Do you know what's in the food you eat, and how it gets from field to plate? The author of an acclaimed exposé of American food production tells us where to. Books shelved as food-production: Food Production Operations by Parvinder S. Bali, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals by Michael Pol. International Cuisine and Food Production Management is a comprehensive textbook specially designed for the final year degree/diploma students of hotel.
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This tutorial teaches basic terms used in food production. After going All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I ). bestthing.info - download Food Production Operations book online at best prices in India on bestthing.info Read Food Production Operations book reviews & author details. Food Production Operations is a comprehensive textbook, designed especially for undergraduate students of hotel management. The book covers the basics of .
Be cautious in using service ware or cookware that might be susceptible to poisoning. These might be inadvertent and could be pieces of string or rope in a gunny bag of flour, metal shavings caused by an old can opener, pieces of glass from a broken container or even hair and dirt in some prepared food. However, physical contamination can be caused intentionally and purposely as in cases of Food Adulteration. This can be harmful and lead to serious and sometimes fatal consequences and will be dealt with in a later chapter.
Rather, they are carried to food and food contact surfaces by humans, rodents such as rats and mice or insects. This transfer is referred to as cross-contamination. For example, one item such as your finger or the cutting board becomes contaminated and then contaminates some other food or tool such as your knife.
Cross-contamination can occur with bacteria or other microorganisms, chemicals, dirt and debris. Kitchen towels, dusters and other such cleaning material are a common source of cross-contamination. If a cook uses such a duster to wipe of some spill from the floor and then uses the same to wipe his hands after visiting the rest room, he has re contaminated his hands with whatever dirt or bacteria was on the floor.
Never use a container that had raw food to store cooked food unless properly sanitized. Cross-contamination can easily occur from smoking in the kitchen and therefore this useless activity is totally banned in all kitchens and food service operations.
Personal hygiene and cleanliness, equipment and dish sanitizing and pest management can reduce cross-contamination. It focuses on flow of food through the food service facility from the time the decision is made to put an item on the menu to ordering and receipt of ingredients from the supplier, to receiving the raw material, inspection, storage, issuing, pre preparation, cooking, portioning and presentation and finally the service.
These activities that pose the maximum risk critical points should be closely monitored to prevent the growth of dangerous pathogenic bacteria. HACCP does not impose new or different food safety standards.
It is merely a system for assuring that those standards are actually followed. One way of to assure compliance is to frequently check and record the temperature of Potentially Hazardous Foods PHF during cooking, cooling and holding. Whatever system is followed, all personnel must be constantly aware of and responsive to risks and problems associated with the safety of the food they serve.
Food Production and Industry
The best way to prevent work-related injuries is proper training, good work habits and careful supervision. Safe behavior on the job reflects pride, professionalism and consideration for fellow workers. The following should alert you to conditions and activities aimed at preventing accidents and injuries.
Get help if necessary. Squat and then lift, do not bend. Change gloves when handling different foods. Yet, inevitably, some accidents will occur. In an emergency, it is important to act appropriately. This could mean calling for help or to provide First Aid. Every Food Service facility must carry a complete First Aid kit which is easily accessible. All employees must be trained in basic First Aid procedures and a list of emergency telephone numbers readily available.
For these functions to be effectively carried out, it is essential that: The larder should be separate from the kitchen and located in a cool place.
At the same time it should be close to the kitchen to avoid undue running about between the two departments which are closely inter- related. It should be light and airy and well ventilated, sufficiently spacious to allow the staff to carry out their work efficiently. During the setup of the larder, enough attention must be paid to the physical attributes such as the flooring, tiling, exhaust systems, ventilation and lighting, both natural as well as artificial.
It should be fitted with the necessary equipment that would be required to carry out the work. Equipment could be classified as heavy, light and miscellaneous see attached list for the classification of the equipment. There should be adequate and well trained staff.
Most of the work in the larder is of a specialized nature and requires proper training and understanding. Breakdown of work It naturally follows that the work in the larder needs to be broken down into various sections and each section is the responsibility of a chef trained in that area. The Chef Garde Manger who is the over all in charge of the department allocates the duties. His assistants are called either assistant chefs or commis garde manger. Depending upon the volume of the work, the number of sections will vary and so will the number of the staff required.
At times in a small establishment, the larder chef may work single- handed, and carry out all the work himself. He is responsible to the Executive chef for the smooth running and operation of his department. He is also responsible for co ordination between his staff and has to make sure that they have understood the work required from them and the production schedule, either daily or weekly.
Training is another important function he has to carry out. As I have mentioned earlier, the work of the larder is of a highly skilled nature and involves a lot of expensive ingredients, procedures and equipment it is therefore imperative that the staff is well trained.
With regards to the staff, the larder Chef is also responsible for their scheduling and duty rotas. Moreover, he is also required to co ordinate with the other departments like the kitchen and the bakery. A lot of pre preparation is done in the larder for the other departments and satellite kitchens.
Their requirements must be made available well in advance. He also has to maintain registers to record the receipts and dispatch of the foodstuff.
He is also responsible for maintaining hygiene and sanitation standards in the department. Remember, a lot of the foodstuff being processed here is in the raw sate and susceptible to contamination and possible food poisoning. This will involve: Checking the quality and quantity of all food received in the department.
Ensuring that all food stuff is stored at the right temperature and that they can easily be checked 3. That the food is protected from contamination by vermin.
That portion control is ensured. That stock is regularly turned over. That food is not over stocked. A simple daily stock sheet to be maintained by each sub department. Every possible effort is made to ensure the highest standard of hygiene. Pilferage is discouraged and controlled. A simple control system should be installed to keep a check.
It should be simple to use otherwise at busy periods it will be ignored and this will itself defeat the purpose of control. List of Equipment, Machinery and Tools Heavy: All small equipment must be washed and cleaned and dried after every use. The ready to serve variety, available in the market off the shelves, like smoked salmon, pate, sausages.
Those which require culinary preparation and that, when made properly have the advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum flavor and appeal.
This is where fine cuisine can make a contribution to eating pleasure.
What are Zakuskis? It consists of a base of Blinis; the famous Russian pancake made out of buckwheat flour. This was topped with a topping that would be meat, fish, vegetable or combination of these. A characteristic of the topping is that it would most often be flavored with a smoked fish or meat.
The surface would be decorated elaborately; and here is where the chef had the chance to demonstrate his imagination and his skill. Intricate garnishes of exquisite designs would decorate the zakuski. This would then be finished off with a glaze of aspic. They are presented to the guest individually, without an accompaniment or sauce. These are tiny open faced snacks, which are cut into a variety of shapes — round, rectangular, oval, triangle or other shapes.
The size and thickness will depend upon the nature of the ingredients used. The base — which would normally be bread — toasted or plain, white or brown?
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However, a variety of other base ingredients could also be used — puff pastry, flaky pastry, short crust, pizza dough, choux pastry, are examples of the variety that can be used. Sometimes, a spread would be applied to the base to prevent it from soaking up the moisture of the topping.
The topping — almost anything could be used to top the base. However, it should be suitable and must complement the base. It should be fairy dry and must hold shape. A slice of cheese, hard boiled egg, ham, salami, mushrooms or chicken coated with a thick cream sauce, marinated mushrooms and prawns could all be used as topping.
The list is limitless and can only be contained by the imagination. The garnish — this is done more to increase the visual appeal and the appearance than for any functional value. Sprinkle with a mixture of finely chopped whites and yolks of egg, ham, tongue, fine herbs and truffles.
Butter rye bread with horseradish butter, arrange slices of smoked salmon and filets of marinated herrings on top. Butter a slice of bread with lobster butter, top with a mound of chopped egg and mayonnaise and decorate with lobster coral. Butter the bread with anchovy butter. Pile stuffed olives on top and fill the gaps with anchovy butter. No doubt you know all about that….. At least I hope you do!! A sandwich may be many things — it can be a delicious bit of nonsense that makes you ask for more!
It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy — or staunch and hearty — or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread.
The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread.
In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain—Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries. The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The rest is ….. Well, not just history…..
But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown b. Rolls — including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and vienna rolls are all popular.
French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches d. Bread made of various flours such as rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain e. Unleavened bread like pita f. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread. II Spread The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together.
It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter Mayonnaise and its derivatives Low fat spreads like margarine Cheese spreads and cheese paste A combination of the above.
III Filling Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name. Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, and vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings.
Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato.
It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other. IV Garnish To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley.
The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly. The sandwich is no doubt the favourite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement.
Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread.
They are served in bars, cafes, coffee- shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy …. Tea Sandwiches These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers.
They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. They will be suitably garnished for service. The Buffet Sandwich These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits.
Continental or French Sandwiches Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily.
If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double - decker two fillings, three slices of bread.
Similarly, a triple - decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well.
These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily. Open Sandwiches Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread? But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing…. Half a sandwich a garnished piece of bread. Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings.
The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain.
Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye…. Fancy Sandwiches Ribbon sandwiches Checker Board sandwich Pinwheel Sandwich Rolled sandwich Mosaic sandwich These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display.
They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation. Hot Sandwiches These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include: Soften the butter before spreading.
Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature. Use a palette knife for easy spreading 4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich.
It helps to hold the sandwich together 6.
Use sliced bread…. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich. Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification. This suggests that the earliest salads were mixtures of pickled greens, seasoned with salt.
This culinary variation evolved by the time of Imperial Rome into mixtures of greens served with a fresh herb garnish and an oil-vinegar dressing. The 17 th and 18th Century brought more additions to the humble culinary creation called the salad. Lettuces of various types were used as a base with some type of meat, poultry and mixed vegetables placed on the top.
It was in the early 20 th century that Escoffier carried the art of salad making to new heights. The possibilities for salad combinations are limited only by the imagination of the chef. They may include leaf greens, raw and cooked vegetables, fruit, meat, legumes and rice and pasta based salads, to mention just a few. In many food service operations, salads are the items that are given the least attention and consideration, both in planning and preparation.
Chefs often erroneously perceive it as a simple task that needs little or no training. This attitude results in salads of a poor quality. Certain factors need to be considered while planning a salad. However, there are some rules of thumb that must be followed. Today, the salad is considered to be a popular item. It is the favorite of weight watchers and those on a diet. It is also a versatile dish and can be served as: A mild dressing such as a light Vinaigrette is used so the delicate taste of the greens is not masked.
Various types of greens are now available locally and would include: Wash the greens thoroughly in several changes of water. Drain the greens well.
Poor draining will result in watered down dressing. Crisp the greens. Place them in a colander in the refrigerator. Cut or tear into bite size pieces. Mix the greens well. Toss gently till uniformly mixed. Plate the salads. Use cold plates please! Not those just out of the dishwasher. Add dressing just before serving along with garnish. Dressed greens wilt rapidly. It gives definition to the placement of the salad on the plate. A green lettuce leaf is used as an under liner for the salad.
Shredded greens can also be utilized and this will give height and dimension to the plate. The base also absorbs excess dressing preventing it from running around the plate during the presentation and the meal.
However, the base is not always necessary. A cole slaw made up of leafy vegetable cabbage need not have a base at all.
Beetroot salad whose color might run can do without the base. This is the main ingredient in the salad and will generally give the name to the salad. The body must be the main ingredient and will be placed on top of the base.
The body could be made up of just on ingredient or in some cases, several. It makes the salad more palate pleasing. The dressing may be tossed with the body of the salad, or served as an accompaniment poured over the salad at the table. The dressing is made up of four parts: One could also have flavored oil such as chili oil, herb oil or garlic oil. Is normally vinegar, red or white. Would include varieties of salt.
Pepper, english mustard and additional sugar. Mayonnaise sauce thinned down with vinegar or lemon juice. Substitute the vinegar with lemon juice adds oil according to taste plus salt, pepper and preferred mustard.
Ideally, the garnish will embellish the salad. However, it is not necessary to always have a garnish. Sometimes, if the vegetables are neatly cut and have retained their colors, the salad will look good on its own. Like the base, the garnish is optional. The colorful variety of salad ingredients gives the creative chef an opportunity to create miniature works of art on the salad plate. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate: Think of the rim as the frame of a picture.
Keep the salad within the frame. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or not too small. Strive for a good balance of color: Pale iceberg lettuce is pretty plain and colorless but can be livened up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrot, red cabbage or other colored vegetables such as peppers.
Three colors are usually more than enough.
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Shades of green give a good effect and too many colors will look messy. Height makes a salad attractive: Ingredients mounded onto a plate are more interesting than that lying flat. Lettuce cups as a base adds height.
Often, just a little height is enough. Cut the ingredients neatly: Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look unattractive and haphazard. Make every ingredient identifiable: The pieces should be large enough for the customer to identify each ingredient. Bite size pieces are the rule.
Seasoning ingredients like onion could be chopped fine. Keep it simple: A simple, natural arrangement is pleasant to view. An elaborate design, a contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate will defeat the purpose. Nothing heightens the beauty of the buffet more than an out-standing center piece piece monte made of ice, tallow or other such materials. The term non edible is used to indicate that the center piece is not meant for consumption along with the rest of the food on the buffet.
The guest should be able to identify the theme of the buffet at a glance, just by observing the non-edible decorations that provide eye-catching background for the presentation. A non-edible decorative display piece should be a work of art, always in good taste, whether the figure is made of ice, sugar, tallow or any other material. The list of possibilities could be divided into: Ice Carvings 2.
Tallow Displays 3. Salt Carvings or sculptures Saltillage 5. Chocolate Mouldings 7. Fruit and Vegetable Carvings Food Displays: These could include 1. Bread Displays 2. Cheese and Wine displays for a French Buffet 3. Seafood Displays for a Seafood Display 4. Pasta Displays for an Italian theme 5. Spice Displays for an Indian Buffet 6.
Fruit and Vegetable arrangements 7. Ice can be carved in any shape, size or figure that fits the theme or occasion.
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For example, for Christmas there could be a Santa Claus, for an anniversary, a heart. The essentials for ice carving are. A — pound block of ice, 40 inches high by 20 inches wide by 10 inches thick. Blocks like this can be downloadd. A pair of ice tongs for moving ends handling the ice. An ice shaver with three to six prongs, used to curve out the details and do the small cutting on the block of ice.
An ice pick, used to split the block into smaller pieces. A hand saw, used to remove large cuts of ice or to make rough outlines. An electric chain saw, when working with this type of saw, it is important to have the saw grounded to prevent accidents. A good pair of gloves which have metal finger tips to prevent accidents 9.
A template, made on graph paper, of the shape of the ice carving that is to be made Such ice carving must have a base that is at least six inches high.
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In other words, when planning this carving, deduct 6 inches from the total height for the base. Be sure to draw the template accurately. If a piece of ice breaks off, dip each broken edge into salt and press pieces back together for a few minutes, the length of time will depend on the size and weight of the broken pieces with the sale added the broken pieces will freeze together and hold. How to Display the Ice Carving on a buffet 1. The table used for the carving must be sturdy and strong enough to support the weight of the ice.
The carved ice block should be placed in a specially constructed metal pan, wider that the base of the carving wooden blocks should first be placed in the bottom of the pan and the carving should rest securely on top of the block. Colored rotating lights and newly designed display units can produce a dramatic effect; this is especially effective when the lights themselves cannot be seen.
Colored ice can also produce a dramatic effect 5. The ice sculpture could be placed on a rotating turn table 6. The pan under the ice sculpture can be decorated with a linen cloth, flowers, ferns, or other decorative material.
Creating on eye-catching tallow piece is always time-consuming and should be planned well in advance. A French restaurant serving a French buffet would add effectiveness to the presentation by displaying a bust of Napoleon or Escoffier or the Eiffel Tower.
Such displays can be used over and over, but they should be covered with transparent wrap when not in use as dust tends to stick to them. To be successful in the execution of a tallow display, it is essential that certain rules be followed. The person making the tallow display should have a photograph or model of the piece o be made. In general, a formula made up in the following proportions work well in tallow displays: A solid structure and base for the tallow piece must be created, especially if the finished piece has to be transported.
A wooden base with dowels and a rough structure made of Styrofoam, metal armature, and aluminum foils have been used. Margarine is the preferred medium as it has a higher melting point and is easier to handle than butter. An outline of the sculpture is made out of suitable stiff material such as a wire piece, aluminum foil, and strips of wood.
This is called the armature and the butter or margarine is molded around it to give the desired shape. Ideally, the work should be carried out in a cool environment such as an air- conditioned room. The advantage here is that the sculpture can be re done if it does not have the desired effect and re started.
Also tallow, butter and margarine sculptures can have a re usable value unlike ice carvings. Very often a protective cling film can be wrapped around the sculptures during storage.
Basic Salt Dough for Sculptures 1 cup cold water 1 cup corn starch 2 cups warm popcorn salt. Combine the water and cornstarch. Mix well over medium heat, stirring constantly, to a very thick paste. Knead 2 cups of salt into hot cornstarch mixture for best results use a mixing machine. For brown colour, add some Soya sauce to the water. To make brown point, brown cornstarch to various shades of light and dark brown and mix with water and some gin.
When sculpture is finished, use a brush to paint it with the cornstarch mixture. To create successful sculptures 1. For large salt-dough sculptures, a good solid metal armature is needed to support the weight of the sculpture. Cover the armature with aluminum foil to create desired shape.
Cover aluminum foil with thin sheets of salt dough. Hierarchy of Kitchen Department 3. Layout of Kitchen Department 4. Equipment and Fuels Used inthe Kitchen 5. Basic Principles of VegetableCookery 7. Classification of Fruits and Their Uses in Cooking 8.
Stocks 9. Soups Riaz received an award which is in honor of Noble Laureate Dr. Bernard Lown from the University of Maine Alumni association. This award was given to Dr. Riaz for his work in reducing food insecurity across the globe and being one of the leading experts in Halal food processing and production. He was one of the founders and early leaders of the IFT Institute of Food Technologists Religious and Ethnic Foods Division that for many years was able to mount important seminars that helped IFT members better understand the changing demographics in the US and the globalization of the food industry.
Riaz published five books and one of the books in the area of Halal food titled "Halal Food Production". Currently this book is being used in most of universities for Food Science and Nutrition major students. This book has been translated in to Chinese, Persian and Korean languages.
He also published 22 chapters in different books including chapters in the area of Halal food related issues.Remember, a lot of the foodstuff being processed here is in the raw sate and susceptible to contamination and possible food poisoning. The advantage of whole spices is that they have a longer shelf life compared to the ground version.
When the guest begins to eat, they do not eat first the meat, then the potatoes and then the vegetables. He picks four iconic fish to use as examples to serve for the whole spectrum. While advancements were being made in preservation and storage techniques, developments in transportation technology were also underway. Game, veal and pork do have their own binding qualities, with the protein from the meat acting as binding agents.