HEAT WAVE PDF

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Heat can kill by pushing the human body beyond its limits. Under normal conditions, the prolonged heat wave than people living in rural regions. An increased. PDF | The concept of transmission of heat by waves is reviewed and interpreted. The notion of an effective thermal conductivity, an effective heat capacity, and. temperature regime of heat waves across Africa over re- cent years .. bestthing.info (last access: January.


Heat Wave Pdf

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During a heat wave your health is at risk, what are the warning signs? WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW. Anyone over the age of 60 or with a handicap, is entitled to. THROUGHOUT A HEAT-WAVE, FOLLOW THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE LOCAL HEALTH Reduce the heat load inside the apartment or house. Roadmap for Planning Heatwave Management in India (Source: http://www. bestthing.info; accessed on February

Heat rash affects areas of the body covered by tight clothing. If this continues for a duration of time it can lead to the development of chronic dermatitis or a secondary bacterial infection.

Prevention is the best therapy. It is also advised to wear loose-fitting clothing in the heat. However, once heat rash has developed, the initial treatment involves the application of chlorhexidine lotion to remove any desquamated skin. The associated itching may be treated with topical or systemic antihistamines. If infection occurs a regimen of antibiotics is required.

The North American heat wave. Record temperatures were based on year records Heat cramps are painful, often severe, involuntary spasms of the large muscle groups used in strenuous exercise. Heat cramps tend to occur after intense exertion. They usually develop in people performing heavy exercise while sweating profusely and replenishing fluid loss with non-electrolyte containing water.

This is believed to lead to hyponatremia that induces cramping in stressed muscles. Rehydration with salt-containing fluids provides rapid relief.

Patients with mild cramps can be given oral. The many sport drinks on the market are a good source of electrolytes and are readily accessible. Heat syncope is related to heat exposure that produces orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension can precipitate a near-syncopal episode. Heat syncope is believed to result from intense sweating, which leads to dehydration , followed by peripheral vasodilation and reduced venous blood return in the face of decreased vasomotor control.

Management of heat syncope consists of cooling and rehydration of the patient using oral rehydration therapy sport drinks or isotonic IV fluids. People who experience heat syncope should avoid standing in the heat for long periods of time.

They should move to a cooler environment and lie down if they recognize the initial symptoms.

Wearing support stockings and engaging in deep knee-bending movements can help promote venous blood return. Heat exhaustion is considered by experts to be the forerunner of heat stroke hyperthermia. It may even resemble heat stroke, with the difference being that the neurologic function remains intact. Heat exhaustion is marked by excessive dehydration and electrolyte depletion. Symptoms may include diarrhea , headache , nausea and vomiting , dizziness , tachycardia , malaise , and myalgia.

Definitive therapy includes removing patients from the heat and replenishing their fluids.

Most patients will require fluid replacement with IV isotonic fluids at first. The salt content is adjusted as necessary once the electrolyte levels are known.

After discharge from the hospital, patients are instructed to rest, drink plenty of fluids for 2—3 hours, and avoid the heat for several days. If this advice is not followed it may then lead to heat stroke. One public health measure taken during heat waves is the setting-up of air-conditioned public cooling centers. Hyperthermia , also known as heat stroke, becomes commonplace during periods of sustained high temperature and humidity.

Older adults, very young children, and those who are sick or overweight are at a higher risk for heat-related illness. The chronically ill and elderly are often taking prescription medications e.

Heat edema presents as a transient swelling of the hands, feet, and ankles and is generally secondary to increased aldosterone secretion , which enhances water retention. When combined with peripheral vasodilation and venous stasis , the excess fluid accumulates in the dependent areas of the extremities.

The heat edema usually resolves within several days after the patient becomes acclimated to the warmer environment. No treatment is required, although wearing support stockings and elevating the affected legs will help minimize the edema. Heat rash , also known as prickly heat, is a maculopapular rash accompanied by acute inflammation and blocked sweat ducts. The sweat ducts may become dilated and may eventually rupture, producing small pruritic vesicles on an erythematous base.

Heat rash affects areas of the body covered by tight clothing. If this continues for a duration of time it can lead to the development of chronic dermatitis or a secondary bacterial infection.

Prevention is the best therapy. It is also advised to wear loose-fitting clothing in the heat.

GHWR, a multi-method global heatwave and warm-spell record and toolbox

However, once heat rash has developed, the initial treatment involves the application of chlorhexidine lotion to remove any desquamated skin. The associated itching may be treated with topical or systemic antihistamines. If infection occurs a regimen of antibiotics is required. Heat cramps are painful, often severe, involuntary spasms of the large muscle groups used in strenuous exercise.

Heat cramps tend to occur after intense exertion. They usually develop in people performing heavy exercise while sweating profusely and replenishing fluid loss with non-electrolyte containing water. This is believed to lead to hyponatremia that induces cramping in stressed muscles.

Rehydration with salt-containing fluids provides rapid relief. Patients with mild cramps can be given oral. The many sport drinks on the market are a good source of electrolytes and are readily accessible. Heat syncope is related to heat exposure that produces orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension can precipitate a near-syncopal episode. Heat syncope is believed to result from intense sweating, which leads to dehydration , followed by peripheral vasodilation and reduced venous blood return in the face of decreased vasomotor control.

Management of heat syncope consists of cooling and rehydration of the patient using oral rehydration therapy sport drinks or isotonic IV fluids. People who experience heat syncope should avoid standing in the heat for long periods of time.

They should move to a cooler environment and lie down if they recognize the initial symptoms. Wearing support stockings and engaging in deep knee-bending movements can help promote venous blood return.

Heat exhaustion is considered by experts to be the forerunner of heat stroke hyperthermia. It may even resemble heat stroke, with the difference being that the neurologic function remains intact. Heat exhaustion is marked by excessive dehydration and electrolyte depletion. Symptoms may include diarrhea , headache , nausea and vomiting , dizziness , tachycardia , malaise , and myalgia.

Definitive therapy includes removing patients from the heat and replenishing their fluids. Most patients will require fluid replacement with IV isotonic fluids at first. The salt content is adjusted as necessary once the electrolyte levels are known.

After discharge from the hospital, patients are instructed to rest, drink plenty of fluids for 2—3 hours, and avoid the heat for several days. If this advice is not followed it may then lead to heat stroke. One public health measure taken during heat waves is the setting-up of air-conditioned public cooling centers. Heat waves are the most lethal type of weather phenomenon in the United States. Between and , deaths from excessive heat in the United States numbered 2,, compared with deaths from floods and from hurricanes.

In his study of heat-wave behavior, focusing particularly on seniors in Philadelphia, Phoenix, Toronto, and Dayton, Ohio, he found that people over 65 "don't consider themselves seniors. According to the Agency for Health care Research and Quality, about 6, Americans are hospitalized each summer due to excessive heat, and those at highest risk are poor, uninsured or elderly.

Our concern now is focusing on predicting the future likelihood of heat waves and their severity. In addition, because in most of the world most of those suffering the impacts of a heat wave will be inside a building, and this will modify the temperatures they are exposed to, there is the need to link climate models to building models.

This means producing example time series of future weather.

The number of heat fatalities is likely highly underreported due to a lack of reports and misreports. It has been observed that for some heat waves, there is a compensatory decrease in overall mortality during the subsequent weeks after a heat wave.

Such compensatory reductions in mortality suggest that heat affects especially those so ill that they "would have died in the short term anyway". Another explanation for underreporting is the social attenuation in most contexts of heat waves as a health risk. As shown by the deadly French heat wave in , heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors.

In addition to physical stress , excessive heat causes psychological stress, to a degree which affects performance, and is also associated with an increase in violent crime.

In every society, crime rates go up when temperatures go up, particularly violent crimes such as assault, murder, and rape. Furthermore, in politically unstable countries, high temperatures are an aggravating factor that lead toward civil wars. Additionally, high temperatures have a significant effect on income. A study of counties in the United States found that economic productivity of individual days declines by about 1.

Abnormally hot temperatures can cause electricity demand to increase during the peak summertime hours of 4 to 7 p. If a hot spell extends to three days or more, however, nighttime temperatures do not cool down, and the thermal mass in homes and buildings retains the heat from previous days. This heat build-up causes air conditioners to turn on earlier and to stay on later in the day.

As a result, available electricity supplies are challenged during a higher, wider, peak electricity consumption period. Heat waves often lead to electricity spikes due to increased air conditioning use, which can create power outages, exacerbating the problem. During the North American heat wave , thousands of homes and businesses went without power, especially in California.

In Los Angeles, electrical transformers failed, leaving thousands without power for as long as five days. If a heat wave occurs during a drought, which dries out vegetation, it can contribute to bushfires and wildfires. Heat waves can and do cause roads and highways to buckle and melt, [43] water lines to burst, and power transformers to detonate, causing fires.

See the North American heat wave article about heat waves causing physical damage.

Trends in heat wave related indices in Pakistan

Heat waves can also damage rail roads, such as buckling and kinking rails, which can lead to slower traffic, delays, and even cancellations of service when rails are too dangerous to traverse by trains. Sun kinking is caused when certain types of rail design like short section rails welded together or fish plate rails expand and push on other sections of rail causing them to warp and kink.

In the heatwave in England , gritters normally only seen in snow were sent out to grit melting tarmac roads. Climate models reveal that future heat waves will have a more intense geologic pattern.

Heat waves and droughts as a result, minimize ecosystem carbon uptake. Extreme heat wave events are predicted to happen with increased global warming , which puts stress on ecosystems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Heat burst. For other uses, see Heat wave disambiguation.

Calendar seasons. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Tropical seasons. Dry season Harmattan Wet season. Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.

Introduction

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. A Journal of Applied Meteorology. Alexander; P. Della-Marta; B. Gleason; M. Haylock; A. Klein Tank; T. Peterson January Climate Research. June Glossary of Meteorology.

American Meteorological Society. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved Danish Meteorological Institute.Who is most at risk? As a result, this upper level high pressure also moves slowly. Under high pressure, the air subsides sinks toward the surface, warming and drying adiabatically.

They usually develop in people performing heavy exercise while sweating profusely and replenishing fluid loss with non-electrolyte containing water. The larger objective of our project is to apply the heat wave validation framework developed here to a suite of medium-range forecast models.

Warning systems should make use of informal affect everyone; it is the vulnerable individuals or methods of communication for example, through sectors of society who will most experience their religious groups, charities and word-of-mouth as well effects.

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