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Pastel Pencils: These pencils have the texture of chalk and will smear if they are not sprayed with fixative.

There are several brands, including Conte de Paris and Caran dAche. They are best suited to model or life drawing, but they can also be used for certain soft textures in illustrations, such as velvet or corduroy.

Because they do not blend well with markers and need to be sprayed with fixative, I use them very sparingly. Mechanical Pencils: Mechanical pencils are very precise refillable pencils that come with extra lead, and in two widths, 0. They are great for precise line and fine detail and are therefore perfectly suited to doing technical flats. They also work well in drawing features on illustrations, and some of my more heavyhanded students use them for general drawing.

However, it is harder to get good line quality from such a delicate point. Verithin Pencils: This pencil, like the Prismacolor pencil, comes from Sanford. It has a harder, less waxy lead that produces a more delicate line and holds its point better. Though the line may have less personality, this pencil is very handy for detail work and for those with a heavy hand.

Note: The photo also shows the handy pencil extender made by Sanford there are other brands as well that allows you to use your expensive pencils almost to the nub. It is worth it to have a couple of these in your kit. Micro or Fine-Line Marker Pens: These pens are very precise and really great for even the tiniest details and adding visual emphasis to your pencil lines in key places.

The line can stand out even on your darkest renderings. The Sharpie brand is my favorite because the ink flows well, lasts a long time, and is permanent. Try to test new brands at the stores before you download them. Note: Some brands seem to run out of ink quickly, and the flow is not consistent. This is especially true of some of the more expensive pens that come in different line weights. Also, they can smear, so be careful until the ink is dry.

Gel Pens: Gel pens are great for adding fine dimensional details like stitching, sequins, or texture. They can substitute for gouache when you are in a hurry. White is generally the most useful, but other colors can be handy as well for accents. There are also metallic pens that are great for buttons, beading, and so on.

The Milky Gel pen is a good brand as it holds its color. Some of the cheaper brands fade quickly. Tombo Brush Pens: These versatile pens work well for model drawing as well as illustration and last a long time.

They have two handy tips: a brush tip and a fine-line tip that is thicker than the micro pens. The black Tombo is especially useful because it is a very deep black that stands out from marker inks, and its great for rendering black hair and accessories.

Note: Tombo ink is not permanent. Marker or water will smear it, so always use it last. Do not try to illustrate without this lifesaver. When you draw, you need to sharpen often to keep a good point, so this tool speeds up the process considerably. Do not sharpen charcoal pencils, as the dust will gum up the works. Hint: If a Prismacolor pencil tip gets caught in the sharpener, push a graphite pencil in hard and the mechanism will start again.

NOTE: I do not recommend battery-operated sharpeners. New batteries are expensive, and once the charge gets low, the sharpener works poorly and slowly. However, many students do use them because they are easy to carry.

If you can keep your work clean, thats great, but not all of us are naturally neat. Hint: Try keeping a paper towel under your hand as you work, and it may help you not to smear your line. Handheld Erasing Tools These are inexpensive and last forevera great bargain all around. But do your erasing on preliminary drawings only. Magic Rub: The most commonly used eraser, Magic Rub works well on all papers, though not as well with waxy Prismacolor pencils.

Pink Pearl: This works especially well with Prismacolor pencils, probably because its made by Sanford. Their Color Erase pencils have the same eraser in small form, and that can be very handy for small details.

Soft Brush: No matter what kind of eraser you use, you will have lots of residue. A soft brush is very handy to clean off your workspace.

Eraser Sticks or Holders: An eraser stick is shaped like a fat mechanical pencil and dispenses a white eraser stick. It is convenient and effective for detail work, but the tip breaks when too much pressure is applied. Power Erasers 5. Battery-Powered Eraser: This tool is handy and portable, but when the battery gets weaker, so does the erasing level. Not recommended. Electric Eraser: An electric eraser plugs in and erases quickly, thoroughly, and precisely.

Refill eraser sticks are available, so they last practically forever. I use this about half the timeand the other half, just simple pencil erasers, which are also precise and very convenient. Tracing Paper: The Smart Drawing Surface Tracing paper is a semi-transparent, somewhat slick paper used for drawing and for tracing images.

It comes in pads and rolls. Either one provides an excellent surface for drawing, though the pads are generally a sturdier, higher quality paper. Tracing paper is also more economical than drawing paper. When our local supply store has a sale on pads, I always stock up on tracing paper, as it is what I use most.

Advantages: Tracing paper is really a win-win product with almost no flaws. Cheap tracing paper can curl as you use it, and can also be so thin that your sharp pencil will cut the surface, so it pays to get a decent quality. But even quality pads are reasonably priced.

Strathmore is good, but most known brands are comparable. Because design illustrations must be clean and clear, designers cannot afford to make mistakes that take time to correct. Erasing on your final rendering surface can cause your work to look overworked and muddy.

Therefore, it is just good sense to work out all preliminary issues on tracing paper before transferring your completed work to a rendering surface.

Remember: Just as writing is rewriting, drawing is often redrawing. You may require many sheets of tracing paper, one over the other, until you get it right. Good drawing often leads to good rendering, but good rendering cannot save a bad drawing.

Use Tracing Paper to: Analyze poses and create figures. Push or exaggerate a pose. Draw preliminary flats. Put a sheet over your figures to draw clothing. Experiment with alternative accessories before you render. Work out layouts of figures. Note: For best results, draw each layer of your outfits separately, using tracing paper over the previously drawn layer. If you want to be a good illustrator, download plenty of tracing paper.

About Tracing and Style Most creative people are eager to develop their own style. This is a healthy desire, but true personal style cannot be forced.

It takes time, practice, gutsy experimentation, and honest self-criticism. For those in a hurry, the temptation arises to trace the style of more accomplished artists and make it their own. This practice can be satisfying in the short term, but it may well prevent discovering an aesthetic that is unique.

On the other hand, tracing can be a very handy learning tool. Tracing the structure of a figure or face can be very helpful before you draw. If flats are difficult for you, get some good professional line sheets and trace several of them. If you admire an illustrators line quality, trace over that as well. You will hand tools 9 A former student, Soojin Lim, traced this motorcycle onto clear acetate and placed it over her figure.

Fashion Illustration Books

The mood was very high-tech and modern. If she had simply sketched the bike, I dont think it would have been as interesting. After tracing the drawing, immediately redraw one of your own figures and it is likely your line will improve.

Another Tracing Use At times you may want to add something high-tech to your background or as an accessory for your figure. An example would be putting your muse on a motorcycle, or drawing your street kid with headphones or an iPod. Such elements, drawn photorealistically, create an interesting contrast to the looserdrawn figure. Tracing and rendering the object is a good approach to accomplish this look.

You can also collage or scan the actual photo of the item. Rendering Tools Rendering Fabric The raw material of fashion design is fabric or textiles, terms that denote a multiplicity of beautiful yarns, fibers, colors, textures, smart synthetics, knits, organic cottons, and so on. Once your drawing accurately depicts the silhouette of your design, rendering is the means by which you can convey information about the exciting fabric choices that help to make an outfit unique.

Taking the time to accurately match color, capture texture, convey light and shadow, and display drape and important design details will produce a rendered illustration that is effective and visually compelling. The tools you use for this important task are key. Markers are the most versatile and effective media for rendering fashion illustrations.

They are clean, portable, and efficient to use, and therefore are the choice for most designers at work. Quality brand markers dispense an alcoholbased ink that is wonderfully intense but nontoxic. You can render anything 10 chapter 1 1. Copic marker refill Copic marker Tria marker Prismacolor marker White gouache Tools: Prismacolor Pencil Gouache Marker and Brush Pen 1 5 2 3 with markers, but they work especially well when combined with other media.

They can even go over printer toner without smudging, or on top of gouache to add shadow or other details. The main choices you need to make are what brand, or brands, and what colors you want to download. Note: The good marker brands are all compatible with each other.

Hagen K. Fashion Illustration for Designers

Marker Product Lines If you like markers, the choice of amazing and versatile products is increasing all the time. Copic, Tria, and Prismacolor are all good, nontoxic brands.

I use Copic exclusively at this time. Copic Refills and Markers The Copic system from Japan is especially user-friendly because it is well labeled by name and number which indicates saturation , and is organized in color families.

There are great colors, including multiple skin tones of varying shades, and four different systems of grays. All the colors come in refillable markers and color refills, and the refills do not leak if the cap is on tight. The caps on both refills and markers indicate the color, and a gray line tells you which nib is their wonderful brush tip, which is all I ever use.

A variety of replacable tips is available. The markers are comfortable to hold and do not deteriorate. Though not inexpensive, they cost less than Tria, which is a comparable brand.

Tria Markers This system is also good with many features similar to Copic, including about colors, refillable markers and color refills, and additional brush tips. They also have multiple tips in each marker, one hidden under the other. On the hand tools 11 negative side, their prices are the highest of any marker line, their refills can leak even when the tops are on correctly, the marker is not as easy to hold and use as the plastic Copic marker, and the colors are categorized only by numbers.

Prismacolor Markers These markers win in terms of price. They have good usable colors and even a handy set that is all skin tones.

They are less expensive by several dollars, and they can be quite long-lasting. The downside is they have no refills and no brush or replacable tips. The colors are categorized by name only. White Gouache Though not a marker product, white gouache is our magic bullet in marker rendering.

Adding gouache highlights to almost any drawing or rendering will add dimension and drama. The only disadvantages are that gouache is fairly expensive and will dry up over time. I like the white nylon, which is less expensive than real hair and is quite durable.

More About Markers Skin Tones Some artists like peach-toned skin colors, but for fashion they generally are too strong with children being the possible exception. The most difficult to find skin tones are the very pale neutrals that do not compete with your clothing colors.

Markers EE17 offer a good range of darker skin tones, which can also be shadows for the lighter shades. Tria marker numbers provide a versatile range of neutral skintone colors not too peachy or red , but they can look a bit gray. Blend them with a bit of Terra Cotta Prismapencil, which works well for outlines. Tria marker numbers are a really nice base-tone series for light skin. Prismacolor Buff and Light Walnut are good shades for pale skin tones.

Check out their set of skin tones for other options. Note: Other skin-tone options can be seen in the color section of this book.

Care of Markers If you leave the cap off, any marker will dry out. Alcohol evaporates quite rapidly, so replace the cap immediately when you have finished with a color, and make sure that the cap is on tight there is a little click. They come off easily otherwise. Tria refill bottles can leak, which creates a terrible sticky mess. If Im without a good container, I carry the refills separately in plastic bags. Copic refills do not seem to leak. When a marker runs out of ink, put it in a separate place until you have time to deal with refilling it.

Copic provides a refill syringe for its markers. You can also just squirt the refill ink on the tip, or stand the marker up in a plastic cup of the ink.


It will gradually soak up the color. If you download your markers separately, sort them by color and keep them in good plastic containers.

You can use food storage containers or get boxes designed for the purpose at your local art supply. Marker Airbrushes Both Copic and Tria make marker airbrushes, which are a lot of fun to use, but challenging in the beginning in terms of control and not wasting the 12 chapter 1 pressurized air.

The cans are rather pricey and go quickly. You can even download a small generator if you are really into this. To use the airbrush, slip your marker into the plastic holder, and it shoots out the color.

Control it by exerting pressure on the trigger. You probably will want to mask off the areas of your illustration that do not need color so the brush stays in the lines. Paint Tools Some designers and students who are excellent painters continue to use wet media exclusively, or to combine it with other media. Although less convenient in the workplace, paint will always have a place in the rendering of fashion drawings. Gouache Gouache is a versatile water-based paint that can be used either in transparent form like watercolor or opaque, like acrylic or tempera.

Chiffon, for example, would be rendered as a wash, whereas wool could be rendered with thicker paint. It is the most commonly used paint for illustration, and if you mix colors well, you can match almost any fabric texture and shade with just a few tubes of paint. Learning to paint is challenging but it can greatly up your skill-level in any other media. The difficulty with gouache is that the paper used must be compatible with wet media for example, Arches 90 lb.

The price has also increased steadily and the tubes can dry up rather quickly, especially if the top is not put on tightly. Tools: Gouache and Pencil Watercolors Watercolors are transparent, water-based paints that are a less expensive alternative to gouache.

They are particularly handy for skin tones. Cotman Burnt Sienna, made by Winsor Newman, makes a good all-around tan skin tone without mixing. Combining them with gouache gives them more substance, but they are still not ideal. Inks There are intense-colored inks that can be used alone or mixed with gouache. Martins and Luma Dyes are the two major brands.

Their fluorescent colors are more intense than gouache, so they can be great for spot-rendering on a swimsuit or something similar. The disadvantage is that they are essentially unforgiving and more difficult to paint with, especially big areas. Markers are easier to deal with, and the colors are similar.

Acrylics Acrylics are water-based paints with a thick plastic texture and look. My most experimental students occasionally use acrylic to paint a thick sweater or other strong textures. Whatever you paint will look more dimensional. Paint Brushes Brushes come in many sizes, shapes, and price ranges.

The most expensive are usually sable; the least, synthetic. Flats square brushes work for laying in washes, but rounds with hairs that have a rounded bottom, then come to a point are better for most applications. Use the 00 brushes to add fine details, particularly with white gouache. Other useful sizes are 3, 5, 7, or 8, and for large washes, a 10 to A good 7 or 8 brush with an intact point can do almost anything, including small details and fairly big washes.

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-501557-5 ISBN-10: 0-13-501557-X

Winsor Newton or Grumbacher are reliable brands. It is a good idea to have some cheap brushes handy for when you want to scrub a texture on with a dry brush. Brush Care Never leave brushes standing in the water cup. It will ruin the tip. Wash brushes out well every time you use them, and form the hairs into a point. You can put a little baby oil on them if the hairs get dry.

Never carry them in a bag with other things; the tips may get damaged. Invest in a brush carrier of some kind. I like the fabric ones that roll up and tie. Good brushes can last a lifetime. If you dont rinse carefully between mixing or painting, you can muddy your colors.

Mixing Palette 00 3 5 12 Good plastic mixing palettes with indented areas allow you to mix paint in puddles for washes and other rendering. Make sure you download one that has some bigger mixing spaces square, not round because if you run out of a mixed color in the middle of painting, you will find it difficult to duplicate the shade exactly.

Mixing color efficiently is an important part of rendering. Trying to get a good puddle of accurate color in a bottle cap or a palette that is too small is almost impossible. Palettes are a pain to clean.

Dont wait too long. If you really hate cleaning them yourself, stick the palette in the dishwasher and run the cycle without dishes. Mixing Skin Tones For a one-step solution, you can use Cotmans Water Color Burnt Sienna straight from the tube with a lot of water for a decent tannish skin tone. For darker shades, try adding a bit of purple, and maybe some Umber.

For really dark shades, I prefer marker or inks. For more complex and varied skin tones, start with Naples Yellow be aware it has white in it, so use plenty of water or it will look pasty , then add a little Burnt Sienna plus a bit of another red shade and a blue shade For example, Naples Burnt Sienna Spectrum Red Cerulean Blue. Marker paper is my favorite beginners rendering paper.

The pads are fairly inexpensive, allowing for ample experimentation. The smooth, thin surface allows you to work without a lightbox, and it is lovely to draw and render on.

The colors are categorized by name only. Check out their set of skin tones for other options. Blend them with a bit of Terra Cotta Prismapencil. Adding gouache highlights to almost any drawing or rendering will add dimension and drama. They are less expensive by several dollars. You can also just squirt the refill ink on the tip. Pale Fruit Pink. The only disadvantages are that gouache is fairly expensive and will dry up over time.

White Gouache Though not a marker product. Skin White. They are particularly handy for skin tones. Gouache Gouache is a versatile water-based paint that can be used either in transparent form like watercolor or opaque.

Acrylics Acrylics are water-based paints with a thick plastic texture and look. Control it by exerting pressure on the trigger. Arches 90 lb. Combining them with gouache gives them more substance. To use the airbrush. Gouache and Pencil Watercolors Watercolors are transparent. It is the most commonly used paint for illustration. Paint Tools Some designers and students who are excellent painters continue to use wet media exclusively.

Their fluorescent colors are more intense than gouache. Markers are easier to deal with. The disadvantage is that they are essentially unforgiving and more difficult to paint with. Inks There are intense-colored inks that can be used alone or mixed with gouache. You can even download a small generator if you are really into this. The difficulty with gouache is that the paper used must be compatible with wet media for example.

Whatever you paint will look more dimensional. Cotman Burnt Sienna. My most experimental students occasionally use acrylic to paint a thick sweater or other strong textures.

You probably will want to mask off the areas of your illustration that do not need color so the brush stays in the lines. The price has also increased steadily and the tubes can dry up rather quickly. The cans are rather pricey and go quickly. Although less convenient in the workplace. It will ruin the tip. Trying to get a good puddle of accurate color in a bottle cap or a palette that is too small is almost impossible.

If you really hate cleaning them yourself. For really dark shades. On the negative side. I prefer marker or inks. I like the fabric ones that roll up and tie. Invest in a brush carrier of some kind. Paint Brushes Brushes come in many sizes. Vellum bristol has a slightly rougher surface. It is also less expensive than other pads.

We use this paper more and more for our final hand tools The smooth. It comes only in white. Rendering Papers Marker Paper Pads Marker pads are great as they are made especially for marker rendering. The primary disadvantages are that it comes only in white and its flimsy surface is not ideal for presentation.

Try them all if you can. Canson Paper Available at most good art supply stores or online. Both are sturdy enough for presentation purposes.

It has a rough. I do not find the surface as appealing or forgiving. The right side of the paper is. I personally do not like rendering on Bristol because the surface is shiny and the marker ink sits more on top of the page.

Bristol generally describes drawing paper that is pasted together to form multi-ply sheets. It is less expensive than most Bristol board and is bleed-proof. Some people like to work with markers from the back side. It comes in a number of neutral shades and is wonderful for finished illustration work. It does work well for very graphic.

It does soak up a lot of marker ink. Pads come in various weights and finishes. You can use flesh-related shades to eliminate elaborate skin-tone rendering.

Each pad contains 40 sheets. We generally use a reusable sheet of Bristol behind it for board critiques. It is easy for your work to get muddy if you do multiple layers. Bristol Pads Bristol paper or board provides a stiff. Choose lighter shades because they can be used on the lightbox. Have it handy. Hairspray will also work in a pinch and is actually less noxious. So experiment and be open to new possibilities. If your figure gets stuck together. It is very helpful to keep instructor or personal notes and drawings organized.

There are different strengths. My rule is. You can print computer drawings onto Canson Paper. I have seen students do beautiful projects on brown paper bags as well as expensive art papers. Have a couple small plastic ones as well.

You will use them for a million things. It is so beneficial for time management if you can stay organized. You could also laminate rendered figures. You can even make corrections by cutting a mistake out of a painted illustration and pasting a corrected version underneath the page.

One of our students designed a chic lingerie line. Other neutrals. When downloading markers. Tria has three. It is better to test the colors when you download them. Though I have markers from several systems. Copic has nine different weights and styles of nibs. They work well together. There are standard sets of related gray tones that can be very useful. Copic has four different gray sets: There are charts available that show all the colors available for each brand.

Most art stores will provide a pad for you to do so. Although these are useful. I gravitate to my favorite and generally stay with those markers and refills. The most important for my use are black. You may not find all these products at your local art store. Tuscan red. Remember to get two or three in close range. The Copic system. Look for the more subtle shades that you would like to wear. You do need a dark denim color. Watch for sales. You can use the pale grays as blenders and to add shadows to marker illustrations or flats.

Everyone has a personal system. You want to have room for some papers as well as your equipment. Start collecting now. Your furniture does not have to be fancy. Both should have wheels. Of course. Bulletin boards are also great for collecting good inspiration imagery.

Cutting and pasting on the floor is hard on your back. By adopting an attitude of disciplined experimentation. This can lead to new ways to approach your work. Even if you have an excellent memory. Save them in a notebook with the appropriate notes for easy reference. Some practical ways to develop this disciplined experimentation follow. But why. But remember that the perfect set of tools for me is not necessarily the same for you.

But I believe that a beautiful pencil drawing enhanced by a cool marker rendering is still the best starting point for most design work.

Summary What tools are best for you? As we have seen. This exciting array of tools is a wonderful advantage. You may be great at hand rendering. One project may not be enough to show you are great at marker rendering. Hopefully this chapter has given you some direction to make wise choices. Putting a halt to experimentation can severely hamper your creative growth. You may or may not come to the same conclusion. That may indeed be the answer for those in a hurry.

Draw four boxes on separate pages. An accurate assessment is helpful because it tells you where you need to put your primary energies. If you are not satisfied with the results for a particular tool.

Choose four different drawing tools. Too many students use pencils without aquainting themselves with all the possibilities. Tackle these exercises with true focus. Try both the right and left hand as well.

Choose the best four and mount them on a larger page for critique. Remember to hold your drawing tools in different ways: They offer an excellent structure to explore your tool set and assess your skill level. Prismacolor Pencil Tombo Brush Pen: This exercise will help you achieve superior and varied line quality with a variety of tools. If you are great at sewing but weak in design process. As a result. My experience is that students who start off on the low end of things can definitely.

Explore as many contours as you can. Explore as many contours and small details as you can. Using a Prismapencil or Tombo. Repeat each exercise three times. Using a black micropen. Do not lift your pen from the paper. It is also a helpful strategy to pull yourself out of a drawing slump.

Using a dark Prismapencil. Contour Drawing Contour drawing is a time-honored technique for improving line quality and awareness of details. Contour and Silhouette 1. Pay attention to discovering the most interesting and effective placement on the page. Work on good tracing paper or marker paper. Draw or trace the figure to capture the essential movement.

Find several interesting tearsheet figures that have a strong attitude in their pose. Both have an excellent surface for drawing. Retrace or photocopy. Note the different weights of line used to create detail and a dynamic mood. Add borders to your drawings. Choose three poses from magazine tear sheets that have a lot of detail.

Consider delicate. Then take time to draw all the details. Trace as much of the first figure as you can. The example to the left is a drawing with a black Prismacolor pencil. Note the front of the leg. Repeat with at least two more figures. Complex Prismapencil Drawing 1. Reinforce key lines with a dark Prismapencil or fine-line marker. For example. The wrong side will not absorb well and will look streaky if you render on it. Marker Rendering Skills Follow these ten easy steps to develop basic marker skills in three shades of gray.

If there seems to be more than one light source in the photo. Keep these to a minimum. Choose three compatible gray markers that are more light than dark. You can change a color just by layering it. Once the paint has dried. Use your deepest shade to add the darkest shadows. Use white gouache and a 00 brush to add highlights in key places like buttons or stitching. Add details like texture. Transfer your drawing to marker or copy paper.

Test your colors on the same paper that you will render on. Begin with the lightest shade and fill most of your garment. Cool Gray 3. Choose a light source left or right based on your photo. Create a drawing of or trace a garment. Marker will not affect the printer inks. Use this same tone to add pull lines and folds as well. Using your medium tone.

If you use pencil. If your color is still streaky. Use very little water and a fresh glob of paint. You can always fill these in later if you change your mind. Cool Gray 1. Note that several layers of the same marker will create a darker shade. Laying Marker Washes 1. Get in the habit of leaving a tiny bit of space between your line and your shading. When you feel comfortable with laying in washes. Use your third tone. Leave some highlights as shown.

Trace three other garments with simple lines. Make sure you are clear as to which direction your light source is coming from. Make several copies of this coat tracing. Do not put them on too evenly. Tweed Bubble Skirt 1. Use white gouache to add final highlights. Render as you did in the leather jacket exercise with three shades of gray. Observe that some parts of the rendering are left white for a more subtle sheen.

You can enlarge it if you like to work larger. Make several copies of the first jacket. Taking it step by step. Advanced Rendering: Leather Jacket 1. Add some weave texture and tweed dots with your Prismapencil until you are happy with the effect. Use the darkest shade sparingly. Twilight of the Idols Adobe Illustrator is also an important program for students or designers to learn to create computer-generated technical flats.

When it comes to computer tools. This is a desirable skill in the design industry that should be taught in every fashion program. Our high-tech. If you try some of these techniques and enjoy the experience.

Changing opacity is easy in Photoshop. Because the computer world is so complex. Introduction to Computer Tools A computer is potentially every tool we have talked about wrapped up into one amazing high-tech unit.

Even better. The only limits on any of its capabilities are the quality of the software programs and our knowledge and ability to make use of them. My computer skills are largely self-taught and limited to what can be done quickly and easily to speed up and enhance the illustration process. We can draw in the computer with any number of instruments. You can create your own backgrounds or find images from many Websites.

Backgrounds Placing figures in interesting backgrounds is just one of the many fun things we can do in Photoshop. The shadow shown here was created with Color Overlay and Transform. You can also make use of cool special effects like drop shadows and glow tools that help your figure to stand out from the background images.

The Invert command will convert your figure to its opposite in terms of lights and darks. If you can. Images use a lot of storage space. Each disc holds about megabytes of images or text. A CD burner engraves the images permanently on the disc.

This window allows you to view your images efficiently and open them easily. Make sure if you download a computer that you have plenty of hard drive at least 32 gigabytes. Computer Terms: Learn to Speak the Language This list will get you started. When you click on them they open to allow scrolling down to other options. So do experiment before downloading. Some software requires a great deal of memory to function on your computer. Photoshop CS allows you to edit and create your own shortcuts.

Thanks to technological advances. You will likely have an intimate relationship with your computer. Corel Draw. Shopping for deals and perhaps not downloading the very latest models can lead to substantial savings. There are many more terms that you will eventually absorb. Take a class in Photoshop if you have the time. Before you download. In general. You can download additional memory that is added through computer chips.

Acts as a backup to your primary hard drive. Adobe Illustrator. Macs are thought to be more suited to image functions. You will probably progress much faster in your skill-building efforts. I can then make changes as needed. The image will disappear temporarily and you must wait patiently while it is scanned.

If you plan to download a scanner. Scanning Steps These steps may vary from scanner to scanner. I suggest that you click on Save As right away under Image. Once an image is burned onto a CD. Adjust the Preference settings on your scanner. If you plan to do a lot of this kind of work. For general use. Under File. Open the image software program Photoshop on your computer.

It is very frustrating when you are doing exciting work on an image to have your computer freeze. Disc drives are a way to store a few images. You want to scan only what is necessary.

I hate instruction books. A scanner can be downloadd at any electronics store or online. On your preview screen there is an electronic line-box that can be used to frame your image for scanning. Anything that has not been saved up to that point will be lost. If I need to revisit an image.

Scanning Most of us are probably at least familiar with the concept of scanning. Because my images are used in books.

You can choose different color settings RGB. I simply put the disc in the computer and move the required image back onto my screen. The scanner will gradually bring your image onto the screen. Cables connect your scanner to your computer.

Read the instructions. This will open the scanner screen on your computer. You would be wise to save often as you work. Any changes made must be saved to a new disc. The only real negative of scanning images is that. Click Preview. If you adjust anything. To have a computer without scanning is somewhat like using only half of your brain.

Then if something happens while you are working on it. Wait until it is completely in view. Use the mouse to box in the image and then click on Scan. Make sure it looks the way you want it to. It is possible. For those who are not. Give your image a name and save it in the format that you want to use.

Put your image face down on the scanner screen and close the top. The size was important because my work tends to be fairly large. When it is finished. I scan at a relatively high range of — DPI. If you have Photoshop on your computer.

Patience is required to get through the initial confusion of a new program. My exposure to Photoshop has come through my own experiments. Computer software options open so many doors in terms of what can be done with visual materials in really short amounts of time. And the truth is you can have a lot of fun and accomplish a lot by just experimenting.

But I have learned ways to use the various tools specifically for design illustrations. And because most artists are visual learners. Photoshop We should all feel lucky to live in an age of wonderful tools like Photoshop. Upgrades come every few years.

I have provided a lot of visual examples. The depth of options is indeed vast. This amazing and complex program provides more fun and useful tools than one person can use in a lifetime. Quite a few of the Photoshop tools are geared specifically to photo enhancement and correction. You might get somewhere eventually. The tool charts provided in this chapter are for your reference as we look at the various applications. There are also wonderful books that make it all sound easy.

Unlikely I would have excelled in that environment. Before Photoshop. If you can establish mentally what certain tools do. But with the tools in this chapter.

To not take advantage of this wonderful tool is somewhat like driving a car with square wheels. Seeing what can be done to an image will hopefully inspire you to experiment with your own work. If you want to fade an area without erasing it. When you are trying to use a different tool and nothing is happening. The color in the foreground is what comes through in the rendering tools like the Bruch or Pencil.

You have many brush sizes to use. The initial below each box is the keyboard shortcut for that particular tool. Removing all the extra pixels from around a figure allows many otherwise difficult or impossible applications.

You can still Merge Layers for the entire image when the Marquee is on. The background is usually kept white. It is generally better not to move any more pixels than you have to. Within that chosen space.

You can click on either one and a choice of color options will appear. Photoshop Tool Bar: Left Side 1. Click on the arrows and the two colors change places. When you use the Marquee Tool to isolate an area of your image. I find the Pencil Tool almost useless—awkward and inexact—but I have not worked at it very hard. When you are moving from image to image but want color consistency. They emerge in the foreground color. This tool also connects you to the Bounding Box on the top tool bar.

When you click on the tool. It allows you to fill spaces with any color and any opacity of that color. The Brush Tool has multiple settings including Opacity and Flow. You can also use the Move Tool to adjust your placement. The other tools in this set are for creating graphic shapes. Finding and repairing minuscule holes in a drawing can be quite challenging. Blue indicates the tools most used. It becomes the Foreground color.

Right Side 5. It will also show you when your line is truly perpendicular by a wavy quality that goes away when it is lined up correctly. It matches any color on your screen instantly. You just need to keep one image open for the tool to click on it and create a match.

Canvas Size Adjusts image workspace. Save As Use this when you begin working on and when you finish an image. Adjustments See page File Info Click on any image or icon and it will give you size. Also can flip images. Open Recent This is helpful in finding something you saved to the wrong place.

Fill Key tool to fill spaces with color or tone. Crop Another key tool: Use Marquee to isolate what you want to keep of your image. New This will give you a new blank image.

Spell Check If you are using text. Duplicate I use this all the time to use an image multiple ways. Save often and put your images away in organized files. The Browser allows you to look at all your images as large or as small as you want to see them. Print One Copy Saves time. If you click on New.

Browse This opens the Image Browser. Rotate Canvas Easy. Sometimes it is really hard to place an image precisely. Print with Preview You can change certain things before you print. Open You can access any stored image with this command. Close This command closes your image without saving it. Use with Fill Tool. Image Size Adjusts pixel size.

You may want to rename it. You can use the arrows on your keyboard to move one pixel at a time— wonderful precision. Save For incremental changes. Step Back This allows you to reverse as many steps as you want. See top Tool Bar to choose width. Import Accesses your scanner.

Use Arbitrary in the options. Stroke Use with Marquee to create precise borders. Preset Manager You can create your own keyboard shortcut commands. Free Transform and Transform See page 40 for more info on these fun toys. The Merge and Flatten options take a little getting used to. I have not generally found this helpful.

Layer Style See page 41 for more info. It is the same with Merge Visible. When you click Merge. By using this option.

When correcting images in Photoshop. Fit on Screen Your image goes to the largest size it can be and still be seen in its entirety. Duplicate Creates the same layer again. Delete Gets rid of the selected layer. Merge Selected layer merges with the layer underneath. If you still see pattern on your background you need to also click Flatten.

Screen Mode You can use your full screen for your image. The last option on your upper screen toolbar is Help. Many mistakes have gone unnoticed in images because I have not been close enough to see the finer details. But you do not always have this option. New Adjustment Layer See page 39 for more info. You can save an image with layers. Layer New This command allows you to add several new layer options. If it says Merge Layers. Rulers Add a measuring edge to your documents.

View Zoom In and Zoom Out These come in very handy for looking at your image from different vantage points. Mask Options I have not explored the use of masks. Make Color Adjustments In this same Adjust lineup.

Duplicate Images You can use Duplicate under Image and have endless copies of an image to try different renderings. I love this setting because it gives my drawings more impact or punch. You can change length-to-width proportion by clicking Canvas. You can also increase brightness at the same time. I use the airbrush or add gray tones to black and white images.

Try both of them. Add Backgrounds You can scan in photo backgrounds and adjust these in brightness. Scroll under File to New Folder and click that. You never have to worry about losing your original drawing. Blacks become blacker and light tones stand out more. If you change the width. If you want more contrast. Add Color You can partially or fully color an image in the computer.

A folder will appear on your screen that you can label as you please. Organize Save each version. Storage You can store all your images though they will use up your hard drive so even if your hard copy drawings are lost or destroyed. Double-click and a screen will appear with your present image sizes in inches. You will see the effect on your image as you move the right-hand control.

Clean It Up If your image has smudges or general dirtiness. Create Multiple Images You can layer one or more images to create great visual effects. Combine Images You can scan a number of images and use the Move Tool to combine them into one composition.

This is great fun to play with. This allows you to experiment with different combinations quickly and easily. If you click your screen. Adjust as you wish. You can also return to layers at any time to make corrections or delete. You can also print out duplicates and try different hand renderings. Darken the Lines After you use Levels. This window allows you to push your image color to more blue. If there is a line gap the fill will go beyond the space. If the color is wrong.

Click the foreground color and adjust to the desired shade. Problem Solving with Photoshop Flip figure for composition purposes Same tool used to lengthen from the knee down. Pull to Lengthen Duplicate figure.

Options will appear. Filling spaces gives drawings a clean. The down side is that you may have added a couple other little touches along with the airbrush that worked well. You can click on a particular shade and it will appear in the Foreground Color Box.

Worry-Free Experimentation When you first open a document. Or Merge Layers. Click on whichever Color Box you want to change. It allows you to make a wide variety of adjustments to any or all layers. Convert it to a separate layer in the layer window.

The Layers Palette sits in the lower left corner of my screen. There are certain things you cannot do with a locked layer. Merge Visible. It keeps track of all the layers and what order they are in what is closest to the foreground.

Layers Palette Click on the arrow and it will allow you to adjust the opacity of any layer that is open except the locked Background. When you click on a point. Every color has a number that you can write down and make use of—but the eyedropper does make it so easy to add color. Access Adjustment Options Creates a new layer. This little handy window records your image at each new step you take. You can click on any step or move this marker to access a particular point.

This bar shows the range of colors from deep oranges at the bottom to deep reds at the top. You can move layers forward or backward on your image by sliding them on the palette or going to Arrange under Layer and clicking the desired option.

Step where you are at this time. You never really have to worry about making a fatal mistake with an image. You can Merge one layer into the layer below it by clicking on that layer and clicking the command under Layer.

Deletes the layer that is open. Color Picker Shows both the old color and your new color choice so you can compare the two.

If your images are not merged and you try to move one image to another canvas. Adjustment Layers These windows show the two ways that you can access Adjustment Layer commands. At the top of your screen. Adjustment Layer offers you all these options that you can try with your image but because you are working with separate layers. The ones that I do not use are shaded.

Image Adjustments There are a number of helpful options to explore under Image. If your image is just a line drawing without any shadow. Drop Shadow Original Inner Shadow photoshop tools Click to access Layer Style.

Option-double-click to remove the effect. You also can do it in any color. Any texture that can be added to your garment or figure can also be added to your background. Stroke Texture overlay to background photoshop tools If you have any specks in the background.

These should be handy to add texture to fabrics. Erase negative space with the Magic Eraser ME as you go. Original figure 44 chapter 2. Consider the composition he or she will create when duplicated and overlapped. To revisit a layer. Creating Compositions Composing Groups in Photoshop One figure can make a great composition and show lots of garments in a very short time with the help of your handy computer. You can adjust the transparency of each layer Layers window so you know how to place it on the figure.

Make sure that your figure and garments do not have any gaps in the lines. Even a small three-figure group can be arranged in a creative and interesting way by pulling figures back and forward in space.It allows you to fill spaces with any color and any opacity of that color. If your markers bleed, scribble with them on scrap paper until the color flows more slowly. If you change the width.


If you try some of these techniques and enjoy the experience. You have many brush sizes to use. When the wand is only in the background.

I can reassure them that any serious. If you want to be a good illustrator, download plenty of tracing paper. Even a small three-figure group can be arranged in a creative and interesting way by pulling figures back and forward in space. Steven Miller.

PATRINA from Oceanside
Feel free to read my other articles. I have a variety of hobbies, like urban exploration. I do relish reading comics lively.