ATLAS MIDDLE EARTH PDF

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The Atlas of Middle-earth. KAREN WYNN FONSTAD Revised Edition HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON To Todd, Mark, and Kristi — (still pieless). The Atlas of Middle-earth. KAREN WYNN FONSTAD Revised Edition HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON To Todd, Mark, and Kristi. Editorial Reviews. bestthing.info Review. The publishing world is full of Tolkien spinoff products, The Atlas of Middle-earth by [Fonstad, Karen Wynn].


Atlas Middle Earth Pdf

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may be helpful to cartography students. Mapping Middle-earth. 1'he opportunity to pr'oduce an entire atlas of "mental maps" was admittedly somewhat unique;. The Atlas of Middle-Earth (Revised Edition) to download this book the link Description Karen Wynn Fonstad's THE ATLAS OF MIDDLE-EARTH. The Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad is an atlas of various lands in Arda. It includes specific maps for The Silmarillion, The Lord of.

Belegost and Nogrod seem to have switched positions: The Silmarillion mentions that Nogrod was the southern one. Also, Tolkien mentions that Galbigathol was "north of the great height of Mount Dolmed" while Fonstad has both of them south.

Page 12 and page Dorthonion and Himring are located slightly above parallel J. However much later, Tol Fuin and Himling are seen much northern, above parallel I. Page 38 and page Belegost has been moved miles further south than previously shown to the middle of the southern Blue Mountains.

On pages 76 and 80, Rhosgobel is still at the edge of the forest, but north of the Old Forest Road. One or the other location should have been used, not both. Note: In The Fellowship of the Ring , during the month of December, , it is mentioned that scouts "had climbed the pass at the source of the Gladden River , and had come down into Wilderland and over the Gladden Fields and so at length had reached the old home of Radagast at Rhosgobel" which would seem to support the page 53 location.

Page 92 and The location of Lithlad is given as being in the south of Mordor , rather than the northeast. Its significance for Middle-earth lies in what it would do, not in what it was. The wealth of information simply could not be incorporated into the atlas without complete redesign, which would double the length, and, most important, produce possible confusion to the thousands of readers who had read only the original finalized version of the Middleearth tales.

Also, to avoid simple duplication, History references are listed only when they are correct or if they add extra insight or information to the existing text.

Within the role of correcting the original atlas, The History had an impact in three areas: Tempting as it was to trace Tolkien's visions through the various stages, those interested must be referred to The History. The same was true of the many changes of the pathways and chronology. I was first introduced to The Lord of the Rings in as a graduate assistant in cartography, when one of the students in my class chose to redraft the map of Middle-earth as her term project.

She did not complete her map by the semester's end. I do not know if she ever did, but the work and the idea stuck with me. Immediately I developed an explorer's need to map and classify this to me newfound world.

The complexity of history, diversity of landscapes, and proliferation of places were so overwhelming that I longed to clarify them with pen and ink for my own satisfaction.

I wished for one gigantic indexed map, showing every place-name and all the pathways. Rereadings, so numerous that I have ceased to count them, only reinforced this need. Finally, I tackled the project. With no schedule except my own, the work went slowly. The publication of The Silmarillion filled so many gaps, and added so many new complexities, that I finally realized no one map could ever be sufficient; and from that realization came this atlas.

Round Versus Flat Although Kocher suggested that we should not look too closely into a question that Tolkien chose to ignore, 12 the consideration of whether this world was round or flat is inescapable for the cartographer attempting to map a world. One reference strongly indicated that Arda was originally flat: Tolkien was envisioning his world much as our medieval cartographers viewed our own.

Conversely, Tolkien stated that in Middle-earth the compass points began with and faced west17 — apparently toward Valinor, their Paradise. In spite of Tolkien's comment, however, all his maps were oriented for his readers rather than for inhabitants of Middle-earth. They show north at the top, and those in this Atlas do the same.

After the fashion of the world was changed, and Arda was made round, there were cartographic difficulties. The maps of Middle-earth included in The Lord of the Rings showed both a north arrow and a bar scale. This means that both distance and direction were considered to be accurate — an impossibility in mapping a round world. One of the biggest mapping problems through the centuries has been putting a round world on a flat piece of paper.

The Atlas of Middle-Earth

It is impossible for all Introduction ix distances to be correct in any case. If the direction is consistent, then the shapes and areas are distorted. Maps of small areas can ignore the variations as negligible, but continent and world-sized maps cannot. Accuracy of any of these properties can only result in inaccuracy of the others. How many of us once thought Greenland was larger than South America thanks to wall maps at school! So we return to the beginning — Tolkien's world, at least after the Change, was round; yet it appears to have been mapped as flat.

The only reasonable solution is to map his maps — treating his round world as if it were flat. Then Middle-earth will appear to us as it did to Tolkien.

After all, how few of us really perceive ourselves as living on a rounded surface, even though we know it is! Indexing Locations of Unfinished Tales, a definitive figure was given. The usage ranged from 2. Most of the measurements were reasonably close if the leagues in the text were considered as straight-line measurements, whether or not that was specifically stated.

Applying the constant of 3. The curvature of the Blue Mountains — the only feature common to maps of both the First and Third Ages — One of the major goals of this project was to provide an index with which places could be readily located. In an atlas of the Primary World, coordinates would be listed using latitude and longitude. We have been given neither. Latitude can be roughly guessed by climatic clues — seasons and wind patterns.

These matched exactly even before the maps in The History were available! Pathways created another dilemma. They were the basis of most original distance calculations for the base alone indicate that the familiar lands of the northwest maps, as well as being used in their own right for must have lain in roughly the locale of Europe.

Tolkien, upon questioning, was even reported to have said that Middle-earth is Europe,20 but later denied it. Many mileages had to be estimated, based on our Primary World. How many miles per hour could be sustained for more than a day — by a Man on foot with an Elf and a D w a r f? Armored cavalry on horseback? Halflings on short rations? Ponies on mountain paths? Finally, the daily distances were calculated using known location of campsites and times of arrival, interpolating the mileage covered since the last known site, with adjustments for change of travel speed e.

The mileage charts in The History have been checked against the original paths, but due to the constant restructuring of the tale the originals have not been altered, with one exception, and then both versions are shown. Instead, all location maps have been based upon a worldwide grid that extends from Valinor to the mounts of Orocarni, and from the Grinding Ice to Far Harad. Each square is miles on a side, as are those used on Tolkien's working maps.

How Long Is a League? In these days of the kilometer, when even the English mile is fast disappearing, Tolkien's usage of leagues, furlongs, fathoms, and ells added to the mystique and feeling of history — and to the bewilderment of the mapmaker.

A fathom equals six feet; an ell, 27 to 45 inches; a furlong, yards or one eighth of a mile. These smaller units are relatively unimportant to the cartographer's calculations, but a league — how long is a league? Its distance has varied in different times and countries from 2. Tolkien's marvelous descriptions were invaluable here, and his breadth of knowledge is evident; yet it was difficult to interpret some features in terms of our Primary World.

Usually the alterations were an intrusion of the Secondary World, but occasionally the differences may have been unintentional. Some writers have suggested that his maps were heavily influenced by Europe. In illustrating the landform features, I have applied an almost pictorial style, commonly used in physiographic and block diagrams. This method is capable of giving only a general impression of the distribution and type of relief features. It certainly cannot be construed as showing every hill.

Tolkien's original maps and illustrations have been utilized as general references for location and elevation; but if differences arose, the final drawings were usually based upon the text and inferences drawn from its passages.

Anyone who has ever flown over a mountain range can verify that topographic features appear much more flattened than they seem when viewing them from an earthbound perspective. The reverse is also true. Vertical exaggeration means that the feature is shown as proportionately higher than it actually is. A legend has been included with most maps for easier reference, but the symbols usually fit one of the categories shown on the following page. Conclusion An almost endless series of questions, assumptions, and interpretations was necessary in producing the maps on the following pages.

Differences of opinion have and will almost certainly continue to arise on many points. Each line has been drawn with a reason behind it, and much of the justification has been given in the respective explanations; yet space has not begun to allow inclusion of the entire reasoning process.

I hope the reader will learn as much in questioning the drawings, as I have in drafting them. The Cultural Overlays The atlas, then, is a composite of the physical surface with the imprint of the Free Peoples upon it. Six basic map types have been included: These have been arranged roughly in sequence.

The place names included on the maps may vary from one Age to the next, depending upon which language was prevalent at a given time and location. Dates from the First Age also are based on Foster, for 'The Eater Annals of Beleriand' were not used in preparation of The Silmarillion, for they had not yet been found, and thus are off by a year or two.

Thus, Arda began in battle and turmoil: The Spring of Arda and the Settling of Aman With Melkor gone, the Valar were at last left free to quiet the tumults of the world and order things as they wished. The Valar dwelt originally on the Isle of Almaren, which lay in the Great Lake in the midst of the land. The pillars of the lights were mountains taller than any of later times. Yet elsewhere it was told that Melkor returned in stealth over the Walls of Night and delved the fortress beneath the Ered Engrin5 — evidence that the mountains might have already been formed in the earlier turmoils of Arda.

Although the Valar knew Melkor had returned, they could not locate his hiding place. From Utumno he struck the lights of Illuin and Ormal, casting down their pillars. So great was their fall that the lands were broken and Almaren destroyed.

The Valar continued their works, returning seldom to Middle-earth. In their absence, Melkor's power spread south from Utumno, and from his fortress of Angband, which lay in the northwest, facing Aman. They dwelt in the Wild Wood by its shores and delighted in the music of the streams falling from the Orocarni, Mountains of the East.

The Valar wished to free the Elves from Melkor's evil domination, for he had already captured some, using them to breed the twisted race of Ores. Thus began the Second of the Great Battles. The Valar quickly routed Sauron's forces at Angband, breaking the lands of the northwest.

Then they passed east to Utumno. There the strength of evil was so great that a siege was mounted. In every confrontation between Melkor and the Valar the lands of Arda were much changed, and the Siege was no exception.

The coastlines were much broken, forming many bays, including the Bay of Balar and the Great Gulf. Not only were the seas changed during the Siege of Utumno, but also, the lands.

New rivers such as Sirion were formed. The mighty Ered Engrin, which once had towered as a predominant wall across northern Middle-earth, were neither mentioned nor mapped by Tolkien after the First Age. It is not known whether the rest of the range was destroyed during the Siege, or during the fall of Beleriand, or whether they still existed in the Third Age.

The accompanying map drawn at this point of the First Age 2 The Atlas of Middle-earth assumed that the mountains were only partially changed during the unroofing of Utumno,19 and that the final destruction of all but a few remnants must have occurred later, possibly in the War of Wrath. Melkor was chained in the Halls of Mandos for three ages, and the Quendi were free to take the westward road toward Valinor.

Nothing was told of these travels until the Elves reached the great forest, later called the Greenwood. Treebeard said that woods had once extended from the Mountains of Lune to the east end in Fangorn. Half a million years would hardly be sufficient for the gradual processes of erosion to noticeably lower the peaks. Nothing else was told of the lands east of the Ered Luin, except that the Ered Nimrais the White Mountains had been raised. That land would later lie in what now was the Sea of Helcar.

At last the wanderers crossed the Ered Luin, which must have been lower than the Hithaeglir, for they seem to have formed less of a barrier. The pass lay in the upper vales of the River Ascar — where later the mountains broke apart and formed the Gulf of Lune. West of the lands of Beleriand were the Sundering Seas. The Elves could go no farther. The Noontide of Valinor and the Return to Endor To provide passage for the great host, Ulmo uprooted an island that stood in the midst of Belegaer.

On it he carried the Quendi — first the Vanyar and the Noldor, and then the Teleri. Being driven on the shoals, the point of the island remained in the Bay of Balar. The three kindreds dwelt in the glory of the Blessed Realm — until the pardon of Melkor. Subsequently he poisoned the Two Trees of Light, stole the Silmarils, and escaped to Middle-earth — pursued by the Noldor. There he piled the towers of Thangorodrim at the gates of Angband. When Tilion, guiding the newly made Moon, traversed the sky, Melkor assailed him.

Beyond Aman were set the Enchanted Isles. The Noldor and the Sindar were left to their own devices and strength. That land, too, lay in eastern Middle-earth. Some eventually came to Beleriand, and their destinies, with those of the Elves, were intertwined in all the tales that passed until the end of the Age and the fall of the lands beneath the wave. Beleriand To produce a detailed world map it was necessary to piece together the mapped and unmapped portions of Arda. While the map from the Ambarkanta provided a rough world-wide view, the crucial locale during the First Age was Beleriand.

It was necessary to establish both scale and relationship to the rest of Middle-earth. All the 'Silmarillion' maps excluded both the northern and southern extremes of the area.

The original key to the latter was the location of the Dwarf Road to the cities of Belegost and Nogrod, where the Ered Luin were broken asunder in the Great Battle, forming the Gulf of Lune. Although the index grids used on both the maps used squares of the same dimension miles on a side, as are those of the Atlas , the lettered axis differed by fifty miles, and neither letters nor numbers coordinated.

This difference was merely one of inconvenience, however. This brought the coast near that of the Bay of Belfalas. The southwestern tip was extended to emphasize the bayed shape of the Bay of Balar. The area was shown as forested, assuming the circumstances that produced Taur-im-Duinath would have prevailed.

It was filled with imposing structures: It held mountains, coasts, lakes, hills, plains, and forests, and it was bordered by the same seas that washed against the shores of Middle-earth; yet it was an ethereal land — a land of the Secondary World. Distances not only were not given, they were meaningless. The Valar, being spirits, must have had the power to pass any distance at any time. Instead of meticulously calculating leagues, Tolkien left impressions of Valinor with a few swift strokes that have been composited to produce the drawings of parts of east-central Valinor and of scattered locations.

The shores of Avathar in the south were more narrow than those of Araman in the north. Thus the Calacirya spanned from Bay to Plain at the most narrow point. South of the great canyon was Taniquetil, highest mountain in all of Arda. The next highest peak was Hyarmentir, far to the south, where Ungoliant dwelt in a dark ravine. The Ring of Doom and the Two Trees. In Mahanaxar, the Ring of Doom, the Valar held council and sat in judgment.

Atop it Yavanna sang her song, bringing forth the Two Trees of Light. Beneath them Varda set great vats, capturing the light, and scattered it through the skies as stars.

The most spectacular dwelling of the Valar stood on the pinnacle of Taniquetil: The usage ranged from 2. Most of the measurements were reasonably close if the leagues in the text were considered as straight-line measurements, whether or not that was specifically stated.

Applying the constant of 3. The curvature of the Blue Mountains — the only feature common to maps of both the First and Third Ages — One of the major goals of this project was to provide an index with which places could be readily located.

In an atlas of the Primary World, coordinates would be listed using latitude and longitude. We have been given neither. Latitude can be roughly guessed by climatic clues — seasons and wind patterns. These matched exactly even before the maps in The History were available! Pathways created another dilemma. They were the basis of most original distance calculations for the base alone indicate that the familiar lands of the northwest maps, as well as being used in their own right for must have lain in roughly the locale of Europe.

Tolkien, upon questioning, was even reported to have said that Middle-earth is Europe,20 but later denied it. Many mileages had to be estimated, based on our Primary World. How many miles per hour could be sustained for more than a day — by a Man on foot with an Elf and a D w a r f? Armored cavalry on horseback?

Halflings on short rations? Ponies on mountain paths? Finally, the daily distances were calculated using known location of campsites and times of arrival, interpolating the mileage covered since the last known site, with adjustments for change of travel speed e.

Atlas of the Dragonlance World (Dragonlance Books)

The mileage charts in The History have been checked against the original paths, but due to the constant restructuring of the tale the originals have not been altered, with one exception, and then both versions are shown. Instead, all location maps have been based upon a worldwide grid that extends from Valinor to the mounts of Orocarni, and from the Grinding Ice to Far Harad. Each square is miles on a side, as are those used on Tolkien's working maps.

How Long Is a League?

In these days of the kilometer, when even the English mile is fast disappearing, Tolkien's usage of leagues, furlongs, fathoms, and ells added to the mystique and feeling of history — and to the bewilderment of the mapmaker.

A fathom equals six feet; an ell, 27 to 45 inches; a furlong, yards or one eighth of a mile. These smaller units are relatively unimportant to the cartographer's calculations, but a league — how long is a league? Its distance has varied in different times and countries from 2. Tolkien's marvelous descriptions were invaluable here, and his breadth of knowledge is evident; yet it was difficult to interpret some features in terms of our Primary World.

Usually the alterations were an intrusion of the Secondary World, but occasionally the differences may have been unintentional. Some writers have suggested that his maps were heavily influenced by Europe. In illustrating the landform features, I have applied an almost pictorial style, commonly used in physiographic and block diagrams. This method is capable of giving only a general impression of the distribution and type of relief features.

It certainly cannot be construed as showing every hill. Tolkien's original maps and illustrations have been utilized as general references for location and elevation; but if differences arose, the final drawings were usually based upon the text and inferences drawn from its passages.

On some cross sections, the phrase "Vertical exaggeration 3: Anyone who has ever flown over a mountain range can verify that topographic features appear much more flattened than they seem when viewing them from an earthbound perspective.

The reverse is also true. Vertical exaggeration means that the feature is shown as proportionately higher than it actually is. A legend has been included with most maps for easier reference, but the symbols usually fit one of the categories shown on the following page. Conclusion An almost endless series of questions, assumptions, and interpretations was necessary in producing the maps on the following pages.

Differences of opinion have and will almost certainly continue to arise on many points. Each line has been drawn with a reason behind it, and much of the justification has been given in the respective explanations; yet space has not begun to allow inclusion of the entire reasoning process.

Among various alternatives, I have chosen those that seem most reasonable to me, as I was unable to go to "Old Barliman" for further information — although the availability of The History is a close second! I hope the reader will learn as much in questioning the drawings, as I have in drafting them. The Cultural Overlays The atlas, then, is a composite of the physical surface with the imprint of the Free Peoples upon it.

Six basic map types have been included: These have been arranged roughly in sequence. The place names included on the maps may vary from one Age to the next, depending upon which language was prevalent at a given time and location.

Dates from the First Age also are based on Foster, for 'The Eater Annals of Beleriand' were not used in preparation of The Silmarillion, for they had not yet been found, and thus are off by a year or two.

Thus, Arda began in battle and turmoil: The Spring of Arda and the Settling of Aman With Melkor gone, the Valar were at last left free to quiet the tumults of the world and order things as they wished. The Valar dwelt originally on the Isle of Almaren, which lay in the Great Lake in the midst of the land. The pillars of the lights were mountains taller than any of later times.

At one point Tolkien stated that Melkor had reared them "as a fence to his citadel of Utumno,"4 which seems to imply that they were uplifted at the time Utumno was built. Yet elsewhere it was told that Melkor returned in stealth over the Walls of Night and delved the fortress beneath the Ered Engrin5 — evidence that the mountains might have already been formed in the earlier turmoils of Arda.

Although the Valar knew Melkor had returned, they could not locate his hiding place. From Utumno he struck the lights of Illuin and Ormal, casting down their pillars.

So great was their fall that the lands were broken and Almaren destroyed. They settled Aman — "the westernmost of all lands upon the borders of the world. The Valar continued their works, returning seldom to Middle-earth.

In their absence, Melkor's power spread south from Utumno, and from his fortress of Angband, which lay in the northwest, facing Aman. They dwelt in the Wild Wood by its shores and delighted in the music of the streams falling from the Orocarni, Mountains of the East. The Valar wished to free the Elves from Melkor's evil domination, for he had already captured some, using them to breed the twisted race of Ores.

Thus began the Second of the Great Battles. The Valar quickly routed Sauron's forces at Angband, breaking the lands of the northwest. Then they passed east to Utumno. There the strength of evil was so great that a siege was mounted.

In every confrontation between Melkor and the Valar the lands of Arda were much changed, and the Siege was no exception. The coastlines were much broken, forming many bays, including the Bay of Balar and the Great Gulf. Not only were the seas changed during the Siege of Utumno, but also, the lands.

The central highlands of Dorthonion and Hithlum were said to have been raised — specifically, the "Iron Mountains 'were broken and distorted at their western end. New rivers such as Sirion were formed. The mighty Ered Engrin, which once had towered as a predominant wall across northern Middle-earth, were neither mentioned nor mapped by Tolkien after the First Age.

It is not known whether the rest of the range was destroyed during the Siege, or during the fall of Beleriand, or whether they still existed in the Third Age. The accompanying map drawn at this point of the First Age 2 The Atlas of Middle-earth assumed that the mountains were only partially changed during the unroofing of Utumno,19 and that the final destruction of all but a few remnants must have occurred later, possibly in the War of Wrath.

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Melkor was chained in the Halls of Mandos for three ages, and the Quendi were free to take the westward road toward Valinor. Nothing was told of these travels until the Elves reached the great forest, later called the Greenwood. Treebeard said that woods had once extended from the Mountains of Lune to the east end in Fangorn.

These were even "taller and more terrible in those days. Half a million years would hardly be sufficient for the gradual processes of erosion to noticeably lower the peaks. Nothing else was told of the lands east of the Ered Luin, except that the Ered Nimrais the White Mountains had been raised. That land would later lie in what now was the Sea of Helcar. At last the wanderers crossed the Ered Luin, which must have been lower than the Hithaeglir, for they seem to have formed less of a barrier.

The pass lay in the upper vales of the River Ascar — where later the mountains broke apart and formed the Gulf of Lune. West of the lands of Beleriand were the Sundering Seas. The Elves could go no farther. The Noontide of Valinor and the Return to Endor To provide passage for the great host, Ulmo uprooted an island that stood in the midst of Belegaer. On it he carried the Quendi — first the Vanyar and the Noldor, and then the Teleri.

Being driven on the shoals, the point of the island remained in the Bay of Balar. The three kindreds dwelt in the glory of the Blessed Realm — until the pardon of Melkor. Subsequently he poisoned the Two Trees of Light, stole the Silmarils, and escaped to Middle-earth — pursued by the Noldor. There he piled the towers of Thangorodrim at the gates of Angband. When Tilion, guiding the newly made Moon, traversed the sky, Melkor assailed him. Beyond Aman were set the Enchanted Isles. The Noldor and the Sindar were left to their own devices and strength.

That land, too, lay in eastern Middle-earth. Some eventually came to Beleriand, and their destinies, with those of the Elves, were intertwined in all the tales that passed until the end of the Age and the fall of the lands beneath the wave.

Beleriand To produce a detailed world map it was necessary to piece together the mapped and unmapped portions of Arda. While the map from the Ambarkanta provided a rough world-wide view, the crucial locale during the First Age was Beleriand. It was necessary to establish both scale and relationship to the rest of Middle-earth. All the 'Silmarillion' maps excluded both the northern and southern extremes of the area.

The original key to the latter was the location of the Dwarf Road to the cities of Belegost and Nogrod, where the Ered Luin were broken asunder in the Great Battle, forming the Gulf of Lune.

With the publication of The History, however, it became possible to confirm the placement by superimposing the "First Map"29 designed for The Lord of the Rings over the "Second 'Silmarillion' Map"30 — aligning the locations of Tol Fuin over Dorthonion Taur-nu-Fuin and of the isle of Himling with the city of Himring. Although the index grids used on both the maps used squares of the same dimension miles on a side, as are those of the Atlas , the lettered axis differed by fifty miles, and neither letters nor numbers coordinated.

This difference was merely one of inconvenience, however. Sirion" leagues31 60 leagues32 40 leagues33 25 leagues34 leagues35 leagues36 80 leagues37 40 leagues38 leagues39 For this atlas, the southern coast was mapped at a point leagues from the sources of River Gelion — based on the assumption that the river continued its southwesterly flow.

This brought the coast near that of the Bay of Belfalas. The southwestern tip was extended to emphasize the bayed shape of the Bay of Balar. The area was shown as forested, assuming the circumstances that produced Taur-im-Duinath would have prevailed.

It was filled with imposing structures: It held mountains, coasts, lakes, hills, plains, and forests, and it was bordered by the same seas that washed against the shores of Middle-earth; yet it was an ethereal land — a land of the Secondary World. Distances not only were not given, they were meaningless. The Valar, being spirits, must have had the power to pass any distance at any time.

Instead of meticulously calculating leagues, Tolkien left impressions of Valinor with a few swift strokes that have been composited to produce the drawings of parts of east-central Valinor and of scattered locations. The shores of Avathar in the south were more narrow than those of Araman in the north.

Thus the Calacirya spanned from Bay to Plain at the most narrow point. South of the great canyon was Taniquetil, highest mountain in all of Arda. The next highest peak was Hyarmentir, far to the south, where Ungoliant dwelt in a dark ravine. The Ring of Doom and the Two Trees. In Mahanaxar, the Ring of Doom, the Valar held council and sat in judgment. Atop it Yavanna sang her song, bringing forth the Two Trees of Light.

Beneath them Varda set great vats, capturing the light, and scattered it through the skies as stars. The most spectacular dwelling of the Valar stood on the pinnacle of Taniquetil: Crystal stairs climbed to the great gate. The city was walled, and the entrance to its harbor was an arch of living stone. In later ages all the lands that went under the wave were sometimes referred to as Beleriand, but originally that term was applied only to the area between the Bay of Balar and the highlands of Hithlum and Dorthonion, and the lands under the wave were much more extensive.

The lands could be divided into four regions based on climate, topography, and politics: The Northlands of Morgoth1 There were two prominent features of this region — the Iron Mountains and the plain of Ard-galen. Lammoth and Lothlann were also related. Melkor raised the Ered Engrin as a fence to his citadel of Utumno,2 which he delved during the Spring of Arda.

Several points support this second interpretation: On both the first and second 'Silmarillion' maps, however, Thangorodrim was shown in a location that was empty on the previously published map. Perhaps it was due to Christopher Tolkien's apparent unease about i the discrepancy on the distance from Menegroth to Thangorodrim, which the southern location would make "scarcely more than seventy," rather than the leagues in the text;13 2 the separation of Thangorodrim from the long curving mountain chain which is not shown ;14 or 3 explaining the inability of Morgoth's troops to 'flank' Hithlum and attack from the coast,15 as well as Morgoth's path to Angband via the Firth of Drengist upon his return from Valinor.

Topographically, the Ered Engrin have been illustrated as a block-fault range with a south-facing escarpment. This interpretation was based on the idea that a sharp south-facing scarp would have lent maximum protection to Melkor's fortresses. Volcanic activity was evident from the smokes blown over Hithlum during the Noldor's first encampment.

Thangorodrim itself appeared to be volcanic, for its triple black peaks20 spued smoke, in spite of their being called "towers" — built of slag and tunnel refuse piled by Morgoth's countless slaves. The plains were probably a steppe climate, for they were fairly dry, as well as cold. The moisture of the west and south winds could not reach them, for The First Age 9 it fell in the central highlands.

Thus, the plains had no streams,29 although they supported grass, until during Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame, when Ard-galen was burned. Afterward, the sod could enough in the distant past for a lake to have formed and drained through the underground river , leaving its alluvial sediment to stand as the flat green Vale of Tumladen.

The volcanic areas of the Iron Mountains never reestablish itself, due to the poisonous airs of Thangorodrim; and the plain became Angfauglith, the were close enough to account for this otherwise isolated volcano to the south — especially since the choking dust, a desert with dunes. This was the area settled, for the most part, by the Noldor.

From its borders they set watch over the northlands of Morgoth. The lands received warmer south and west winds, and were cool but pleasant, except in the higher elevations. The north winds of Morgoth often assailed them. Hithlum had cold winters. Dorthonion was raised mountain-building activities would produce weakness in the earth's mantle, allowing extrusions of lava.

The heights of the Crissaegrim may have resulted from the residual caldera crest atop the already steep and sheer escarpment of Dorthonion. The ores mined by Maeglin in the north of the mountains might have been either intruded later or might have occurred in rock formations there prior to the vulcanism. Hithlum was described as ringed by mountains. The Ered Wethrin of the east were the highest portion, yet were lower than the Ered Gorgoroth.

The interior of Hithlum appears to have been slightly elevated as well. The course of Nen Lalaith "Laughing Water" was not described. Portions in the south were steeply ducing springs such as those of Ivrin and Sirion.

Caves, folded and possibly faulted, producing the sheer southern precipices of the Ered Gorgoroth. In the east were also higher peaks, and what appeared on the map to be a fault-line valley. These usu- such as those of Androth where Tuor lodged, could have occurred in many rock types — as do springs. This map includes an area north of that mapped by Tolkien. The mountains of Tolkien's drawing extend off the edge, leaving the reader ignorant of what lay ally form high on glaciated mountains.

The tarns in to the north. The extension of the mountains north Dorthonion, however, lay at the feet of the tors. It is more likely that Tolkien applied the term as it is used in the North of England — a generic term meaning any lake.

These periglacial features usually occur on granite, and less frequently on sandstone. Few trees could withstand the water, so there the evergreen. All this was far was shown for one reason: Its land dipped gently east from the black sea cliffs "torn in towers and pinnacles and great arching vaults"45 to Linaewen with its marshes. The waters gathered from the lands wandered in intermittent rivulets, for there were no permanent streams. Linaewen, with its fluctuating shores, widespread marshes, and reedy beds, must have been quite shallow — probably only about twenty feet in depth.

These were the lands held mostly by the Sindar, with the notable exception of Finrod's realm of Nargothrond though the Noldor later retreated to Beleriand after and Narog in the west. The process52 normally involves a surface stream with rapids , which gradually develops underground channels that disappear at a "swallow hole. The most noticeable features be enlarged, developing steep falls.

If the subterranean of the lands south of the central highlands other than the Wall of Andram were the rivers that headed from the southern slopes. On the eastern border flowed Gelion, a product of the Ered Luin. For the most part, Sirion's system drained the region, and its channel divided West and East Beleriand. Its original source was Eithel Sirion, where springs emptied from the Ered Wethrin, but the river was fed by many tributaries.

Those of the west arose in the Ered Wethrin — most notably Teiglin and Narog. Those of the east were fed in many directions from Dorthonion — Rivil's Well, the Dry River of Gondolin, Mindeb which had breached one of the few passes into the highland , Esgalduin, and Aros which arose in the high southeastern portion. Even clues about the topography of the area were, for the most part, couched in references to the river systems.

The rivers flowed south, as the land sloped down from the central highlands; but the flow was not always steady and smooth. At Dimrost, the "rainy stair" later called Nen Girith, the "shuddering water" , Celebros tumbled toward Teiglin. In about the same area Turgon climbed the cliffwall of the gorge of Teiglin to kill Glauring. They possibly crossed an outcrop or escarpment of some relatively resistant rock. Farther east, it is possible that fissures along beds and joints in an outcrop of rock may have formed the basis for the delving of Menegroth.

Approached from the south, it appeared as an endless chain of hills. The rock layer forming this outcrop may have been soluble limestone. There were extensive caverns at Nargothrond in the west. Sirion plunged underground at the north edge of the hills, and reissued from tunnels three leagues south nine miles , at their feet. Partial collapse at the point of resurgence of the overlying rock may leave natural arches, such as the Gates of Sirion.

Beleriand Ered Luin The Ered Luin were more important as a barrier to westward migration and as the source for the tributaries of Gelion than they were as population centers. In the mountains themselves, only the Dwarves dwelt, carving the cities of Nogrod and Belegost, and mining the iron, copper, and related ores throughout most of the history of Middle-earth.

The appearance of eroded upfolds "breached anticlines" indicate sedimentary rock, which often holds lodes of iron. Copper, however, is more commonly found in crystalline rock, so the geology was evidently complex, as could be expected in any large range. The area around Mt. Rerir was fairly high and may have supported glaciers in the past. Lake Helevorn was "dark and deep,"55 and appeared to lie in a trough thrusting into the mountains, similar to a finger lake. The rest of the range must have been fairly worn down, with its former peaks eroded and washed down to form the alluvial plains to the west.

The mountains were not snow-capped, and the Elves had far less difficulty crossing them than, for example, they did the Misty Mountains. The western slopes captured the moist winds of Belegaer and the Bay of Balar and fed the seven rivers. North of Ascar the winds would have been drier having passed over a larger land area , and there were no tributaries for forty leagues. The lands of Ossiriand were warm and gentle, with the seven rivers flowing rapidly in valleys such as that of the Thalos where Finrod first discovered mortal Men.

Those who refused the journey and shunned the light became known as the Avari, the Unwilling. They became known as the Noldor, the Deep Elves. Many never departed, and some turned back very early.

Since they always tarried behind, they were dubbed the Teleri. Seeing the great black clouds that still persisted near Utumno, some grew afraid and departed. Whether any or all later trod the western path was not told. In this way they eventually came to those now familiar lands — possibly along the very path that later became the Old Forest Road. They passed through a forest, probably Greenwood the Great; and to the eastern shores of a Great River, later known as the Anduin.

The Teleri, always the slowest and most reluctant, camped long on the eastern shore. The Vanyar and the Noldor pressed on across the river, climbed the mountain passes, and descended into Eriador. Their path must have been far enough south to allow comfortably warm travel and far enough north to require passing through the mountains instead of around them, to be free of the southern forests, and to allow THE GREAT MARCH fording the major rivers.

In short, it was most likely that the Great East Road had its origins in this path of great antiquity. After long years of the sundering, Ulmo returned the island ferry, but many were no longer willing to go. Within the pass, the city of Tirion was fashioned and in it dwelt the Noldor and also the Vanyar until they chose to return to the plain of Valinor.

In spite of arguments of his half-brothers, his will prevailed over all but a tithe of the Noldor; and with only hasty preparations the Noldor marched forth. Being unsuccessful, he waited until most of his following had arrived, then led them to the harbor and began manning the vessels. The Teleri repulsed them until Fingon arrived, the leading part of Fingolfin's host.

His strength was added to the affray, and the Noldor at last won to the ships and 18 The Atlas of Middle-earth departed before most of Fingolfin's host had even arrived.

They were left to toil slowly up the rocky coast while the Noldor rowed just offshore in the rough seas. Long they journeyed, and both the sea and the land were evil enemies. Then, far in the north as they climbed in Araman, they were arrested by a powerful voice that prophesied the Doom of the Noldor.

Then Finarfin and his following, least willing from the start, returned to Tirion; but most of the people continued. Sailing east and south, they landed at Losgar, and burned the white ships. Weeks may have passed before they touched the solid ground of Middle-earth with the rising of the moon. After seven days the sun rose just as Fingolfin marched into Mithrim.

They were scattered through Beleriand, but most lived in one of three areas: The bulk of Thingol's realm lay inside the Girdle of Melian: Outside the Girdle was Brethil, a less populous area.

All the Teleri eventually came to acknowledge Thingol as Lord, and so were loosely grouped with the Sindar. When the Noldor returned from the West Thingol decreed: In the west dwelt: Turgon completed building Gondolin in All these realms survived through the Long Peace until , when the Siege of Angband ended.

In the short fifty years following, they were overrun one by one until the remaining Elves were pushed to the brink of the Sea. If the latter were the case, the correct bedrock such as that found at Nargothrond would have been necessary for development of a cavern system — but Menegroth was far north of Andram. It has been assumed, therefore, that these were not large natural caverns but were primarily hand-cut.

Then anything seems possible! The hill of stone must have run to the very edge of Esgalduin, for only by crossing the stone bridge could the gates be entered. Little specific information was given, however. Of the innumerable "high halls and chambers"6 only three specific locations were mentioned: About 5O the Dwarves returned to avenge the deaths of their kin who fell when Thingol was slain. They succeeded in stealing the necklace, but it was later regained.

They were unsuccessful in their quest, however, for Elwing fled from Menegroth with a remnant of the people, and with them went the Silmaril. Soon after, Finrod visited Thingol and was inspired to build a stronghold like Menegroth. He learned of the Caverns of Narog and initiated his construction. The Long Wall was evidently soluble rock, most possibly limestone. So great was the task that the Dwarves named him "Felagund" — Hewer of Caves. In Nargothrond there were: Two of those showed three doors; the third, only one.

Before the doors was a terrace — broad enough to allow Glaurung to lie upon while the captives were herded away. Originally, the Elves were forced to go twenty-five miles north to ford the river,16 but after Turin came in ,17 he persuaded Orodreth to build a mighty bridge. As it could not be lifted to prevent passage, the bridge proved to be their downfall. When the city was occupied in about ,8 these physical properties were well-utilized.

The Hidden Way was comprised of the river's abandoned tunnel and ravine. The Way was blocked by a series of seven gates, constantly guarded: Ondolinde, the Rock of the Music of Water. It appears to have been flat-topped. The Tower of the King was equally high, with its turret standing eight hundred feet above the Vale.

Down through the hill and far north under the plain, Idril directed the excavation of an escape route. Through the secret way Idril and Tuor led all that remained of the Gondolindrim. It would have to have been at least five miles in di- ameter at the base and some 35, feet high!

The gates were no simple tunnel opening: The land became known as Estolad, the Encampment, and was constantly occupied for about one hundred fifty years. Some grew disenchanted and were led away south and east out of 7 knowledge. The Noldor, seeking allies, shared their 24 The Atlas of Middle-earth lands, but King Thingol forbade any to settle in the south. In about , after Dagor Bragol- lach, the Swarthy Easterlings first appeared. He looked south to Doriath, and travelled unknown ways to reach it, passing through the enchanted Girdle, even as Melian had foretold.

In summer, , she led him before Thingol, her father. They routed a band of Orcs and arrayed themselves in their gear. There she was abducted by Celegorm and Curufin, who imprisoned her in Nargothrond. Between them they defeated Sauron. When the brothers assailed the couple, Huan abandoned Celegorm and drove him and Curufin from the wood. As Beren stood on the skirts of Taur-nu-Fuin, they approached him in the forms they had taken on at Sauron's Isle — a wolf and bat.

Beren cut a Silmaril from the iron crown and in terror they fled. At the gate Carcaroth had awakened, and engulfed both Beren's hand and the jewel it held.

The jewel flamed, and the ravening beast ran wildly away south. The lovers were still not free, for Beren swooned and the hosts of Morgoth had awakened. Then Thorondor and two of his vassals raced north and rescued the valiant pair. Upon his recovery they returned to Menegroth. Thingol softened, and they were wed. So Beren went forth once more with the Hunting of the Wolf. North along Esgalduin, Carcaroth had stopped by a waterfall. Huan battled the mighty beast, and both fell. So, too, did Beren, whose chest was torn while he defended Thingol.

The companions bore him to Menegroth, where he died. There she was granted the choice of mortality, and Beren was released. They were permitted to return to Menegroth. From thence they went forth to Tol Galen, where they lived the rest of their mortal lives, and that land came to be known as Dor Firn-I-Guinar: Thinking them safe with Thingol, he sought in vain for Finduilas, his love, who had been taken from Nargothrond.

Turin's life covered five stages: He stayed with the Haladin, and once more his deeds did not remain secret, though he hid his name. Morwen was lost on the road, and Nienor, standing on Amon Ethir, was bewitched by Glaurung. Her guides led her back to the guarded bridge, but she escaped them during an Orc attack.

She ran to the Crossings of Teiglin and was found in Brethil by Turin. Unaware of her true identity, he named her ; 4 with Orodreth in Nargothrond, ; and 5 with the Haladin in the Forest of Brethil, — The two eventually wed, and were happy. The dragon entered Brethil at Cabed-en-Aras, a narrow gorge of the Teiglin evidently upstream which he passed from one life stage to the next.

Most from the confluence with Dimrost and the ravines of the changes resulted directly or indirectly from shown on The Silmarillion map. She sent him to the treacherous waters and climbed the cliff beyond. At midnight Glaurung made his move — only to be Menegroth, where Thingol fostered him in his youth. On reaching early manhood Turin helped Beleg guard the northern marches for three years. When he was attacked by Turin. When Brandir sought to lead her away to the Crossings of Teiglin, she fled.

She did not recross Dimrost, but instead dashed south along Teiglin's bank.

Soon she reached Glaurung, with Turin lying beside him — and she thought her love to be dead. Then Glaurung, with his final stroke of malice, released her memory. In despair she cast herself into the water. There Brandir told him of Nienor's death and her true identity.

In rage he killed Brandir, then of Anach and north through Taur-nu-Fuin. On the went to the Crossings of Teiglin. There, in a chance edge of the northern slopes Gwindor was found, Turin meeting with Mablung, Brandir's story was confirmed, and Turin rushed back to the ravine, where he slew himself.

Then Turin was captured, and all his company except Beleg slain. In leisurely fashion, the Orcs rescued, and Beleg slain. Glaurung led an onslaught against Nargothrond, knowing full well the identity of the great warrior. The dragon taunted 26 The Atlas of Middle-earth and evil glare.

Doriath stood untouched, and thereafter was ringed by the enchanted Girdle of Melian. Elves, Men, and Dwarves. Five major battles and one Great Battle took place in that span of time.

Tolkien gave little information about the numbers of troops, and often there were only passing references to the lesser skirmishes. The necessary estimates, therefore, were based upon scattered comments about numbers and location of the populace; and upon knowledge of the topography, existing roads, bridges, and fords.

The object is for the reader to gain an impression of the peoples involved, troop sizes and losses, and the ebb and flow of battle. It would be helpful to note that lines of varying width symbolize either increasing numbers marching to the field, or increasing losses during the battle — depending upon the direction of flow.

Lines that are superimposed indicate that the action took place later in the battle. The First Battle Shortly before the return of the Noldor to Middleearth, Morgoth assailed the Sindar, thinking to gain the mastery of the area quickly.

His great army broke into two hosts, which passed west down Sirion and east between Aros and Gelion.

North-West Middle Earth Campaign Atlas Gazeteer

Some of the bands may even have climbed the passes of Anach and Aglon, for the Orcs were said to have "passed silently into the highlands of the north.In despair she cast herself into the water. Half a million years would hardly be sufficient for the gradual processes of erosion to noticeably lower the peaks. South of the great canyon was Taniquetil, highest mountain in all of Arda. Not only were the seas changed during the Siege of Utumno, but also, the lands.

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They occasionally lise boats on the Anduin and thwugh the Gladden Marshes, but rarely do they use the waterways as an avenue tor commerce. The interior of Hithlum appears to have been slightly elevated as well. The mountains of Tolkien's drawing extend off the edge, leaving the reader ignorant of what lay ally form high on glaciated mountains.

TENISHA from Lubbock
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