PDF | On Jan 1, , Anthony Pym and others published Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and Didactic. Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. Translated from the . Christiane Nord's Model. .. It presents Christiane Nord‟s approach to translation evaluation. . model of text analysis in translation (). The other two parts.
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Download as PDF or read online from Scribd Nord Christiane Text Analysis in Translation Chap2 Christiane Nord - Translation as a Purposeful Activity. Text Analysis in Translation by Christiane Nord, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Translation-oriented text analysis. Christiane Nord as a document of a source culture communication between the author and the source text (ST) recipient'.
General Functional Hierarchy Corpus Referential : Appellative : Expressive German 26 09 English 34 06 French 33 05 Spanish 34 04 On the whole, Spanish titles show the lowest degree of expressivity, whereas German titles are characterized by the highest degree of expressivity combined with the lowest degree of appellativity. English and French titles occupy an intermediate position in both functions. In the titles of poems and scholarly articles except in German , the distribution is rather similar in the four cultures.
This may be due to the fact that the communicative situations of these two genres are clearly defined and do not show any culture-specific particularities. The same cannot be said of the titles of short stories, where we find a relatively high degree of apellativity in English and an extremely low degree of expressivity in French, compared with German and Spanish.
Nord la, f , thus setting the limitations for a functional translation of titles, at least with regard to the four cultures included in the study. In the following sections, I will discuss some examples in order to show how this theoretical and methodological approach, which is assumed to be applicable to any other text or text-type as well, can be put into practice.
This means for example, that in a culture where readers of translations usually take the intentions expressed in the TT to be those of the author and not of the translator or the initiator the translator would have to respect these intentions and provide the TT with the corresponding function-markers. In order to be recognizable to the target audience, such markers would have to be taken from the target-cultural marker-code.
This approach has the following implications for the translation of titles. If we accept the hypothesis that distinctive, metatextual and phatic function are common to all titles, whereas referential, expressive and appellative functions are specific to some titles or title-genres, we have to distinguish two main strategic starting points for the translation of titles: In order to make sure that the translated title is appropriate to achieve the three basic functions in the target culture, the translator should follow the principle of functionality.
That is, the target title has to be in keeping will target-cultural norms and conventions with regard to form, syntax, textual design, and function-markers. In some cultures, for example in Germany, there is a law to protect book titles against unfair competition. There are a few doubles, or near-doubles, in the corpus material. It is interesting to note that, in most cases, at least one of the titles is a translation. Anne Holm: Ich bin David transl. Nonfiction: Johannes Heimleben: Darwin transl.
Children's literature: Biro: Gumdrop to the Rescue transl. The examples show that even the repetition of a particular title pattern may interfere with the distinctive function.
These forms of counterproductive intertextuality have to be distinguished from intentional intertextualities like parody or quotation of titles or title patterns see Examples 5a and 8. These include the conventions and the distribution and frequency of explicit metatextuality e. In order to achieve its metatextual function, a title muss be acceptable for the readership, and acceptability is determined by culture-specific expectations.
Wie der kleine Fuchs eine Mutter bekam In the Spanish corpus, we find a title-type consisting of an asyndetic combination of two titles belonging to two different texts. Since this type is not known in the German corpus, a German reader would interpret the second half of the combination as a subtitle to the first, as in the German example. Die offene Ehe. Die Kinder der Zukunft. The Second Sex — Germ.
Das andere Geschlecht. Sitte und Sexus der Frau In German nonfiction, the frequency of title-subtitle combinations is much higher Therefore, a translation of an English or French simple title by a German title- subtitle combination is in keeping with the conventions of the genre.
Memoirs of Hadrian Germ. Die Zukunft in unserer Hand.
Moreover, they are usually given in the subtitle. The translations quoted above have taken account of this aspect.
Culture-specific norms determine not only the frequency but also the form of metatextual elements. Comparing the average length of the titles and title-genres represented in the Corpora we find that they do not differ very much in the four cultures.
Evidently, the optimum length of a book title that is, a simple title or the main part of a title-subtitle combination is between three and four words. Longer titles are made easier to remember by using original structures, catch words, or a rhythmical pattern. Der Palmweintrinker. Text Analysis in Translation. Texto base — texto meta. Un modelo. The subtitle should have been omitted altogether in the English translation because it is far too long and too complicated.
In Spanish, a literal translation of the main title would not be possible without exceeding by far the conventional length limits. Moreover, the pattern consisting of a nominal phrase and a prepositional phrase is only third in frequency From a translational point of view, it is mainly the cultural affiliation of the referent and, consequently, the aspect of cultural distance which poses comprehension problems in translation.
We can distinguish several subfunctions to the referential function, such as information on the topic or content of the co-text thematie reference, e. Jane Austen: Pride and Prejudice , information on linguistic characteristics of the co-text metalinguistic reference, e. The following examples illustrate some of the translation problems connected with the referential function.
Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory,
El sonido y la furia — Fr. La bruit et la fureur — Germ. Otra vuelta de tuerca — Germ. La piel de nuestros dientes — Germ. Wir sind noch einmal davon gekommen Intertextuality can be used as a means of obtaining several functions see Nord , By reproducing the-text surface rather literally, at least the Spanish and the French versions give rise to interpretations which do not have anything to do with those intended by the author.
This is even more true of the literal Spanish translations of the idioms quoted in the other two titles, which are absolutely nonsensical. Mbise: Blood on Our Land — Germ. Therefore, the title does not fully achieve its referential function. Expressivity in titles can refer to the text referent as in Raymond Queneau: Pierrot mon petit , to the text itself e. Each evaluation has to be seen in its relationship with the culture-specific system of values it is based on.
This is particularly important in cases where evaluations are only implied and not explicitly verbalized in the formulation of a title. Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter — Germ. Wo die wilden Kerle wohnen — Span. Maurice Sendak's title refers to a passage in the book where an angry mother calls her son a wild thing. In his dream, the little boy visits the Wild Things and finally becomes their king.
A Very Easy Death — Germ. Ein sanfter Tod The example illustrates two subcategories of the expressive function. The original title expresses an emotion of the dying person, whereas the English translation refers to an objective quality which might be judged from outside, e.
The advertising function is achieved either directly by poetic and rhetorical means e. Ballard: Memories of the Space Age , by alluding to familiar stories or myths as in F. The persuasive function is marked by metaphors as in T.
Baldwin: Go, Tell It on the Mountain , etc. The appellative function depends mainly on the recipient. Example 7: a.
Metrical patterns in the German corpus Jerome K. Jerome: Three Men in a Boat — Germ. Drei Mann in einem Boot Jerome K. Jerome: Three Men on the Bummel — Germ.
Schlecht gesehen, schlecht gesagt. Therefore, the translator of the Jerome titles prefers a metrical pattern to the reproduction of the intertextual relationship between the two titles Drei Mann vs.
The German translation of the Beckett title is not appellative because it does not show any rhythmical consistency. Assonance vs. Affront secret, secrete vengeance The French translations of these Spanish titles take account of the fact that Spanish conventions prefer assonances as one of very few poetic means of appellativity, whereas French titles are often made attractive by syntactical patterns.
A Farewell to Sartre The original does not need much appellativity because the author is well known to the French audience. The English and German translations use the relationship between Beauvoir and Sartre as an appellative element. The translations take account of this difference in poetic conventions. If we take the view that textuality is not a mere structural property of an utterance but primarily a feature of its functions and use in communication, titles have to be considered as texts.
Titles meet the textuality standards established by Beaugrande and Dressler , 79 , representing their own forms of cohesion, coherence, informativity, intentionality, acceptability, situationality, and intertextuality, which are different from those of the corresponding co-text.
Titles can be intended to achieve six communicative functions, four of which referentiality, expressivity, appellativity, and phatic function can be universally assigned to all texts and text-types see Nord a, The other two metatextuality and distinctive function can be observed as specific functions of particular text-types: the distinctive function is typical of names or labels, and the metatextual function is found in metatexts such as text commentaries, reviews, abstracts, summaries, etc.
Simon Ward. Frank Finlay.
Stephen Brockmann. Dieter Trauden.
Ruth J. Madeleine Rietra.
Stuart Taberner. Colin Barr Grant. Bianca Theisen. Owen Evans. John P. Helga Stipa Madland.
Here is Aston
Priscilla A. Geoffrey Westgate. Paul Cooke. Hugo Bekker. Cheryl Dueck. Reinhard Andress. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New in Text Analysis in Translation: Second Edition. Based on a functional approach to translation and endebted to pragmatic text linguistics, it suggests a model for translation-oriented source-text analysis applicable to all text types and genres independent of the language and culture pairs involved.
Part 1 of the study presents the theoretical framework on which the model is based, and surveys the various concepts of translation theory and text linguistics. Part 2 describes the role and scope of source-text analysis in the translation process and explains why the model is relevant to translation.
Nord C Text Analysis in Translation
Part 3 presents a detailed study of the extratextual and intratextual factors and their interaction in the text, using numerous examples from all areas of professional translation. Part 4 discusses the applications of the model to translator training, placing particular emphasis on the selection of material for translation classes, grading the difficulty of translation tasks, and translation quality assessment.
The book concludes with the practical analysis of a number of texts and their translations, taking into account various text types and several languages German, English, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Dutch. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions Other books in this series.
Text Analysis in Translation Christiane Nord. Add to basket. Negotiating Positions Simon Ward. On the Rationality of Poetry Frank Finlay.Part 2 describes the role and scope of source-text analysis in the translation process and explains why the model is relevant to translation.
German-speakers can do what they like with their own language. In addition to these essential constituents we also have to consider a number of non-essential constituents.
After finding out the intended or possible functions of the source title, the translator would have to decide which of these functions, and in what hierarchical order, could or should be aimed at by the formulation of the target title.
Redefining Translation. Book titles including those of translated works in particular are part of the common knowledge of a community, like commercial Slogans, and sometimes acquire the status of idioms or even proverbs.
Therefore, the translators tried to find another solution: The English and the French versions 'play' on the ambiguity of natural and naturel, whereas the German version uses a rhythmical device which suggests an identification of Finnland and ein Erlebnis "a unique experience". From a prospective angle, on the other hand, they have to check each ST ele- ment as to whether it can fulfil the intended TT function as it stands or whether it has to be adapted, since the structural properties of any target text have to be adjusted to the function it is intended to have for the target-culture receiver.
It might even be paraphrased as "The end justifies the means", and this would indeed mean that the translator is free to choose any translation skopos for a particular source text.
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