Cadence & Slang is a series of evergreen guidelines that advocate simplicity, consistency, and humanity in technology. It's a book and a PDF, and each has. Nick Disabato is raising funds for Cadence & Slang: Second Edition on you'll receive a beautifully made book, and the revised PDF six. See details and download book: Review Book Online Cadence Slang Pdf By Nick Disabato.
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Maybe too much confidence: on the other hand, Cadence & Slang also (You can now download a PDF version, but I'm unclear on how accessible. Cadence & Slang book. Read 4 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Cadence & Slang is a small book about interaction design: a series o. Every sales representative executes a 'cadence' when they reach out via email, phone, or social Don't overuse jargon, slang, or get sloppy with your writing.
It shows how to use design to serve those ideals. Oh, many things! So this edition is revised to focus on touch-based interaction models considerably more.
More focus on the visual side of interaction design, including research-driven thoughts on the debate between skeuomorphic and flat design.
Significantly more emphasis on ethnographic research and contextual inquiry. And overall, every single section has been touched in some way by a word-for-word edit of the entire manuscript. Unlike the first edition, this edition is professionally edited by one dedicated person.
Who's responsible for all this? I'm working with Kaitlyn Tierney , who is editing this edition; and Daniel Bogan is back with two dozen brand-new illustrations. This has been the best project I've ever worked on, and I'm humbled that it has helped so many people. Thanks for all of your support, and I hope you can spread the word. Risks and challenges I have spent the past six weeks working full-time on this edition. The manuscript is already finished and in Kaitlyn's hands.
Finally, one should not fail to mention the additional theory proposed by Green , who imputes the arrival of CRS to 1 See Ducange Anglicus 43 the collaborative effort of the English bricklayers and the Irish navies, employed in the East End docks. There is no denying that the conception of CRS still lies in the utter obscurity.
Nevertheless, this dearth of accurate information concerning the emergence of the discussed linguistic phenomenon does not influence its rapid dissemination. Despite its dubious roots, CRS soon infiltrated into the linguistic realm of the English proletariat, just to become firmly embedded in the general lexicon a few years later. As it has been posited above, Cockney Rhyming Slang operates on the basis of a relatively unsophisticated premise, where a phrase which rhymes with a particular word is used to replace that word in speech Bauer — a classical example of this might be the expression dustbin lids, used to denote kids.
In this respect, it is necessary to mention two significant concomitants that contribute to what we call a perfect CRS phrase, namely the optimal number of elements and the recommended rhythm — as attested by Wright and Mattiello , an exemplary coinage consists of two words composed of two stressed syllables that provide the expression with the coveted cadence.
By no means should one assume that CRS remained invariant throughout the years; in fact, the preponderance of the lexicographic sources touches upon the morphological process that afflicted the discussed phenomenon, namely clipping. Without going into technical detail, the striving towards secrecy, combined with the economical nature of language frequently precipitates the removal of the final element of the coinage Adams ; Green , as in plates, abbreviated form plates of meat an expression which designates feet.
It must be stressed, however that the shortening is not always possible — Wright for instance, insists that phrases composed of personal names as in Uncle Ned , as well as those made up of three or more words or created by virtue of blending cannot be truncated.
Nevertheless, the process of abbreviation remains enormously popular, to the extent where clipped designations become assimilated into the general lexicon Coleman For this reason, they are not only deprived of their cryptic character, but also fully align with the grammatical rules that govern the English language Wajnryb In fact, the improvisation is crucial for its survival, as the vast majority of Cockney neologisms falls into desuetude Coleman ; Bauer Fortunately, the uncomplicated rules governing the formation, coupled with the facetious nature of the elements of CRS, encourage speakers to participate in the creative process.
Notwithstanding, it is crucial to note that the phenomenon of CRS operates on the basis of a convention between the interlocutors Adams , therefore it requires a considerable dose of verbal dexterity, that allows the hearer to decipher the meaning obfuscated by dint of rhyming slang Bauer Against this backdrop, we shall evoke supplemental peculiarities of CRS that may pose serious problems for the listener.
Yet another possible predicament a listener may experience is the phenomenon of imperfect rhymes as in Jack Jones — alone , as well as the non-standard Cockney pronunciation i.
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Charing Cross as a rhyming equivalent of horse , which may lead to difficulties with encoding the clandestine message Murdoch As regards the grammatical categorization of the CRS, early studies Butcher and Gnutzamann distinguish four compositional groups that jointly form the whole lexicon of the investigated slang, namely expressions with common nouns rattle and clank — bank , expressions with proper nouns Uncle Ben — ten , structures involving an adjective and a noun sticky toffee — coffee and genitive constructions joy of my life — wife.
Ashley makes a considerable contribution to the study concerning the scrutinized linguistic phenomenon by pinpointing the prevalent motives employed in the majority of rhyming phrases. Even more revealing is the category of proper names, which involves personal details of sundry celebrities; the foregoing subclass constitutes such an inseparable element of CRS, that it was given a distinct name, namely popney Holdefer Hence, an oblivious individual visiting a pub in East End, may be left dumbfounded at hearing a man ordering a Britney Spears a beer Hughes Curiously enough, the cited application may be propitious to the famous personalities, as apparently such adoptions can perpetuate and amplify their stardom Green Another relevant piece of data abstracted from the available sources provides us with information regarding the linguistic proclivities of CRS for naming a determined set of phenomena.
The evidence yielded by Green , Mattiello and Murdoch shows that the elements of CRS tend to revolve around fairly concrete concepts, with the preponderance of terms for money, sexual intercourse, alcoholic beverages, body parts, food, family members, house together with proper equipment and finally highly tabooed domain of the negatively charged words and imprecations Hughes Thus, the question looms: what significant factors contributed to its survival?
According to a variety of sources Kirkpatrick ; Coleman ; Green , the primary reason for such durability lies in the fact that it has been coined in London, perceived by many as the center of modern Europe. Within the period of nearly two centuries, 46 the investigated slang appeared in an array of British newspapers Green ; the invention of the television on the other hand, has provided a stable platform for the novel rhyming coinages, shrewdly embroiled in the dialogues held between the adored characters of their favorite TV shows depicting typical working-class Englishmen, including EastEnders, Till Death Us Do Part and Only Fools and Horses Green More recently, the development of the Internet brought about a veritable revival of CRS — as cogently attested by Kirkpatrick , Internet users marvel at its inventiveness, accessibility and comical nature.
Finally, we shall not fail to mention the sheer abundance of CRS dictionaries, that constitute one of the most popular and cherished souvenirs a tourist may bring from a trip to London Green In fact, according to the data amassed by Coleman , the number of dictionaries touching upon the phenomenon of CRS in the 19th century exceeds the number of regular British dictionaries. The captivating nature of CRS accelerated its circulation within Great Britain; therefore, particular coinages have been quickly adopted not only by the upper classes Coleman , but also successfully implemented in other English speaking countries.
The current status of CRS is perfectly captured by Hughes , who maintains that rhyming slang continues to grow, and is now present in most global varieties of English. Hence, the foregoing section shall not only present CRS as an exemplary disguise mechanism, but also concisely describe other methods for camouflaging the crude content of the foul phrases.
The phenomenon investigated within this study, uses witty and ingenious coded formulas to refer to objects of hostility, as well as taboo topics Hughes ; yet we shall not forget about other disguise mechanism.
With respect to the oral communication, one may disguise the pejorative undertone of the despised concept by means of formal terms, colloquial euphemisms, archaic designations, vague expressions and circumlocution. The maledictions found in print, on the other hand, may be diffused via the process of disvoweling, the application of strategically placed asterisks, a reduction to a simple semiotic symbol, hinting the abusive word, or by dint of deliberate misspelling Wajnryb In the light of the above, the question lingers: why do we need so many disguise mechanisms and thereby so many linguistic substitutes?
The answer may lie in the theory propounded by Pinker described as the euphemistic treadmill, according to which the alternative neutral phrases are soon tainted by the association with the despised object.
In the words of the author himself Pinker give a concept a new name, and the name becomes colored by the concept; the concept does not become freshened by the name, at least not for long. The analysis Having discussed the theory behind the phenomenon of CRS, let us now focus on the comparative analysis of the relevant data, encapsulated in the table below.
For the purpose of clarity, the negatively charged words together with their rhyming equivalents have been subdivided in accordance with the proper taboo ambit they fall within.
English insults and their Cockney equivalents Dalzell and Victor ; Holder ; Leigh and Lepine ; Hughes ; Wherrett On the basis of the data presented above, one may arrive at a number of conclusions. To start with, in the considerable majority of the cases, the pejorative content is concealed by means of rhyming compounds, where both the head and the modifier are nouns cattle truck, petrol tank, sausage roll.
Notwithstanding, the prevalent trend for coining proper nouns as CRS units is observable in a vast number of phrases; to be more explicit, the rhyming equivalents of swear words display a strong inclination towards the names of the British cities Brighton pier, Cambridge punt, Oxford bag, Bristol cities, Yorkshire Penny Bank, to name but a few , as well as the places associated with Great Britain Windsor Castle, Jodrell Bank.
The afore-discussed phenomenon of popney is also particularly noticeable — the scrutinized coinages cover a broad spectrum of renowned individuals, including athletes Joe Hunt , politicians Melvyn Braggs, William Pitt and actors Brad Pitt, Gareth Hunt ; nevertheless, the preponderance of the rhyming phrases incorporates the names of musicians, singers and composers as in Billy Brag, Paul Anka and Brahm and Liszt, 50 respectively.
Finally, the investigated set of rhyming phrases suggests that in order to obscure the negative image, a phrase may resort to numerals forty four and arithmetic operations two by four , as well as nationalities Russian duck, Kuwaiti tanker, Swiss banker.
Another interesting avenue to investigate touches upon the subcategories introduced in the table above. In contrast, the realm of religious terms turns out to be rather insignificant, as its elements lost their force along with the secularization of the society. Now, let us consider the effectiveness of CRS as a disguise mechanism.
Based on the lexicographic sources Dalzell and Victor ; Holder ; Leigh and Lepine ; Hughes ; Wherrett , one may assume that the rhyming slang is a nonpareil camouflage device, due to the fact that only three of the above-presented equivalents are marked as offensive, namely egg and spoon, slippery Sid and square rigger curiously enough, the evoked phrases belong to the same category of ethnic slurs, which may indicate that the concept of xenophobia is exceptionally invasive.
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Conclusions As evidenced by the above discussion, simple as it may seem, Cockney Rhyming Slang is a complex linguistic device capable of accomplishing a variety of objectives. Without fail, its unparalleled productivity paired with jocular nature redounds to its popularity, rendering it worthy of interest. Particular pieces of evidence distilled from manifold sources allow us to establish a wholesome image of Cockney Rhyming Slang.
To put things into perspective, the article opens with a terse definition of slang in general, thereby lubricating the comprehension of the phenomenon that constitutes the nucleus of the study.
Review Book Online Cadence Slang Pdf 9780615341712 By Nick Disabato
Aside from providing the information regarding the time and place associated with its conception, the study presented the evolution of CRS from a language initially identified with crime and malefaction to an element of the everyday English lexicon. As regards its linguistic development, the study revealed a marked tendency towards the semantic refinement of the discussed CRS expressions, as well as their striving towards clipping, which allows them to maintain relative secrecy of the intended content.
Furthermore, the foregoing study pinpointed the factors that enabled CRS not only to endure, but also to become an intrinsic constituent of the English language. Ultimately, in order to 51 show the pure eccentricity of CRS, the paper presented the linguistic phenomenon against the backdrop of other, less inventive disguise mechanisms. As the central matter addressed in this study is the relationship between the relevant constituents of CRS and their negatively charged counterparts, the article builds on the existing knowledge from both fields, in order to formulate conclusions concerning the afore-mentioned correspondence.
And so, with regard to the repetitive patterns, the linguistic device showed a considerable proclivity for the employment of all sorts of proper nouns, including names of places, people and literary works. Moreover, the scrutinized set of expressions traditionally conveys the intended piece of information by dint of a compound or a three-word phrase incorporating the conjunction and.
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As evidenced by the reliable data accumulated for the purpose of the study, the CRS coinages are especially productive when they frame the most tabooed concepts, such as those that revolve around the human sexuality and related body parts; apparently, the number of the coined phrases diminishes along with the loss of the taboo force of the given subcategory of swear words.
Finally, one may safely conclude that CRS is a particularly efficacious disguise mechanism, as its elements rarely — if ever — participate in the phenomenon of euphemistic treadmill.
This may be due to the fact that the discussed rhyming expressions derive their semantic constituents from the remote, unpolluted and arbitrary fields. The foregoing study merely touches upon the phenomenon of Cockney Rhyming Slang; hence speculating about its future may be futile.
Nevertheless, its sheer quirkiness, coupled with the effortlessness with which one may coin new phrases should ensure its longevity, making CRS an exception in the world of other, fairly transient, varieties of slang. References Adams, M. New York: Oxford University Press. Anglicus, D. London: Quaritch.
Ashley, L. Ayto, J. Word Origins. Bauer, L. Butcher, A. Childs, P.I'll be working with the same printer that made our first edition, so I already have a solid relationship with their team, and they know how to do right by this.
Another relevant piece of data abstracted from the available sources provides us with information regarding the linguistic proclivities of CRS for naming a determined set of phenomena.
Hence, the foregoing section shall not only present CRS as an exemplary disguise mechanism, but also concisely describe other methods for camouflaging the crude content of the foul phrases. Yet, and this is odd, many website and application designs are developed with little or no regard to ensuring good accessibility. As regards the purported inventors, the welter of conflicting evidence renders the quest for unambiguous answers fairly onerous.
Note that I am not blaming our readers for any of this. Generally, a lot of the information seemed like a dangerous combination of condescending and detached from reality.
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