How. Learning. Works. Seven Research-Based. Principles for Smart Teaching. Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges,. Michele DiPietro, Marsha C. Lovett. How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based. Principles for Smart Teaching. Dr. Michele DiPietro. Executive Director,. Center for Excellence in Teaching and. "How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have .
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We are delighted to review the book How Learning Works: Seven Research- Based Principles for Smart Teaching by Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges, . Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster How English Works (A Grammar Practice Book) - bestthing.info 14, No. 1, February , pp. doi: /josotl.v14i Book Review. How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Principles for Smart. Teaching.
Students can become more expert if the geographical information they are taught is placed in the appropriate conceptual framework. A key finding in the learning and transfer literature is that organizing information into a conceptual framework allows for greater ''transfer"; that is, it allows the student to apply what was learned in new situations and to learn related information more quickly see Box 2. The student who has learned geographical information for the Americas in a conceptual framework approaches the task of learning the geography of another part of the globe with questions, ideas, and expectations that help guide acquisition of the new information.
Understanding the geographical importance of the Mississippi River sets the stage for the student's understanding of the geographical importance of the Nile. And as concepts are reinforced, the student will transfer learning beyond the classroom, observing and inquiring, for example, about the geographic features of a visited city that help explain its location and size Holyoak, ; Novick and Holyoak, A "metacognitive" approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.
In research with experts who were asked to verbalize their thinking as they worked, it was revealed that they monitored their own understanding carefully, making note of when additional information was required for understanding, whether new information was consistent with what they already Page 14 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"2 Key Findings.
One group received an explanation of the refraction of light, which causes the apparent location of the target to be deceptive. The other group only practiced dart throwing, without the explanation.
Both groups did equally well on the practice task, which involved a target 12 inches under water. But the group that had been instructed about the abstract principle did much better when they had to transfer to a situation in which the target was under only 4 inches of water.
Because they understood what they were doing, the group that had received instruction about the refraction of light could adjust their behavior to the new task. These meta-cognitive monitoring activities are an important component of what is called adaptive expertise Hatano, Because metacognition often takes the form of an internal conversation, it can easily be assumed that individuals will develop the internal dialogue on their own.
Yet many of the strategies we use for thinking reflect cultural norms and methods of inquiry Hutchins, ; Brice-Heath, , ; Suina and Smolkin, Research has demonstrated that children can be taught these strategies, including the ability to predict outcomes, explain to oneself in order to improve understanding, note failures to comprehend, activate background knowledge, plan ahead, and apportion time and memory.
Reciprocal teaching, for example, is a technique designed to improve students' reading comprehension by helping them explicate, elaborate, and monitor their understanding as they read Palincsar and Brown, The model for using the meta-cognitive strategies is provided initially by the teacher, and students practice and discuss the strategies as they learn to use them. Ultimately, students are able to prompt themselves and monitor their own comprehension without teacher support. These strategies are not generic across subjects, and attempts to teach them as generic can lead to failure to transfer.
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Teaching metacognitive strategies in context has been shown to improve understanding in physics White and Frederickson, , written composition Scardamalia et al. And metacognitive practices have been shown to increase the degree to which students transfer to new settings and events Lin and Lehman, in press; Palincsar and Brown, ; Scardamalia et al.
Each of these techniques shares a strategy of teaching and modeling the process of generating alternative approaches to developing an idea in writing or a strategy for problem solving in mathematics , evaluating their merits in helping to attain a goal, and monitoring progress toward that goal. Class discussions are used to support skill development, with a goal of independence and self-regulation.
Implications for Teaching The three core learning principles described above, simple though they seem, have profound implications for the enterprise of teaching and teacher preparation. Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understanding that their students bring with them. This requires that: The model of the child as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge provided by the teacher must be replaced.
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Instead, the teacher must actively inquire into students' thinking, creating classroom tasks and conditions under which student thinking can be revealed. Students' initial conceptions then provide the foundation on which the more formal understanding of the subject matter is built.
The roles for assessment must be expanded beyond the traditional concept of testing. The use of frequent formative assessment helps make students' thinking visible to themselves, their peers, and their teacher.
This provides feedback that can guide modification and refinement in thinking. Given the goal of learning with understanding, assessments must tap understanding rather than merely the ability to repeat facts or perform isolated skills. Educational Psychologist, 11, 87— Generative processes of comprehension.
How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching
Educational Psychologist, 24, — Generative teaching of comprehension. The Elementary School Journal, 92, — Generative learning processes of the brain. Michael W.
Margaret Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Marsha C. Lovett is associate director for faculty development at the Eberly Center and associate teaching professor in the Department of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon.
Norman is a teaching consultant and research associate at the Eberly Center and adjunct professor of anthropology at Carnegie Mellon. The Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence at Carnegie Mellon University was created in with a mission to distill the research on learning for faculty and graduate students and to collaborate with them to design and implement meaningful educational experiences.
The center's work is based on the idea that combining the science and art of teaching empowers college faculty to create the conditions for students to learn and, through this learning, transform their world. Request permission to reuse content from this site.
How Learning Works
Undetected country. NO YES. How Learning Works: Read an Excerpt Excerpt 1:The more developed the conceptual understanding of the needs of cities and the resource base that drew people to them, the more meaningful the map becomes. Hence, their attention is not overtaxed by complex events. However the knowledge in the subject matter alone is not sufficient for effective teaching—teachers must learn how to use sound pedagogical approaches to help students learn effectively and meaningfully.
ISBN So: how can we address insufficient, inaccurate, inappropriate, or inactive prior knowledge when teaching Latin or Greek language? This is very helpful for the busy clinical instructor who can read a chapter at a time without losing any understanding. For example, in a study of physics students from elite, technologically oriented colleges, Andrea DiSessa instructed them to play a computerized game that required them to direct a computer-simulated object called a dynaturtle so that it would hit a target and do so with minimum speed at impact.
The book is introduced with a definition of learning.
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