PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER SYSTEM DESIGN AN INTRODUCTION PDF

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Repository of course notes and homework. Contribute to wangjohn/mit-courses development by creating an account on GitHub. Document Format (PDF) file per chapter or section and also a single PDF file containing .. Principles of Computer System Design: An Introduction. Copyright . Principles of Computer. System Design. An Introduction. Part II. Chapters 7– Jerome H. Saltzer. M. Frans Kaashoek. Massachusetts Institute.


Principles Of Computer System Design An Introduction Pdf

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System Design. An Introduction SR– 2 Elements of Computer System Organization. .. This book provides a thorough tutorial introduction to the world of operating systems but ). bestthing.info). This free book is a great introduction to system design issues that are only taught at few eBook Online, Multiple PDF files; Language: English; ISBN Principles of Computer System Design: An Introduction is the first book to. Principles of Computer System Design is the first textbook to take a principles- based approach to the computer system design. It identifies, examines, and.

Section 1 outlines fundamental ethical principles that form the basis for the remainder of the Code. Section 2 addresses additional, more specific considerations of professional responsibility. Section 3 guides individuals who have a leadership role, whether in the workplace or in a volunteer professional capacity.

Commitment to ethical conduct is required of every ACM member, and principles involving compliance with the Code are given in Section 4. The Code as a whole is concerned with how fundamental ethical principles apply to a computing professional's conduct. The Code is not an algorithm for solving ethical problems; rather it serves as a basis for ethical decision-making. When thinking through a particular issue, a computing professional may find that multiple principles should be taken into account, and that different principles will have different relevance to the issue.

Questions related to these kinds of issues can best be answered by thoughtful consideration of the fundamental ethical principles, understanding that the public good is the paramount consideration. The entire computing profession benefits when the ethical decision-making process is accountable to and transparent to all stakeholders. Open discussions about ethical issues promote this accountability and transparency. A computing professional should This principle, which concerns the quality of life of all people, affirms an obligation of computing professionals, both individually and collectively, to use their skills for the benefit of society, its members, and the environment surrounding them.

CS-522: Principles of Computer Systems

This obligation includes promoting fundamental human rights and protecting each individual's right to autonomy. An essential aim of computing professionals is to minimize negative consequences of computing, including threats to health, safety, personal security, and privacy.

When the interests of multiple groups conflict, the needs of those less advantaged should be given increased attention and priority. Computing professionals should consider whether the results of their efforts will respect diversity, will be used in socially responsible ways, will meet social needs, and will be broadly accessible.

They are encouraged to actively contribute to society by engaging in pro bono or volunteer work that benefits the public good. In addition to a safe social environment, human well-being requires a safe natural environment. Therefore, computing professionals should promote environmental sustainability both locally and globally. In this document, "harm" means negative consequences, especially when those consequences are significant and unjust. Examples of harm include unjustified physical or mental injury, unjustified destruction or disclosure of information, and unjustified damage to property, reputation, and the environment.

This list is not exhaustive. Well-intended actions, including those that accomplish assigned duties, may lead to harm. When that harm is unintended, those responsible are obliged to undo or mitigate the harm as much as possible. Avoiding harm begins with careful consideration of potential impacts on all those affected by decisions. When harm is an intentional part of the system, those responsible are obligated to ensure that the harm is ethically justified.

In either case, ensure that all harm is minimized. To minimize the possibility of indirectly or unintentionally harming others, computing professionals should follow generally accepted best practices unless there is a compelling ethical reason to do otherwise.

Additionally, the consequences of data aggregation and emergent properties of systems should be carefully analyzed. Those involved with pervasive or infrastructure systems should also consider Principle 3.

A computing professional has an additional obligation to report any signs of system risks that might result in harm. If leaders do not act to curtail or mitigate such risks, it may be necessary to "blow the whistle" to reduce potential harm.

However, capricious or misguided reporting of risks can itself be harmful.

Before reporting risks, a computing professional should carefully assess relevant aspects of the situation. Honesty is an essential component of trustworthiness. A computing professional should be transparent and provide full disclosure of all pertinent system capabilities, limitations, and potential problems to the appropriate parties.

Making deliberately false or misleading claims, fabricating or falsifying data, offering or accepting bribes, and other dishonest conduct are violations of the Code. Computing professionals should be honest about their qualifications, and about any limitations in their competence to complete a task.

Computing professionals should be forthright about any circumstances that might lead to either real or perceived conflicts of interest or otherwise tend to undermine the independence of their judgment. Furthermore, commitments should be honored. Computing professionals should not misrepresent an organization's policies or procedures, and should not speak on behalf of an organization unless authorized to do so. The values of equality, tolerance, respect for others, and justice govern this principle.

Fairness requires that even careful decision processes provide some avenue for redress of grievances. Computing professionals should foster fair participation of all people, including those of underrepresented groups. Prejudicial discrimination on the basis of age, color, disability, ethnicity, family status, gender identity, labor union membership, military status, nationality, race, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, or any other inappropriate factor is an explicit violation of the Code.

Harassment, including sexual harassment, bullying, and other abuses of power and authority, is a form of discrimination that, amongst other harms, limits fair access to the virtual and physical spaces where such harassment takes place. The use of information and technology may cause new, or enhance existing, inequities. Technologies and practices should be as inclusive and accessible as possible and computing professionals should take action to avoid creating systems or technologies that disenfranchise or oppress people.

Failure to design for inclusiveness and accessibility may constitute unfair discrimination. Developing new ideas, inventions, creative works, and computing artifacts creates value for society, and those who expend this effort should expect to gain value from their work. Computing professionals should therefore credit the creators of ideas, inventions, work, and artifacts, and respect copyrights, patents, trade secrets, license agreements, and other methods of protecting authors' works.

Both custom and the law recognize that some exceptions to a creator's control of a work are necessary for the public good. Computing professionals should not unduly oppose reasonable uses of their intellectual works.

Syntax is the rules for constructing patterns; it allows us to distinguish patterns that stand for something from patterns that do not. Stuff is the measurable physical states of the world that hold representations, usually in media or signals.

Put these two together and we can build machines that can detect when a valid pattern is present. A representation that stands for a method of evaluating a function is called an algorithm.

A representation that stands for values is called data. When implemented by a machine, an algorithm controls the transformation of an input data representation to an output data representation. The algorithm representation controls the transformation of data representations.

The distinction between the algorithm and the data representations is pretty weak; the executable code generated by a compiler looks like data to the compiler and like an algorithm to the person running the code. Even this simple notion of representation has deep consequences. For example, as Gregory Chaitin has shown, there is no algorithm for finding the shortest possible representation of something. Some scientists leave open the question of whether an observed information process is actually controlled by an algorithm.

DNA translation can thus be called an information process; if someone discovers a controlling algorithm, it could be also called a computation.

Some mathematicians define computation as separate from implementation. They treat computations as logical orderings of strings in abstract languages, and are able to determine the logical limits of computation. However, to answer questions about the running time of observable computations, they have to introduce costs—the time or energy of storing, retrieving or converting representations. Many real-world problems require exponential-time computations as a consequence of these implementable representations.

My colleagues and I still prefer to deal with implementable representations because they are the basis of a scientific approach to computation. These notions of representations are sufficient to give us the definitions we need for computing. An information process is a sequence of representations. In the physical world, it is a continuously evolving, changing representation. A computation is an information process in which the transitions from one element of the sequence to the next are controlled by a representation.

In the physical world, we would say that each infinitesimal time and space step is controlled by a representation. Where Computing Stands Computing as a field has come to exemplify good science as well as engineering. The science is essential to the advancement of the field because many systems are so complex that experimental methods are the only way to make discoveries and understand limits.

Computing is now seen as a broad field that studies information processes, natural and artificial. This definition is wide enough to accommodate three issues that have nagged computing scientists for many years: Continuous information processes such as signals in communication systems or analog computers , interactive processes such as ongoing Web services and natural processes such as DNA translation all seemed like computation but did not fit the traditional algorithmic definitions.

Computing interacts in many ways with the other domains of science. Computing implements a phenomenon by generating its behaviors. Examples of how computing is both implemented by, and implements, the domains of physics, social and life sciences, and well as influencing its own behaviors, are given above.

The great-principles framework reveals a rich set of rules on which all computation is based. These principles interact with the domains of the physical, life and social sciences, as well as with computing technology itself. Computing is not a subset of other sciences. None of those domains are fundamentally concerned with the nature of information processes and their transformations. Yet this knowledge is now essential in all the other domains of science.

Computer scientist Paul Rosenbloom of the University of Southern California in argued that computing is a new great domain of science. He is on to something. Bibliography Arden, B.

Bacon, D. Recent progress in quantum algorithms. Communications of the ACM — Baltimore, D. How Biology Became an Information Science.

In The Invisible Future, P. Denning, ed. Chaitin, G. Meta Math! The Quest for Omega. Denning, P. Great Principles of Computing. Great Principles of Computing Website. Computing is a natural science. Communications of the ACM 28— Hazen, R.

When that harm is unintended, those responsible are obliged to undo or mitigate the harm as much as possible. Avoiding harm begins with careful consideration of potential impacts on all those affected by decisions. When harm is an intentional part of the system, those responsible are obligated to ensure that the harm is ethically justified. In either case, ensure that all harm is minimized. To minimize the possibility of indirectly or unintentionally harming others, computing professionals should follow generally accepted best practices unless there is a compelling ethical reason to do otherwise.

Additionally, the consequences of data aggregation and emergent properties of systems should be carefully analyzed. Those involved with pervasive or infrastructure systems should also consider Principle 3. A computing professional has an additional obligation to report any signs of system risks that might result in harm.

If leaders do not act to curtail or mitigate such risks, it may be necessary to "blow the whistle" to reduce potential harm. However, capricious or misguided reporting of risks can itself be harmful. Before reporting risks, a computing professional should carefully assess relevant aspects of the situation.

Honesty is an essential component of trustworthiness. A computing professional should be transparent and provide full disclosure of all pertinent system capabilities, limitations, and potential problems to the appropriate parties. Making deliberately false or misleading claims, fabricating or falsifying data, offering or accepting bribes, and other dishonest conduct are violations of the Code. Computing professionals should be honest about their qualifications, and about any limitations in their competence to complete a task.

Computing professionals should be forthright about any circumstances that might lead to either real or perceived conflicts of interest or otherwise tend to undermine the independence of their judgment. Furthermore, commitments should be honored. Computing professionals should not misrepresent an organization's policies or procedures, and should not speak on behalf of an organization unless authorized to do so.

The values of equality, tolerance, respect for others, and justice govern this principle. Fairness requires that even careful decision processes provide some avenue for redress of grievances. Computing professionals should foster fair participation of all people, including those of underrepresented groups.

Prejudicial discrimination on the basis of age, color, disability, ethnicity, family status, gender identity, labor union membership, military status, nationality, race, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, or any other inappropriate factor is an explicit violation of the Code. Harassment, including sexual harassment, bullying, and other abuses of power and authority, is a form of discrimination that, amongst other harms, limits fair access to the virtual and physical spaces where such harassment takes place.

The use of information and technology may cause new, or enhance existing, inequities. Technologies and practices should be as inclusive and accessible as possible and computing professionals should take action to avoid creating systems or technologies that disenfranchise or oppress people. Failure to design for inclusiveness and accessibility may constitute unfair discrimination.

Principles of Computer System Design

Developing new ideas, inventions, creative works, and computing artifacts creates value for society, and those who expend this effort should expect to gain value from their work. Computing professionals should therefore credit the creators of ideas, inventions, work, and artifacts, and respect copyrights, patents, trade secrets, license agreements, and other methods of protecting authors' works.

Both custom and the law recognize that some exceptions to a creator's control of a work are necessary for the public good. Computing professionals should not unduly oppose reasonable uses of their intellectual works. Efforts to help others by contributing time and energy to projects that help society illustrate a positive aspect of this principle. Such efforts include free and open source software and work put into the public domain.

Computing professionals should not claim private ownership of work that they or others have shared as public resources.

1. GENERAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES.

The responsibility of respecting privacy applies to computing professionals in a particularly profound way. Technology enables the collection, monitoring, and exchange of personal information quickly, inexpensively, and often without the knowledge of the people affected.

Therefore, a computing professional should become conversant in the various definitions and forms of privacy and should understand the rights and responsibilities associated with the collection and use of personal information. Computing professionals should only use personal information for legitimate ends and without violating the rights of individuals and groups.

This requires taking precautions to prevent re-identification of anonymized data or unauthorized data collection, ensuring the accuracy of data, understanding the provenance of the data, and protecting it from unauthorized access and accidental disclosure. Computing professionals should establish transparent policies and procedures that allow individuals to understand what data is being collected and how it is being used, to give informed consent for automatic data collection, and to review, obtain, correct inaccuracies in, and delete their personal data.

Only the minimum amount of personal information necessary should be collected in a system. The retention and disposal periods for that information should be clearly defined, enforced, and communicated to data subjects. Personal information gathered for a specific purpose should not be used for other purposes without the person's consent.

Merged data collections can compromise privacy features present in the original collections. Therefore, computing professionals should take special care for privacy when merging data collections.

Computing professionals are often entrusted with confidential information such as trade secrets, client data, nonpublic business strategies, financial information, research data, pre-publication scholarly articles, and patent applications. Computing professionals should protect confidentiality except in cases where it is evidence of the violation of law, of organizational regulations, or of the Code. In these cases, the nature or contents of that information should not be disclosed except to appropriate authorities.

A computing professional should consider thoughtfully whether such disclosures are consistent with the Code. Computing professionals should insist on and support high quality work from themselves and from colleagues. The dignity of employers, employees, colleagues, clients, users, and anyone else affected either directly or indirectly by the work should be respected throughout the process.

Computing professionals should respect the right of those involved to transparent communication about the project. Professionals should be cognizant of any serious negative consequences affecting any stakeholder that may result from poor quality work and should resist inducements to neglect this responsibility. High quality computing depends on individuals and teams who take personal and group responsibility for acquiring and maintaining professional competence.Many people involved in those projects went on to start computer companies in the early s.

In this document, "harm" means negative consequences, especially when those consequences are significant and unjust. There can be no question about the pervasiveness of computing in all fields of science.

Information seems to have no settled definition. However, capricious or misguided reporting of risks can itself be harmful. Computing professionals are in a position of trust, and therefore have a special responsibility to provide objective, credible evaluations and testimony to employers, employees, clients, users, and the public.

Developing new ideas, inventions, creative works, and computing artifacts creates value for society, and those who expend this effort should expect to gain value from their work.

About this book This introductory book discusses how to plan and build useful, reliable, maintainable and cost efficient computer systems for automated engineering design. Experiences from applications of automated design systems in practice are reviewed based on a large number of real, industrial cases. Security System Breaches.

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