Beowulf. Translation by Seamus Heaney. So. The Spear-Danes in days gone by. And the kings who ruled them had courage and greatness. We have heard of. From Beowulf: A New Verse Translation by Seamus Heaney. Introduction of the Danes. So. The Spear-Danes in days done by. And the kings who ruled them. Beowulf I [translated by] Seamus Heaney. — 1st ed. p. cm. Text in English and Old English. 1. Heroes—Scandinavia—Poetry. 2. Epic poetry, English (Old). 3.
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Beowulf-Seamus Heaney Translation bestthing.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. "Beowulf. " Seamus Heaney. Introduction to Beowulf. lines in length, Beowulf is the longest surviving Old English poem. It survives in a single manuscript. Seamus Heaney, on BEOWULF and His Verse Translation: And now this is 'an inheritance'.
The stories in the poem may have been brought to England by people of Geatish origins.
Although Beowulf himself is not mentioned in any other Anglo-Saxon manuscript,  scholars generally agree that many of the other figures referred to in Beowulf also appear in Scandinavian sources.
Specific works are designated in the following section. Finds from the western mound, left, excavated in , support Beowulf and the sagas. When the western mound to the left in the photo was excavated in , the finds showed that a powerful man was buried in a large barrow, c.
The eastern mound was excavated in , and contained the remains of a woman, or a woman and a young man. The middle barrow has not been excavated. Beowulf kills Grendel with his bare hands and Grendel's mother with a giant's sword that he found in her lair. Later in his life, Beowulf becomes king of the Geats, and finds his realm terrorized by a dragon , some of whose treasure had been stolen from his hoard in a burial mound.
He attacks the dragon with the help of his thegns or servants, but they do not succeed. Beowulf finally slays the dragon, but is mortally wounded in the struggle. He is cremated and a burial mound by the sea is erected in his honour. Beowulf is considered an epic poem in that the main character is a hero who travels great distances to prove his strength at impossible odds against supernatural demons and beasts. The poem also begins in medias res or simply, "in the middle of things," which is a characteristic of the epics of antiquity.
Although the poem begins with Beowulf's arrival, Grendel's attacks have been an ongoing event. An elaborate history of characters and their lineages is spoken of, as well as their interactions with each other, debts owed and repaid, and deeds of valour.
The warriors form a kind of brotherhood linked by loyalty to their lord. The poem begins and ends with funerals: at the beginning of the poem for Scyld Scefing 26—45 and at the end for Beowulf — First battle: Grendel[ edit ] Beowulf begins with the story of Hrothgar, who constructed the great hall Heorot for himself and his warriors. In it, he, his wife Wealhtheow , and his warriors spend their time singing and celebrating.
Grendel, a troll-like monster said to be descended from the biblical Cain , is pained by the sounds of joy.
Hrothgar and his people, helpless against Grendel, abandon Heorot. Beowulf, a young warrior from Geatland, hears of Hrothgar's troubles and with his king's permission leaves his homeland to assist Hrothgar.
Beowulf refuses to use any weapon because he holds himself to be the equal of Grendel. This display would fuel Grendel's mother's anger in revenge. Grendel's mother, angry that her son has been killed, sets out to get revenge. Earlier, after the award of treasure, The Geat had been given another lodging"; his assistance would be absent in this battle.
Hrothgar, Beowulf, and their men track Grendel's mother to her lair under a lake. After stipulating a number of conditions to Hrothgar in case of his death including the taking in of his kinsmen and the inheritance by Unferth of Beowulf's estate , Beowulf jumps into the lake, and while harassed by water monsters gets to the bottom, where he finds a cavern.
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Grendel's mother pulls him in, and she and Beowulf engage in fierce combat. At first, Grendel's mother appears to prevail, and Hrunting proves incapable of hurting the woman; she throws Beowulf to the ground and, sitting astride him, tries to kill him with a short sword, but Beowulf is saved by his armour. Beowulf spots another sword, hanging on the wall and apparently made for giants, and cuts her head off with it.
Travelling further into Grendel's mother's lair, Beowulf discovers Grendel's corpse and severs his head with the sword, whose blade melts because of the "hot blood".
Only the hilt remains. Beowulf swims back up to the rim of the pond where his men wait. Carrying the hilt of the sword and Grendel's head, he presents them to Hrothgar upon his return to Heorot.
The events prompt a long reflection by the king, sometimes referred to as "Hrothgar's sermon", in which he urges Beowulf to be wary of pride and to reward his thegns. When the dragon sees that the cup has been stolen, it leaves its cave in a rage, burning everything in sight.
Beowulf and his warriors come to fight the dragon, but Beowulf tells his men that he will fight the dragon alone and that they should wait on the barrow. Beowulf descends to do battle with the dragon, but finds himself outmatched. His men, upon seeing this and fearing for their lives, retreat into the woods. One of his men, Wiglaf, however, in great distress at Beowulf's plight, comes to his aid.
The two slay the dragon, but Beowulf is mortally wounded. After Beowulf dies, Wiglaf remains by his side, grief-stricken. When the rest of the men finally return, Wiglaf bitterly admonishes them, blaming their cowardice for Beowulf's death. Afterward, Beowulf is ritually burned on a great pyre in Geatland while his people wail and mourn him, fearing that without him, the Geats are defenceless against attacks from surrounding tribes. Afterwards, a barrow, visible from the sea, is built in his memory Beowulf lines — Albert Lord felt strongly that the manuscript represents the transcription of a performance, though likely taken at more than one sitting.
Tolkien believed that the poem retains too genuine a memory of Anglo-Saxon paganism to have been composed more than a few generations after the completion of the Christianisation of England around AD ,  and Tolkien's conviction that the poem dates to the 8th century has been defended by Tom Shippey , Leonard Neidorf, Rafael J. Pascual, and R. Fulk, among others. On the other hand, some scholars argue that linguistic, palaeographical, metrical, and onomastic considerations align to support a date of composition in the first half of the eighth century;     in particular, the poem's regular observation of etymological length distinctions Max Kaluza's law has been thought to demonstrate a date of composition in the first half of the eighth century.
Hutcheson, for instance, does not believe Kaluza's Law can be used to date the poem, while claiming that "the weight of all the evidence Fulk presents in his book [b] tells strongly in favour of an eighth-century date. XV Beowulf survives in a single manuscript dated on palaeographical grounds to the late 10th or early 11th century. The Beowulf manuscript is known as the Nowell Codex, gaining its name from 16th-century scholar Laurence Nowell.
XV" because it was one of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton 's holdings in the Cotton library in the middle of the 17th century. Many private antiquarians and book collectors, such as Sir Robert Cotton, used their own library classification systems.
XV" translates as: the 15th book from the left on shelf A the top shelf of the bookcase with the bust of Roman Emperor Vitellius standing on top of it, in Cotton's collection. DiPiero described Heaney's focus: "Whatever the occasion—childhood, farm life, politics and culture in Northern Ireland, other poets past and present—Heaney strikes time and again at the taproot of language, examining its genetic structures, trying to discover how it has served, in all its changes, as a culture bearer, a world to contain imaginations, at once a rhetorical weapon and nutriment of spirit.
He writes of these matters with rare discrimination and resourcefulness, and a winning impatience with received wisdom. Poetry contributor William Logan commented of this new direction, "The younger Heaney wrote like a man possessed by demons, even when those demons were very literary demons; the older Heaney seems to wonder, bemusedly, what sort of demon he has become himself.
Jefferson Hunter, reviewing the book for the Virginia Quarterly Review, maintained that collection takes a more spiritual, less concrete approach.
However, in Seeing Things Heaney uses such words to "create a new distanced perspective and indeed a new mood" in which "'things beyond measure' or 'things in the offing' or 'the longed-for' can sometimes be sensed, if never directly seen.
According to John Taylor in Poetry, Heaney "notably attempts, as an aging man, to re-experience childhood and early-adulthood perceptions in all their sensate fullness. Eliot Prize, the most prestigious poetry award in the UK.
His stanzas are dense echo chambers of contending nuances and ricocheting sounds.
And his is the gift of saying something extraordinary while, line by line, conveying a sense that this is something an ordinary person might actually say. Heaney often used prose to address concerns taken up obliquely in his poetry.
In The Redress of Poetry , according to James Longenbach in the Nation, "Heaney wants to think of poetry not only as something that intervenes in the world, redressing or correcting imbalances, but also as something that must be redressed—re-established, celebrated as itself. John Carey in the London Sunday Times proposed that Heaney's "is not just another book of literary criticism…It is a record of Seamus Heaney's thirty-year struggle with the demon of doubt.
The questions that afflict him are basic. What is the good of poetry? How can it contribute to society? Is it worth the dedication it demands?
Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem by J. Lesslie Hall
Considered groundbreaking because of the freedom he took in using modern language, the book is largely credited with revitalizing what had become something of a tired chestnut in the literary world. Malcolm Jones in Newsweek stated: "Heaney's own poetic vernacular—muscular language so rich with the tones and smell of earth that you almost expect to find a few crumbs of dirt clinging to his lines—is the perfect match for the Beowulf poet's Anglo-Saxon…As retooled by Heaney, Beowulf should easily be good for another millennium.
In , Seamus Heaney turned A true event in the poetry world, Ireland marked the occasion with a hour broadcast of archived Heaney recordings.Once the dragon is disturbed, the melancholy and sense of displacement that pervade the last movement of the poem enter the hoard as a disabling and ominous light. Jonathan Chen. Coffers of coiled gold. He announced his plan: Without fear of reprisal.
He knows he can trample down you Danes Then out of the night Came the shadow-stalker. Beowulf is again summoned. Beowulf eventually tears off Grendel's arm and Grendel retreats, mortally wounded. For every one of us, living in this world Means waiting for our end. While "themes" inherited narrative subunits for representing familiar classes of event, such as the "arming the hero",  or the particularly well-studied "hero on the beach" theme  do exist across Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic works, some scholars conclude that Anglo-Saxon poetry is a mix of oral-formulaic and literate patterns, arguing that the poems both were composed on a word-by-word basis and followed larger formulae and patterns.
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