green bestthing.info bestthing.infoNMENT. Peter Jacob Jørgensen, PlanEnergi. Downloaded fra bestthing.info Biogas Plants by Ludwig Sasse. A Publication of the Deutsches Zentrum für. Entwicklungstechnologien - GATE in: Deutsche. Gesellschaft für Technische. Biogas - Trends in Germany. Biogas as a key in future energy systems. 14th of October , Berlin. Clemens Findeisen. Consultant Development Cooperation.
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Visit bestthing.info to Download Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic. Inhibition of the biogas process. Biogas plant design. Biomass system. The gas system. End uses of biogas. Gas yield of different biomasses. Biogas Production Technologies. Ruihong Zhang, Professor. Biological and Agricultural Engineering. University of California, Davis.
In Germany and other industrialised countries, power generation is the main purpose of biogas plants; conversion of biogas to electricity has become a standard technology.
This document will discuss the potentials, obstacles and necessary framework conditions for the utilisation of biogas for small and medium scale electricity generation in developing countries. This paper will not address the biogas production process in general but focus uniquely on electricity generation.
The findings presented here are based mainly on available experience from GTZ -related pilot biogas power plants in different countries. They focus on more or less well-documented existing country cases even though little extensive documentation of practical long term operating experience is available.
Besides the cases described here, we know of further examples from other GTZ projects e. Bolivia , Tunisia and the Ivory Coast. However, there is not yet sufficient information concerning these to merit inclusion in this assessment.
The Technology Biogas is the gas resulting from an anaerobic digestion process. A biogas plant can convert animal manure, green plants, waste from agro industry and slaughterhouses into combustible gas.
Biogas can be used in similar ways as natural gas in gas stoves, lamps or as fuel for engines. The energy content of the gas depends mainly on its methane content. High methane content is therefore desirable. A certain carbon dioxide and water vapour content is unavoidable, but sulphur content must be minimised - particularly for use in engines.
The average calorific value of biogas is about The biogas yield of a plant depends not only on the type of feedstock, but also on the plant design, fermentation temperature and retention time. Maize silage for example - a common feedstock in Germany - yields about 8 times more biogas per ton than cow manure.
In Germany, cow manure and energy crops are the main forms of feedstock. About 2 live-stock units corresponding to about 2 cows or 12 rearing pigs plus 1 ha of maize and grass are expected to yield a constant output of about 2 kWel 48kWhel per day.
In the South Asian context, ESMAP uses a typical specific input-output relation of about 14 kg of fresh cattle dung the approximate production of one cow on one day plus 0. Gas Production Figures If the daily amount of available dung fresh weight is known, gas production per day in warm tropical countries will approximately correspond to the following values: 1 kg cattle dung 40 liters biogas 1 kg buffalo dung 30 liter biogas 1 kg pig dung 60 liter biogas 1 kg chicken droppings 70 liter biogas If the live weight of all animals whose dung is put into the biogas plant is known, the daily gas production will correspond approximately to the following values: cattle, buffalo and chicken: 1,5 liters biogas per day per 1 kg live weight pigs, humans: 30 liters biogas per day per 1 kg weight For yield ranges and methane contents for 33 different substrates, please see Gas Yields and Methane Contents for Various Substrates.
Some Additional Facts Each kilogram of biodegradable material yields 0. Gas lights consume around 0. However, this process requires very clean gas and expensive fuel cells.
Therefore, this option is still a matter for research and is not currently a practical option. The conversion of biogas to electric power by a generator set is much more practical. In contrast to natural gas, biogas is characterized by a high knock resistance and hence can be used in combustion motors with high compression rates.
The design of an electric generator is similar to the design of an electric motor.
Most generators produce alternating AC electricity; they are therefore also called alternators or dynamos. Appropriate electric generators are available in virtually all countries and in all sizes. The technology is well known and maintenance is simple. In most cases, even universally available 3-phase electric motors can be converted into generators.
Technologically far more challenging is the first stage of the generator set: the combustion engine using the biogas as fuel. In theory, biogas can be used as fuel in nearly all types of combustion engines, such as gas engines Otto motor , diesel engines, gas turbines and Stirling motors etc. The gas in the stirling motor hence expands and thereby moves the mechanism of the engine. The resulting work is used to generate electricity.
Stirling motors have the advantage of being tolerant of fuel composition and quality. They are, however, relatively expensive and characterised by low efficiency.
Their use is therefore limited to a number of very specific applications. In most commercially run biogas power plants today, internal combustion motors have become the standard technology either as gas or diesel motors. Internal Combustion Engines Diesel Engines operate on biogas only in dual fuel mode. To facilitate the ignition of the biogas, a small amount of ignition gas is injected together with the biogas.
Almost every diesel engine can be converted into a pilot injection gas engine. These motors running in dual fuel mode have the advantage that they can also use gas with low heating value.
But in that case, they consume a considerable amount of diesel. Gas Motors with spark ignition Otto system can operate on biogas alone. In practice, a small amount of petrol gasoline is often used to start the engine. Especially in Germany, these engines have advantages as they do not need additional fossil fuels that would lead to lower feed-in tariffs according to the Renewable Energy Law EEG.
They are very small and can meet the strict exhaust emissions requirements of the California Air Resources Board CARB for operation on landfill and digester gases. Small biogas turbines with power outputs of kW are available in the market. However, they are rarely used for small-scale applications in developing countries. They are expensive and due to their spinning at very high speeds and the high operating temperatures, the design and manufacturing of gas turbines is a challenging issue from both the engineering and material point of view.
Presentation on theme: "Biomass/Biofuel/Biogas"— Presentation transcript:
Maintenance of such a turbine is very different from well-known maintenance of a truck engine and therefore requires specific skills. Today, experience of the use of combustion motors to produce electricity from biogas is extensive; this can be regarded as a proven standard technology. Over 4, biogas plants with internal combustion motors are in operation in Germany. However, it has taken lengthy and determined effort to make this technology as durable and reliable as it is today.
Internal combustion motors have high requirements in terms of fuel quality. In theory, most engines originally intended for cars, trucks, ships or stationary use can run on biogas as fuel and are available almost everywhere within a power range between 10 and kW. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Ganesh Sutar , Teacher at C. Dhameliya jonty , Student at g.
Sampatkumar Chawan. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Biogas PPT 1.
Visit www. Production of Biogas - The biogas plants There are two types of biogas plants in usage for the production of biogas. These are: Fixed dome type of Biogas Plant 5.
Construction The biogas plant is a brick and cement structure having the following five sections: The mixing tank opens underground into a sloping inlet chamber. The inlet chamber opens from below into the digester which is a huge tank with a dome like ceiling.
The ceiling of the digester has an outlet with a valve for the supply of biogas. The digester opens from below into an outlet chamber. The outlet chamber opens from the top into a small over flow tank. This forms the slurry.
Ready to set up your own small biogas generation system?
Floating gas holder type of biogas plant Visit www. It is divided into two chambers by a partition wall in between. The drum can move up and down i. The gas holder has an outlet at the top which could be connected to gas stoves.
The gas holder now starts moving up. As more and more gas starts collecting, more pressure begins to be exerted on the slurry. This is later used as manure for plants. As of September , there are about non-sewage biogas plants in the UK.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Biogas
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