by Mark L Latash. £ When I was asked to review this book I was pleased – both because I was aware of the reputation of this author and his work. Neurophysiological basis of movement 2nd edition pdf. 1. Neurophysiological Basis of Movement - 2nd Edition Mark Latash; 2. Publisher. Neurophysiological. Basis of Movement. Second. Edition. Mark L Latash, PhD. The Pennsylvania State University w&. Human Kinetics.
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Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, has been thoroughly updated and expanded, making it more comprehensive and accessible to. Latash, M. () Neurophysiological basis of movement. 2nd Edition, Human Kinetics, Champaign. has been cited by the following article: TITLE: About the. Find Neurophysiological Basis Of Movement - 2nd Edition by Latash, Mark at Biblio. Uncommonly good collectible and rare books from uncommonly good.
The finding that iRBD often heralds future parkinsonism has stimulated research on predictors of imminent parkinsonism in RBD. Comorbid findings in RBD Patients with iRBD typically present with a varying degree of nonmotor symptoms, including impaired olfactory function, cognitive function, 12 and autonomic function determined by heart rate changes; 13 cardiac I-metaiodobenzylguanidine MIBG uptake reduction; 14 , 15 gastrointestinal abnormalities 16 ; and electroencephalographic slowing.
Hyposomnia and constipation, for instance, are often observed in the preclinical disease stage, but have a too low specificity for predicting PD. Neurophysiology of REM sleep REM sleep is characterized by: 1 tonic components: electroencephalogram EEG , muscle atonia, and loss of thermoregulation; and 2 phasic components: REMs, muscle twitches occurring against a background of atonia, ponto-geniculo-occipital waves, as well as irregularities in breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
The EEG during REM sleep resembles that during wakefulness, which is characterized by low voltage and mixed frequency in the cerebral cortex, with 5—9 Hz waves in the hippocampus. There is sustained low muscle tone during REM sleep in most of the somatic muscles except those of the inner ear, eye, and diaphragm. However, phasic activity in postural muscles is rarely seen. These nuclei are active during wakefulness and NREM sleep, and are activated by projections from the wake-active noradrenergic locus coeruleus, serotonergic raphe nucleus, and the hypocretinergic neurons from the lateral thalamus.
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The SLD contains glutamatergic neurons that directly project to inhibitory interneurons in lamina VIII of the spinal cord and to nuclei, inducing atonia in the ventromedial medulla. Recent findings have revealed that glutamatergic neurons in the rostral parvocellular reticular formation are critical for phasic masseter activity during REM sleep. A study performed by Lai et al reported that lesions in the mesopontine junction cause periodic limb movements during REM sleep in cats.
The occurrence of RBD is consistent with the findings of a study in by Braak et al, 46 who described a staging system for the neuropathological development of PD. Neuropathological studies of iRBD reveal the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain. The joint involvement of the olfactory area suggests that specific parts of the brain are more prone to this, but the specific mechanism is not known in detail.
Box 1. Increased tonic firing of the LC with the resultant increase in NA in the system disrupts this coupling process.
Therefore, LC phasic responses become small or absent Nieuwenhuis et al. With increased NA activity, distractibility is thus magnified Coull, Box 2. Searching for your keys with stress.
Human Kinetics Neurophysiological Basis of Movement - 2nd Edition
In mindfulness training, the task is to attend to the present moment for example, attending to bodily sensations. The student is also instructed to focus attention on specific information e. Mind-wandering occurs: i when distractibility is high and it is hard to keep the focus of attention and ii when in a more relaxed state, stimuli from the outside world become dimmed and the mind is carried away by thoughts, images, and dream-like states, leading to torpor.
In both these situations, there would be a decoupling of the transient bursts, which are necessary to keep the body sensations salient. This means other task-unrelated information becomes equally salient. In mindfulness training, the detection of mind-wandering is a cue to renew the intention to attend to the object of choice. As proposed by Hasenkamp et al. One suggestion is that phasic activity would be coupled to the sensory information related to the task e.
Coupled LC discharges and corresponding NA bursts with body sensations would then result in these becoming amplified, and all other sensations e. From a cognitive point of view, in focused attention meditation practices three skills are required: i monitoring and vigilance to distractors whilst maintaining the focus of attention on an object; ii prompt disengagement or release from distractors; and iii deliberate re-focusing of attention back to the chosen object Lutz et al.
In the following sections, we describe the cognitive model which enables these distinct and complex functions required for ST-Mindfulness, via processes that have been ascribed to the CE and episodic buffer components of the working memory system Baddeley, Monitoring and Management of Mind-Wandering Requires Working Memory Working memory and specifically its CE component plays a key role in keeping clear priorities in the face of potential distractions De Fockert, Therefore, during ST-Mindfulness, in order to keep the focus of attention whilst dealing with mind-wandering, such a system is very likely to be employed.
A number of authors have implicated working memory in mindfulness training Vago and Silbersweig, and its suggested therapeutic effects [ Kerr et al. Experimental studies with both children Schonert-Reichl et al.
Under stressful conditions, short duration mindfulness training appears to reduce the deleterious effects of stress on working memory Banks et al.
More recently, the terms control, inhibition, and monitoring are used to describe these key executive functions. In mindfulness training, attention and working memory functions share common features Buttle, There are also many overlaps between attentional and working memory systems in the brain Nobre et al.
Although models of working memory continue to be refined and developed, we believe the specificity of the multicomponent model of working memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch Baddeley and Hitch, ; Baddeley, may provide a useful framework to help develop and refine cognitive models of mindfulness training [ Shapiro et al.
This robust model has survived extensive experimental testing over many decades Baddeley, , The CE co-ordinates information processing with the help of these auxiliary systems.
It maintains intention goals , monitors conflict, has a number of attentional roles switching between tasks, focused attention, and divided attention and interacts via the auxiliary systems with long-term memory. The episodic buffer is described as a limited capacity, temporary, multimodal, storage system, which is at the interface between long-term memory and both the VSSP and phonological loop slave systems Baddeley, To summarize, mindfulness training develops the ability to modulate between states of alertness and sleepiness, and the capacity to monitor mind-wandering and focus attention.
It also engages the episodic buffering function to hold on-line multimodal information and allow it to be manipulated in the service of higher order intentions and behavioral control. We thus suggest that these two aspects are crucial to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the training of the focus of attention required in mindfulness meditation.
What follows is not an exhaustive review of the motor sciences literature, rather we point to areas of overlap between motor movements and mindfulness training. Movements General Cognitive Aspects of Movement A topic of long-standing interest to researchers studying both attention and movement is the variable ways in which attention can be brought to action, and the discovery that it is possible to attend to movement in a variety of ways and at different levels of conscious awareness Norman and Shallice, ; Frith, They described five instances where it might be necessary to bring attention to a motor task see Box 3.
In such situations, the SAS, interacting with attention, selects and co-ordinates the desired response motor sequence Badgaiyan, It is the same mechanism, with two different names. Box 3.
Five instances when it might be necessary to bring conscious attention to a motor task. Automatic and Controlled Movement The majority of movements made are highly automated and do not require any attention at all.
Even a complex movement, like driving, can be done with little overt attention to the task i. In this example, the mind is free to wander.
However, it is possible to shift between automatic and controlled modes in both directions. We argue that this process of shifting is inherent within the motor system, and in ST-Mindfulness occurs within an abstract mental realm. In ST-Mindfulness training, there is an intention to observe and undo habitual automatic mental reactivity in order to create new, healthier habits of responding Kang et al.
Thus, being able to shift between the automatic and controlled modes, via engagement of attention is important when training mindfulness. Moreover, this is also an intrinsic element of motor behavior, particularly when learning a new motor skill.
In this automatic stage, the motor skill is so well-established that it can be performed automatically in a range of contexts with limited demands on attentional resources as with the driving example above. Shifting back into controlled mode from automatic can occur under a variety of circumstances see Box 3 and with varying levels of awareness. This might be required if you were deliberately trying to reverse a habitual way of moving for example, un-doing a bad habit you had picked up in your golf swing.
Another example of shifting between these modes is when you encounter something dangerous in the environment, which requires a rapid modification of the movement, correcting the movement, the posture, and perhaps shifting back the intention.
In this case, an alerting signal is provided by the system, something that may occur either without awareness or with delayed awareness.
Box 4 shows how the movement program has been modified by unexpected external circumstances some time before a conscious awareness of the need to modify the movement takes place.
Ullsperger et al. Box 4. Automatic correction of automatic movements. Prediction and Anticipation in Movement Information processing models combining ideas from computer sciences and observations from physiology detail how this process of rapid correction occurs.
This efference copy is drawn from stored memories of motor commands and their sensory consequences Blakemore et al. The observed visual and proprioceptive sensations entering the system during the movement are compared against this efference copy on a moment-by-moment basis. This determines if the movement has been executed as intended Jeannerod, If the observed sensory input the reafferent signal matches the efference copy, the movement has been conducted as planned, and there is no need to allocate attention.
This process has been suggested as a way to increase the efficiency of attention and cognitive processing, by preventing the central nervous system from wasting valuable metabolic resources processing irrelevant self-generated sensory stimuli and maximizing the detection of the more important unanticipated or unpredicted stimuli Pynn and DeSouza, In these latter cases see Box 4 , there is a mismatch between expected and observed sensory information, creating an error signal, and alerting the system to do something to modify the movement.
In any movement, the mismatches are more salient.
The error signal triggers a cascade of events including those that will reconfigure muscle activity, joint orientation, and velocity as well as top-down mechanisms to re-organize the movement sequence. Part of this process may involve bringing the source of the discrepancy into focus.
This is an important feature of the motor system with survival value. Environmental demands as well as changing internal goals mean we need to anticipate, predict, and process in parallel information related to our movements on a moment-by-moment basis.
No matter whether the movement is well-practiced highly automatic or brand new, the brain creates simulations to anticipate the various stages of the movement, and the state of sensory receptors, in order to foresee possible solutions to every error, take chances, and make decisions Berthoz, The possibility to anticipate movements in the way described above may engage a type of simulation architecture that has been evoked in discussions of mind-wandering and the DMN.
In summary, motor learning models indicate how movement sequences can be highly automatic or fully conscious.
Cognitive models suggest how movement commands interface with the attentional system to change our experience of an action under different conditions. Information processing models suggest how internal movement representations support flexible responding. The feedforward model is proposed to do this by predicting what we might expect to experience and then comparing this with the actual experience.
Movement requires autonomic adjustments, such as changes in arterial blood-pressure or volume and LC—NA neuronal activity is highly sensitive to cardiovascular events Elam et al. Additionally, during movement, there are an increased number and variety of tactile sensations cutaneous sensory afferents , which feed into the LC Elam et al.
Neurophysiological Basis Of Movement - 2nd Edition
These afferents include those arising from the skin stretching over muscles and the sensation of the air or clothes moving across the skin. Thus, movements are likely to impact on LC—NA firing rates, via modulation of cardiovascular and sensory afferents. Any system that monitors salience must be intimately connected to the movement system in order to ensure that the animal survives when it detects something threatening, requiring it to escape from danger Berridge and Waterhouse, The neuroanatomical and neurophysiological properties of the LC Berridge and Waterhouse, make it suitable for signaling the detection of unexpected state changes Dayan and Yu, and triggering the required rapid behavioral adaptation to an environment that is constantly changing Bouret and Sara, ; Dayan and Yu, see example in Box 5.
Box 5. Pianist playing solo at a live classical music concert. Neuropsychological Aspects of Movement: Working Memory The error correction process within the motor system has been suggested to imply a short-term storage of outflow information Jeannerod, , a function which could be subserved by the episodic buffer of working memory.
We suggest these expected and observed sensory consequences are held, to be manipulated, within the episodic buffer system. The episodic buffer can hold multimodal information including representations drawn up from long-term memory as would be necessary to hold all the different sorts information stored in relation to movements.
Working memory and movement programing share common processes, as indicated by studies where working memory demands have been increased, causing interference in the motor behavior. Increasing working memory load interferes with movement preparatory processes that involve cognitive control, suggesting that there is a shared resource for working memory and movement planning Baker et al. Experiments that have explored the capacity of the VSSP under different arm movement conditions demonstrate that there is an overlap between the movement and the operation of this slave system Quinn and Ralston, In both these studies, the effects were distinct from the effects of the experimental manipulations on attention.
Working memory is considered to play a role in the execution of motor programs that require discrete timing.
Making a slow movement as we do in mindfulness requires more working memory as demonstrated by experiments showing that loading working memory interferes with slow, discrete movements more than it does with continuous, fast paced movements Maes et al. These findings described above would predict that movements requiring attention engaging the WM system will impact on mind-wandering.
Teasdale et al. In a visuo-motor task, the production of SITs was reduced when learning the task. This effect was seen to a lesser degree once the task had been practiced. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the production of SITs and the control and co-ordination of movements share and compete for the same limit CE resources.
In terms of possible treatment implications, Teasdale et al. This suggests that new movements, requiring attention, are able to interrupt mind-wandering processes. Mind-wandering can also be reduced with mindful movements, whereby focused attention is deliberately brought to any movement, including automatic ones. This finding is congruent with reports that there is a decreased in the DMN activity and thus a possibility to reduce mind-wandering when working memory is increased Koshino et al.
The critical point is the engagement of attention whilst moving. This is described in more detail below. Mindful Movements Both movements and mindfulness engage wide-ranging brain networks that modulate arousal, activity, attention, and monitoring.
Neuroimaging research suggests many overlaps between regions engaged during movement and those used for working memory and selective attention, including a fronto-parietal circuit Harding et al. There are a number of contemplative movement practices of Eastern origin e. Some of these have well-recognized physical Jahnke et al.
During a slow movement, the flood of sensory information becomes apparent. It is possible to feel the air across the surface of the body through sensory receptors, the movement of the joints via proprioceptive input, and notice how autonomic responses e. This increased sensory information increases the perceptual load on the system as there are more sensations to observe.
The extensive literature on load theory suggests that a consequence of this is decreased distractibility Lavie et al. The ability to process distractors is related to working memory capacity, when this is increased it enhances the ability to deal with distractors promptly.
Therefore, the ability to attend, and stay attentive, may be easier during movement see Carmody and Baer, Contemplative movement practices tend not to deliberately engage the cognitive training elements awareness of attention to the object or lack thereof.When through vestibulo-, reticulo- and rubro-spinal tracts these babies are supported on a moving treadmill, they Kazennikov et al, ;Udo et al, The output of the limb movements Forssberg et al, a,b.
These abnormalities are presented later.
Mindful yoga practice time was also correlated with decreases in negative judgment of inner experience. All Rights Reserved. Physlotherapy, February , vol79, no 2 Central Control of Locomotion The neural structure and mechanism of CPGS are not Evidence for the role of the central nervous system and yet totally known Grillner, ;Arshavsky et al, English translation The new chapters in Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition , focus on motor control and motor synergies, prehension, changes in movement with aging, typical and atypical development, neuromuscular peripheral disorders, and disorders of the spinal cord, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cortex.
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