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To our knowledge, no other studies have examined this question before with a nationally representative sample. Based on previous research, we hypothesize that ELL children will have initial scores on academic assessments that are lower than their native English-speaking peers in kindergarten, and may show slower growth through eighth grade compared to their English-speaking classmates on academic skills.
Further, based on the same previous research, we hypothesize that there will be no difference between ELLs and native English language speakers in behavioral outcomes through eighth grade. Another innovation of this study is that it will explore how the timing of acquisition of English proficiency among ELL students may affect outcomes through eighth grade.
We hypothesize that cognitive and behavioral development through eighth grade will be better for children who are proficient in English by kindergarten entry compared to children who achieve English proficiency later in elementary school e.
A final set of analyses will help us to understand the factors that distinguish between achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry versus achieving proficiency later in schooling among children whose home language is not English. Furthermore, we expect that educational factors including participation in early care and education programs prior to school entry, availability of services that accommodate ELL children and families within the school, percentage of limited English proficient students in the school, and teacher experience will predict the grade at which English proficiency is achieved among a national sample of ELL children.
The sample used in this study was limited to first-time kindergartners in both public and private schools approximately 19, children , among which was a sub-sample of ELL first-time kindergartners, comprising approximately 2, children within the full sample.
Measures Appendix A lists the constructs, data sources, and system of coding that were used in the models tested. Below is a description of some of the key measures included in the models.
Children who received a score of at least 37 out of a possible total score of 60 were considered to be English proficient and thus receive the full battery of child assessments in English National Center for Education Statistics, c. The OLDS screener was first administered to all ELL children at the fall of kindergarten, and thereafter was only administered to children who did not pass the screener at the previous administration i. The OLDS screener was not administered to any children past the spring of first grade data collection because so few students did not receive a passing score on the OLDS by the spring of first grade.
For the purposes of the present study, receiving a passing score on the OLDS was used as a marker of English proficiency, and the timing of passing the OLDS was used as a measure of grade at which English proficiency was achieved.
Extent of proficiency was not a focus of the present study.
The cognitive stimulation measure was created by summing seven variables that measured how often parents read a book, told a story, sung, built things, taught about nature, helped with art, and played games with their child. Additional home environment measures were available at the spring of kindergarten from the parent interview. Child care Attendance in early care and education prior to school entry was included in this study.
The variable included in analyses indicated whether a child attended any type of nonparental care in the year before kindergarten. Nonparental care was further classified for analyses as center-based care including centers, Head Start, and nursery school and home-based care including family child care homes, a nanny or babysitter, or care by an adult relative or friend.
School characteristics Demographic characteristics of the elementary school included school type private or public school ; school size; the percent of LEP students in the school; and a measure indicating whether the majority of the school population was low-income defined using a combination of receipt of Title 1 funding and the percentage of children receiving free or reduced lunch.
These school characteristics were collected at the spring of kindergarten from school administrator reports.
Additional school characteristics, including school services available to students and families, were collected at the spring of kindergarten from school administrator reports. These variables included whether the school provided notes to parents in languages other than English; a continuous scale of the number of services offered to all families e. These characteristics were assessed at the spring of kindergarten and were derived from teacher self-reports. The general classroom characteristics included a continuous measure of class size; whether the child was in full-day kindergarten; and whether reading was taught on a daily basis in the classroom.
Each of these characteristics was assessed at the spring of kindergarten and was derived from teacher survey data. Child outcomes The dependent variables for this study included multiple cognitive and behavioral outcomes measured at up to six time points from kindergarten entry through the spring of eighth grade.
In kindergarten and first grade, reading assessments in English were only administered to children who demonstrated sufficient English proficiency as determined by the OLDS.
These behavioral measures were administered from kindergarten through fifth grade. For the reading models only, the intercept was set at spring of kindergarten due to the fact that many ELL children lacked a fall kindergarten reading score. Children whose home language was English were used as the reference group in the full sample, and children who achieved proficiency by kindergarten entry were used as a reference group in our models for the ELL sub-sample.
In the unconditional models, we included language proficiency only as a predictor of the developmental outcomes. In the multivariate models, child, family, home, child care, school, teacher, and classroom characteristics were also included in the analyses. To test for multicollinearity, we examined the variance inflation factor VIF for values greater than 5. The VIF indicates how much the variance of the regression coefficient is being inflated due to multicollinearity in the model.
Analyses indicated that multicollinearity was not evident among our set of covariates. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices.
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See also: Group dynamics Group Socialization. Group socialization is the theory that an individual's peer groups, rather than parental figures, are the primary influence of personality and behavior in adulthood.
Therefore, peer groups have stronger correlations with personality development than parental figures do. Behavioral genetics suggest that up to fifty percent of the variance in adult personality is due to genetic differences.
Harris claims that while it's true that siblings don't have identical experiences in the home environment making it difficult to associate a definite figure to the variance of personality due to home environments , the variance found by current methods is so low that researchers should look elsewhere to try to account for the remaining variance.
Also, because of already existing genetic similarities with parents, developing personalities outside of childhood home environments would further diversify individuals, increasing their evolutionary success.
Exercise about socializing with people
When dealing with new life challenges, adolescents take comfort in discussing these issues within their peer groups instead of their parents. Today's high-schoolers operate in groups that play the role of nag and nanny-in ways that are both beneficial and isolating.
There is a predictable sequence of stages that occur in order for an individual to transition through a group; investigation, socialization, maintenance, resocialization, and remembrance. During each stage, the individual and the group evaluate each other which leads to an increase or decrease in commitment to socialization.
This socialization pushes the individual from prospective, new, full, marginal, and ex member. The individual compares groups in order to determine which one will fulfill their needs reconnaissance , while the group estimates the value of the potential member recruitment. The end of this stage is marked by entry to the group, whereby the group asks the individual to join and they accept the offer.
Stage 2: Socialization Now that the individual has moved from prospective member to new member, they must accept the group's culture. At this stage, the individual accepts the group's norms, values, and perspectives assimilation , and the group adapts to fit the new member's needs accommodation. The acceptance transition point is then reached and the individual becomes a full member. However, this transition can be delayed if the individual or the group reacts negatively.
For example, the individual may react cautiously or misinterpret other members' reactions if they believe that they will be treated differently as a newcomer.
Stage 3: Maintenance During this stage, the individual and the group negotiate what contribution is expected of members role negotiation. While many members remain in this stage until the end of their membership, some individuals are not satisfied with their role in the group or fail to meet the group's expectations divergence. Stage 4: Resocialization If the divergence point is reached, the former full member takes on the role of a marginal member and must be resocialized.
There are two possible outcomes of resocialization: differences are resolved and the individual becomes a full member again convergence , or the group expels the individual or the individual decides to leave exit. Stage 5: Remembrance In this stage, former members reminisce about their memories of the group, and make sense of their recent departure. If the group reaches a consensus on their reasons for departure, conclusions about the overall experience of the group become part of the group's tradition.
Boys learn to be boys and girls learn to be girls.
This "learning" happens by way of many different agents of socialization. The behaviour that is seen to be appropriate for each gender is largely determined by societal, cultural and economic values in a given society. Gender socialization can therefore vary considerably among societies with different values.
The family is certainly important in reinforcing gender roles , but so are groups including friends, peers, school, work and the mass media. Gender roles are reinforced through "countless subtle and not so subtle ways" In peer group activities, stereotypic gender roles may also be rejected, renegotiated or artfully exploited for a variety of purposes.
She claimed , that boys have a justice perspective meaning that they rely on formal rules to define right and wrong.
Girls, on the other hand, have a care and responsibility perspective where personal relationships are considered when judging a situation. Gilligan also studied the effect of gender on self-esteem. She claimed that society's socialization of females is the reason why girls' self-esteem diminishes as they grow older. Girls struggle to regain their personal strength when moving through adolescence as they have fewer female teachers and most authority figures are men.
Sociologists have identified four ways in which parents socialize gender roles in their children: Shaping gender related attributes through toys and activities, differing their interaction with children based on the sex of the child, serving as primary gender models, and communicating gender ideals and expectations.
Connell contends that socialization theory is "inadequate" for explaining gender, because it presumes a largely consensual process except for a few "deviants," when really most children revolt against pressures to be conventionally gendered; because it cannot explain contradictory "scripts" that come from different socialization agents in the same society, and because it does not account for conflict between the different levels of an individual's gender and general identity.
Researchers have identified five dimensions that commonly appear in the racial socialization literature: cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, egalitarianism, and other.
Preparation for bias refers to parenting practices focused on preparing children to be aware of, and cope with, discrimination. Promotion of mistrust refers to the parenting practices of socializing children to be wary of people from other races.
Its purpose is to incorporate new members into social groups, but it also serves the dual purpose of reproducing the groups to which the person belongs. Without socialization, we would not even be able to have a society because there would be no process through which the norms , values, ideas, and customs that compose a society could be transmitted.
It is through socialization that we learn what is expected of us by a given group or in a given situation. In effect, socialization is a process that serves to preserve social order by keeping us in line with expectations.
It is a form of social control. The goals of socialization are to teach us to control biological impulses as children, to develop a conscience that fits with the norms of society, to teach and develop meaning in social life what is important and valued , and to prepare us for various social roles and how we will perform them. The Process of Socialization in Three Parts Socialization is an interactive process that involves social structure and social relations between people.
While many people think of it as a top-down process by which individuals are directed to accept and internalize the norms, values, and customs of the social group, it is, in fact, a two-way process. People often push back on the social forces that work to socialize us, invoking their autonomy and free will, and sometimes changing norms and expectations in the process.
But for now, let's focus on the process as it is directed by others and by social institutions. Sociologists recognize that socialization contains three key aspects: context, content and processes, and results. It also includes history, and the people and social institutions involved in the process.
All of these things work together to define the norms, values, customs, roles, and assumptions of a particular social group, community, or society. For example, the economic class of a family can have a significant effect on how parents socialize their children.
Sociological research conducted in the s found that parents tend to emphasize the values and behaviors that are most likely to produce success for their children, given the likely trajectory of their lives, which depends in large part on economic class.
Parents who expect that their children are likely to grow up to work in blue collar jobs are more likely to emphasize conformity and respect for authority, while those who expect their children to go into creative, managerial, or entrepreneurial roles are more likely to emphasize creativity and independence. Likewise, gender stereotypes and the patriarchal gender hierarchy of U. Cultural expectations for gender roles and gendered behavior are imparted to children from birth through color-coded clothes, toys that emphasize physical appearance and domesticity for girls like play makeup, Barbie dolls, and play houses , versus strength, toughness, and masculine professions for boys think toy fire engines and tractors.
Socializing Children through Language
Additionally, research has shown that girls with brothers are socialized by their parents to understand that household labor is expected of them, and thus not to be rewarded financially, while boys are socialized to view it as not expected of them, and so they are paid for doing chores, while their sisters are paid less or not at all. The same can be said of race and the racial hierarchy of the U. Because of this particular context, white parents can safely encourage their children to know their rights and defend them when police attempt to violate them.
However, Black, Latino, and Hispanic parents must have "the talk" with their children, instructing them instead on how to remain calm, compliant, and safe in the presence of police.
While context sets the stage for socialization, it is the content and process of socialization—what is actually said and done by those doing the socializing—that constitutes the work of socialization.
How parents assign chores and rewards for them on the basis of gender, and how parents instruct their kids to interact with police are examples of both content and process. The content and process of socialization are also defined by the duration of the process, who is involved in it, the methods they use, and whether it is a total or partial experience.Listen to the dialogues again if necessary.
Jessica any more.
Never can say goodbye! Especially the A 1 know. The variable included in analyses indicated whether a child attended any type of nonparental care in the year before kindergarten. Thanks for your email. The social pre-wiring hypothesis refers to the ontogeny of social interaction.
Especially the food! Child care Attendance in early care and education prior to school entry was included in this study.