be more useful if a more general view of brain activity is required.
Single-unit recording Single-unit recording is a fine-grain technique developed over 40 years ago to permit the study of single neurons. A micro-electrode about one 10,th of a millimetre in diameter is inserted into the brain of an animal to obtain a record of extracellular potentials.
Single-unit recording is a very sensitive technique, as electrical charges of as little as one-millionth of a volt can be detected. The best known application of this technique was by Hubel and Wiesel , They used it with cats and monkeys to study the neurophysiology of basic visual processes.
Hubel and Wiesel found there were simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex, but there were many more complex cells. These two types of cells both respond maximally to straight-line stimuli in a particular orientation see Chapter 4. The findings of Hubel and Wiesel were so clear-cut that they constrained several subsequent theories of visual perception, including that of Marr ; see Chapter 2. Evaluation The single-unit recording technique has the great value that it provides detailed information about brain functioning at the neuronal level, and is thus more fine-grain than other techniques see Figure 1.
Another advantage is that information about neuronal activity can be obtained over a very wide range of time periods from small fractions of a second up to several hours or days. A major limitation is that it is an invasive technique, and so would be unpleasant to use with humans. Another limitation is that it can only provide information about activity at the neuronal level, and so other techniques are needed to assess the functioning of larger areas of the cortex.
Event-related potentials ERPs The electroencephalogram EEG is based on recordings of electrical brain activity measured at the surface of the scalp.
Very small changes in electrical activity within the brain are picked up by scalp electrodes. These changes can be shown on the screen of a cathode-ray tube by means of an oscilloscope.
A key problem with the EEG is that there tends to be so much spontaneous or background brain activity that it obscures the impact of stimulus processing on the EEG recording. A solution to this problem is to present the same stimulus several times. After that, the segment of EEG following each stimulus is extracted and lined up with respect to the time of stimulus onset.
These EEG segments are then simply averaged together to produce a single waveform. This method produces eventrelated potentials ERPs from EEG recordings, and allows us to distinguish genuine effects of stimulation from background brain activity. ERPs are particularly useful for assessing the timing of certain cognitive processes. For example, some attention theorists have argued that attended and unattended stimuli are processed differently at an early stage of processing, whereas others have claimed that they are both analysed fully in a similar way see 1.
Studies using ERPs have provided good evidence in favour of the former position. For example, Woldorff et al. Evaluation ERPs provide more detailed information about the time course of brain activity than do most other techniques, and they have many medical applications e. However, ERPs do not indicate with any precision which regions of the brain are most involved in processing.
This is due in part to the fact that the presence of skull and brain tissue distorts the electrical fields emerging from the brain. Furthermore, ERPs are mainly of value when the stimuli are simple and the task involves basic processes e. As a result of these constraints and the necessity of presenting the same stimulus several times it would not be feasible to study most complex forms of cognition e.
Positron emission tomography PET Of all the new methods, the one that has attracted the most media interest is positron emission tomography or the PET scan. The technique is based on the detection of positrons, which are atomic particles emitted by some radioactive substances.
When part of the cortex becomes active, the labelled water moves rapidly to that place. A scanning device next measures the positrons emitted from the radioactive water. A computer then translates this information into pictures of the activity levels of different parts of the brain. It may sound dangerous to inject a radioactive substance into someone. However, only tiny amounts of radioactivity are involved. Raichle b has described the typical way in which PET has been used by cognitive neuroscientists.
It is based on a subtractive logic. Brain activity is assessed during an experimental task, and is also assessed during some control or baseline condition e. The brain activity during the control condition is then subtracted from that during the experimental task. It is assumed that this allows us to identify those parts of the brain that are active only during the performance of the task.
This technique has been used in several studies designed to locate the parts of the brain most involved in episodic memory, which is long-term memory involving conscious recollection of the past see Chapter 7. Evaluation One of the major advantages of PET is that it has reasonable spatial resolution, in that any active area within the brain can be located to within about 3 or 4 millimetres.
It is also a fairly versatile technique, in that it can be used to identify the brain areas involved in a wide range of different cognitive activities.
PET has several limitations. First, the temporal resolution is very poor. PET scans indicate the total amount of activity in each region of the brain over a period of 60 seconds or longer, and so cannot reveal the rapid changes in brain activity accompanying most cognitive processes. Second, PET provides only an indirect measure of neural activity.
As Anderson, Holliday, Singh, and Harding , p. The tumour appears in bright contrast to the surrounding brain tissue. Fourth, it can be hard to interpret the findings from use of the subtraction technique. For example, it may seem plausible to assume that those parts of the brain active during retrieval of episodic memories but not other kinds of memories are directly involved in episodic memory retrieval.
However, the participants may have been more motivated to retrieve such memories than other memories, and so some of the brain activity may reflect the involvement of motivational rather than memory systems. This produces magnetic changes which are detected by an ton magnet surrounding the patient. These changes are then interpreted by a computer and turned into a very precise three-dimensional picture.
MRI scans Figure 1. MRI scans can be obtained from numerous different angles. However, they only tell us about the structure of the brain rather than about its functions. Neural activity in the brain produces increased blood flow in the active areas, and there is oxygen and glucose within the blood. According to Raichle a, p. It is more useful than PET, because it provides more precise spatial information, and shows changes over shorter periods of time.
However, it shares with PET a reliance on the subtraction technique in which brain activity during a control task or situation is subtracted from brain activity during the experimental task. A study showing the usefulness of fMRI was reported by Tootell et al. It involves the so-called waterfall illusion, in which lengthy viewing of a stimulus moving in one direction e.
There 1. First, the gradual reduction in the size of the waterfall illusion over the first 60 seconds of observing the stationary stimulus was closely paralleled by the reduction in the area of activation observed in the fMRI.
Second, most of the brain activity produced by the waterfall illusion was in V5, which is an area of the visual cortex known to be much involved in motion perception see Chapter 2. Thus, the basic brain processes underlying the waterfall illusion are similar to those underlying normal motion perception.
Evaluation Raichle a, p. MRI provides both anatomical and functional information, which permits an accurate anatomical identification of the regions of activation in each subject. The spatial resolution is quite good, approaching the 1—2 millimetre range. One limitation with fMRI is that it provides only an indirect measure of neural activity. As Anderson et al. A final limitation is that it relies on the subtraction technique, and this may not accurately assess brain activity directly involved in the experimental task.
It involves using a superconducting quantum interference device SQUID , which measures the magnetic fields produced by electrical brain activity. It provides very accurate measurement of brain activity, in part because the skull is virtually transparent to magnetic fields.
Thus, magnetic fields are little distorted by intervening tissue, which is an advantage over the electrical activity assessed by the EEG. Anderson et al. They found with MEG that motion-contrast patterns produced large responses from V5, but that V5 did not seem to be responsive to colour. This is more valuable information than simply establishing that V1 and V5 are both active during this task, because it helps to clarify the sequence in which different brain areas contribute towards visual processing.
Evaluation MEG possesses several valuable features. First, the magnetic signals reflect neural activity reasonably directly. Second, MEG supplies fairly detailed information at the millisecond level about the time course of cognitive processes.
This matters because it makes it possible to work out the sequence of activation in different areas of the cortex. Techniques used by cognitive neuroscientists Method Strengths Weaknesses Single-unit recording Information obtained over a wide range of time periods. ERPs Fine-grain detail. Only neuronal-level information is obtained.
Detailed information about the time course of brain activity. PET Active areas can be located to within 3—4 mm.
Can identify a wide range of cognitive activities. Obtains accurate anatomical information. Provides a reasonably direct measure of neural activity, Does not give accurate information about brain areas active at a given time.
MEG Gives detailed information about the time course of cognitive processes. Can only be used to study basic cognitive processes. Cannot reveal rapid changes in brain activity. Provides only an indirect measure of neural activity.
Findings f rom a subtraction technique can be hard to interpret. Indirect measure of neural activity.
Cannot track the time course of most cognitive processes. Irrelevant sources of magnetism may interfere with measurement. There are some major technical problems associated with the use of MEG. However, these technical problems have been largely or entirely resolved. The major remaining disadvantage is that MEG does not provide structural or anatomical information. Section summary All the techniques used by cognitive neuro-scientists possess strengths and weaknesses. Thus, it is often desirable to use a number of different techniques to study any given aspect of human cognition.
If similar 1. Such evidence is of special value, because it suggests that the techniques are not providing distorted information. It can also be of value to use two techniques differing in their particular strengths.
Daniel M. Buss, Martie G. Haselton, Todd K. Shackelford, April L. Bleske, and Jerome C. Skip to main content. Books Journals Reference Works Topics. download The Book. October Philosophy of Mind. Psychology I: Foundations of Cognition.
Psychology II: High-Level Cognition. Foundations of Cognitive Psychology. Core Readings. Edited by Daniel J. Visual Awareness Stephen E.
Where Am I? Daniel C. Can Machines Think? Access of semantic memory ranges from slightly to extremely effortful, depending on a number of variables including but not limited to recency of encoding of the information, number of associations it has to other information, frequency of access, and levels of meaning how deeply it was processed when it was encoded.
It contains all memories that are temporal in nature, such as when one last brushed one's teeth or where one was when one heard about a major news event. Episodic memory typically requires the deepest level of conscious thought, as it often pulls together semantic memory and temporal information to formulate the entire memory. Essentially, it is how people come to understand the world around them through interpretation of stimuli.
Titchener began to work with perception in their structuralist approach to psychology. Structuralism dealt heavily with trying to reduce human thought or "consciousness," as Titchener would have called it into its most basic elements by gaining understanding of how an individual perceives particular stimuli.
One study at CESPA concerns ways in which individuals perceive their physical environment and how that influences their navigation through that environment. Cognitive psychologists may study language acquisition ,  individual components of language formation like phonemes ,  how language use is involved in mood ,  or numerous other related areas.
Advertising: The contribution of applied cognitive psychology
Broca's and Wernicke's areas of the brain, which are critical in language Significant work has been done recently with regard to understanding the timing of language acquisition and how it can be used to determine if a child has, or is at risk of, developing a learning disability. A study from , showed that while this can be an effective strategy, it is important that those making evaluations include all relevant information when making their assessments.
Factors such as individual variability, socioeconomic status , short-term and long-term memory capacity, and others must be included in order to make valid assessments. More specifically, metacognition includes things like: How effective a person is at monitoring their own performance on a given task self-regulation.
A person's understanding of their capabilities on particular mental tasks. The ability to apply cognitive strategies. Being able to increase a student's metacognitive abilities has been shown to have a significant impact on their learning and study habits.
As a part of this process, it is also important to ensure that students are realistically evaluating their personal degree of knowledge and setting realistic goals another metacognitive task. False Fame Effect: non-famous names can be made to be famous Validity effect : statements seem more valid upon repeated exposure Imagination inflation : imagining an event that did not occur and having increased confidence that it did occur Modern perspectives[ edit ] Modern perspectives on cognitive psychology generally address cognition as a dual process theory , expounded upon by Daniel Kahneman in Intuition or system 1 , similar to associative reasoning, was determined to be fast and automatic, usually with strong emotional bonds included in the reasoning process.
Kahneman said that this kind of reasoning was based on formed habits and very difficult to change or manipulate. Reasoning or system 2 was slower and much more volatile, being subject to conscious judgments and attitudes.
Aaron T. Beck is generally regarded as the father of cognitive therapy. In his book titled Cognitive Therapy of Depression, Beck puts forth three salient points with regard to his reasoning for the treatment of depression by means of therapy or therapy and antidepressants versus using a pharmacological-only approach: 1.
Despite the prevalent use of antidepressants, the fact remains that not all patients respond to them. Many of those who do respond to antidepressants end up not taking their medications, for various reasons. They may develop side-effects or have some form of personal objection to taking the drugs. Beck posits that the use of psychotropic drugs may lead to an eventual breakdown in the individual's coping mechanisms. His theory is that the person essentially becomes reliant on the medication as a means of improving mood and fails to practice those coping techniques typically practiced by healthy individuals to alleviate the effects of depressive symptoms.
By failing to do so, once the patient is weaned off of the antidepressants, they often are unable to cope with normal levels of depressed mood and feel driven to reinstate use of the antidepressants.
Gordon B. Moskowitz defines social cognition as " Kenneth Dodge's SIP model is one of, if not the most, empirically supported models relating to aggression. Among his research, Dodge posits that children who possess a greater ability to process social information more often display higher levels of socially acceptable behavior.
His model asserts that there are five steps that an individual proceeds through when evaluating interactions with other individuals and that how the person interprets cues is key to their reactionary process. One of the major paradigms of developmental psychology, the Theory of Mind ToM , deals specifically with the ability of an individual to effectively understand and attribute cognition to those around them.McClelland, David E. Knowledge like what the Eiffel Tower looks like, or the name of a friend from sixth grade, represent semantic memory.
There is a potential problem in drawing sweeping conclusions from single dissociations. However, implementing a theory as a program is a good method for checking that it contains no hidden assumptions or vague terms.
Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook
These two types of cells both respond maximally to straight-line stimuli in a particular orientation see Chapter 4.
One pioneer of cognitive psychology, who worked outside the boundaries both intellectual and geographical of behaviorism was Jean Piaget.
There are various reasons why these distinctions are less neat and tidy in reality than we have implied. This encouraged a conceptualization of mental functions patterned on the way that computers handled such things as memory storage and retrieval,  and it opened an important doorway for cognitivism.
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