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RAR Recycles. Contact: Jason Quinno 39 Bridge Street, Unit Nashua, NH Jul 10, of the significant changes in the state of the art and practice that have taken place in the recycling of scrap tires in asphalt and asphalt paving. Then followed the cutting up of the victim, disposal of the parts, further blood sacrifices, ablutions, and disbursement of priestly honoraria. He is the author of Topographia Hibernica. Ad quod sublimandus ille non in principem sed in beluam, non in regem sed exlegem, coram omnibus bestialiter accedens, non minus impudenter quam imprudenter se quoque bestiam profitetur.
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When all of the people of that land had been gathered together, a white horse was led into the middle of them. He who is to be elevated not to a prince but a beast, not to a king but an exile, no less shamelessly than unwisely approaches that horse in the bestial fashion, in open sight of all, and professes himself to be a beast. The horse is then killed immediately and cooked in water, in which water a bath is prepared for the king. If Watkins is correct, we have evidence here of a PIE ritual involving horse sacrifice and its association with kings in Ireland, India, and perhaps also in Anatolia.
There is, thus, reason to surmise that this was an important rite in PIE culture. While the details of the later rituals are not widely documented outside of India, there is enough information that some scholars have attempted to reconstruct at least the essential elements of the PIE rite.
Since the details of the Indian horse sacrifice are so much better documented than the others, one could easily be tempted to include elements of the Indian rite in the PIE reconstruction that are not justified by other sources.
Some of the specially Indian procedures may indeed be genuine remnants of PIE ritual practice that have simply been lost elsewhere, but there is no way to know which these are, and thus these Indian practices cannot securely be assumed to have descended from PIE traditions.
Additionally, actual ritual practice in the culture of the Proto-Indo-Europeans should not be expected to have been any more consistent than ritual practices in other cultures, so as much room as is possible should be left in reconstructions for variations in ritual practice within PIE culture. Any such ritual is likely to have varied over time and even among different groups in the original community.
Therefore, the safest methodology for hypothesizing about this particular ritual is to be minimalistic, using only the elements that are most secure and then to extrapolate from them a sense of the rationale of the sacrifice. This will undoubtedly give us an impression of the ritual that is unrealistically minimal, and we may suppose that in practice such sacrifices were much more elaborate than we can perceive.
Yet it should provide us the surest details, which we will need in order to interpret early Greek poetic treatment of horses. In such a minimalistic model many of the significant details of the later ritual will have to be omitted due to an inability to select between regional variants.
Since my exclusion of some details is unusual I would like to explain the reasoning, before offering my conclusions. For instance, the Indian sacrifice involves the horse being killed by smothering before the copulation while the Irish tradition has it killed afterward in a manner that is unclear. Even more importantly, the Irish tradition has a king copulating with a horse, which should probably be assumed to be a mare, while the Indian tradition has a queen copulating with a stallion.
Estructuras Para Arquitectos (Spanish Edition)
It seems to me that the idiosyncrasies of these rituals are all so interrelated that it would be very difficult to select any particular facet of one ritual and project it all the way back to the parent culture. The method of execution in India, for example, is inextricably linked to the sequence of the ritual procedure there. The fiction of living participation on the part of the horse is evident and, in fact, essential in all the ritual procedures. Traditional methods of sacrifice would have precluded, or at least dramatically complicated, the maintenance of this fiction by leaving the body of the animal visibly disfigured by the mortal wound.
Thus the horse is presumably killed by smothering precisely because smothering leaves no marks.
It is therefore necessary that the horse be killed before the sexual element of the ritual. If it were killed afterward, there would never be a need to pretend that the dead horse is alive, so no need for a method of execution that leaves no marks. This does not prove that the smothering could not have been part of the PIE ritual; it only requires that the smothering be tied to the ritual order: killing before sex.
This is not, of course, impossible, but it is difficult to prove. My point is essentially that it is difficult to extricate this one or any one difference from a nexus of differences.
If we attempt to create a terribly detailed reconstruction we are hard pressed not to retroject entire complexes of regional idiosyncrasies onto the parent culture.
We cannot be sure of the gender of the horse or even of the human participant. In our most useful bodies of comparanda, the Irish and the Indian, there is no agreement. The Hittite vase, if it does reflect a similar ritual, is of no help since both of these participants are human, perhaps playing the part of horses.
She points to a ready identification of the horse with the king, mediated by frequent solar symbolism which is pertinent to both figures, and focuses especially on the sexual abstinence, of both the king and the stallion, practiced during the preparation for the ceremony. She sees these ancillary ritual elements as later, perhaps compensatory, additions to a ritual that had once had female sexuality as its principal feature.
She argues that this may also explain the other principal difference between the two rituals, the fact that the horse is killed before the sexual act in the Indian version but after this act in the Irish.
The switch from mare to stallion would make the horse the active, or penetrative, partner, and a live horse could not be counted on to perform this ritual function. The killing of the stallion and the subsequent fiction that the stallion is merely sleeping is a practical solution. Although this reasoning is tempting, I prefer to plot a more conservative course.
I prefer to avoid most specific details entirely and to focus instead on the ritual logic of that sacrifice, the pattern of thought to which it testifies. In order to ensure the utmost stability of our analysis, I believe that no conclusion can safely be drawn as to the gender of the PIE horse without some agreement among our sources, and thus no safe conclusion can be drawn about either the ritual order of the death or the sex of the horse.
Despite these disagreements among the sources, however, some positive statements can be made about the PIE ritual. Our texts do agree that the king is understood to be a horse. In the Indian version, the horse and king are both meant to be sexually abstinent for a year, both being tempted by sex—the king by sleeping with his favorite wife and the stallion by being shown the penned-in mares. The sacrifice of the horse is also meant to renew the energy lost by the king.
The horse also, of course, takes the place of the king in the sexual relationship with the queen. The Irish ceremony casts the king in a similar position. So long as this is secure, even if little else can be, substantial research can proceed.
The minimal, yet reliable deduction that we must work with, then, is that this evidence reflects a kingship ritual involving sex between a royal human and a horse, in which the king is identified with a stallion and the queen with a mare and in which the horse involved is killed at some point. There is one more piece of evidence for the Indian ritual which highlights the utility of relying only on the most minimalistic schematic regarding the actual ritual procedure.
In his description there is no sex at all and the horse is a mare, yet the mare is still allowed to wander before the sacrifice just as the stallion was and, like the stallion, is followed by attendants. He who does not agree, let him come forward. If the details of the ritual vary this much from the Vedic period to the eleventh century, then how much could they vary from the PIE to the Vedic?
This example certainly demonstrates the need for caution in identifying the gender of the original victim, and the importance of prioritizing that which is secure, namely, a unique coincidence of human and equine identity in what is likely to have been a very culturally significant ritual.
I have so far omitted it from this discussion because I do not think it is a direct descendant of that ritual, or least it cannot be confirmed as such. Yet it is worth discussing for two reasons.
First, since other scholars have included it in their analysis, I ought to explain why I do not. Second, even though I think that it is impossible to prove a relationship to the ritual discussed above, it is nevertheless possible that practices concerning the Equus October still preserve evidence of early ideology regarding horses and humans that will be useful. De cuius capite non levis contentio solebat esse inter Suburaneses et Sacravienses, ut hi in regiae pariete, illi ad turrim Mamiliam id figerent; eiusdemque coda tanta celeritate perfertur in regiam ut ex ea sanguis destillet in focum, participandae rei divinae gratia.
The right-most horse of the winning chariot team is called the October horse and is killed each year in the field of Mars in the month of October. It is customary that no small fight occurs over its head between the Suburnians and Sacraviens; the former fight to hang the head on the wall of the regia, the latter on the Mamilian tower.
The tail is carried to the Regia with such speed that its blood may drip into the hearth fire, for the sake of propitiating the goddess.
Lindsay He also discusses it under his entry for panibus: Panibus redimibant caput equi immolati idibus Octobribus in campo Martio, quia id sacrificium fiebat ob frugum eventum; et equus potius quam bos immolabatur, quod hic bello, bos frugibus pariendus est aptus.
They used to wreath the head of the sacrificed horse with loaves of bread on the Ides of October in the Campus Martius, because they made a sacrifice for the harvest of the crops. A horse was sacrificed instead of a bull because it [the horse] was better for war, the bull for the planting of crops.
The ritual takes place annually while there is no evidence from the Indian or Irish versions that justifies understanding the PIE ritual as anything but a special occurrence rising out of particular circumstances. There is also no sex, which, it must be admitted, is a salient feature of the other rituals. There is also no real kingship involved.
It seems then the Equus October is lacking in almost every requirement for inclusion in the group of IE horse sacrifices that descend from the PIE horse sacrifice. These differences have not, however, prevented scholars from seeing these rituals as related. The ritual, he argues, may still have been preserved in an altered form due to its importance.
This altered ritual could then have been made part of the regular Roman religious calendar and thus its performance assured. He believed that the sexual nature of the ritual has been lost entirely, although Puhvel saw hints of it in the wish for fecundity indicated by the phrase ob frugum eventum.Want to Read saving….
The study sample included 64 pregnant women and mothers of one child aged eight to ten months. Life satisfaction, depression and stress in women during pregnancy and first year postpartum — The role of personality traits, marital satisfaction and social support.
Estructuras para arquitectos / Structures in Architecture
Ma rated it did not like it May 30, Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. Sarpedon missed him with his shining spear as he rushed at him in turn, but he struck the horse Pedasos with his spear on the right shoulder, and the horse shrieked, gasping for life, and having bleated he fell down in the dust, and his spirit flew away.
Envos gratis a partir de Your attendant is weak and your horses are slow. Horse and hero, then, are equated on a poetic and onomastic level. The Hittite vase, if it does reflect a similar ritual, is of no help since both of these participants are human, perhaps playing the part of horses.