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Evaluate each framework and each dependency. Now, not every project needs a framework and not every page of a single-page-application needs to load a framework. It might sound obvious but worth stating: some projects can also benefit benefit from removing an existing framework altogether.
Inian Parameshwaran has measured performance footprint of top 50 frameworks against First Contentful Paint — the time from navigation to the time when the browser renders the first bit of content from the DOM. You could examine your framework candidates and the proposed architecture, and study how most solutions out there perform, e.
Baseline performance cost matters. According to a study by Ankur Sethi , "your React application will never load faster than about 1. Your Angular app will always take at least 2.
The users of your Vue app will need to wait at least 1 second before they can start using it. In exchange, your team gains maintainability and developer efficiency, of course.
But this consideration needs to be deliberate. A good starting point is to choose a good default stack for your application. When building a web app, look into the PRPL pattern and application shell architecture. The idea is quite straightforward: Push the minimal code needed to get interactive for the initial route to render quickly, then use service worker for caching and pre-caching resources and then lazy-load routes that you need, asynchronously.
PRPL stands for Pushing critical resource, Rendering initial route, Pre-caching remaining routes and Lazy-loading remaining routes on demand. Have you optimized the performance of your APIs? APIs are communication channels for an application to expose data to internal and third-party applications via so-called endpoints.
When designing and building an API , we need a reasonable protocol to enable the communication between the server and third-party requests. Representational State Transfer REST is a well-established, logical choice: it defines a set of constraints that developers follow to make content accessible in a performant, reliable and scalable fashion.
As with good ol' HTTP requests, when data is retrieved from an API, any delay in server response will propagate to the end user, hence delaying rendering.
When a resource wants to retrieve some data from an API, it will need to request the data from the corresponding endpoint. A component that renders data from several resources, such as an article with comments and author photos in each comment, may need several roundtrips to the server to fetch all the data before it can be rendered.
Furthermore, the amount of data returned through REST is often more than what is needed to render that component.
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GraphQL provides a performant solution to these issues. Per se, GraphQL is a query language for your API, and a server-side runtime for executing queries by using a type system you define for your data.
For content-heavy websites that are dealing with a lot of third-party content, these options could potentially help speed up render times dramatically. Unless they don't.
AMP is not what makes the biggest difference from a performance perspective. Obviously, a presence in a walled garden places developers in a position to produce and maintain a separate version of their content, and in case of Instant Articles and Apple News without actual URLs thanks Addy, Jeremy! Choose your CDN wisely. Depending on how much dynamic data you have, you might be able to "outsource" some part of the content to a static site generator , pushing it to a CDN and serving a static version from it, thus avoiding database requests.
You could even choose a static-hosting platform based on a CDN, enriching your pages with interactive components as enhancements JAMStack.
In fact, some of those generators like Gatsby on top of React are actually website compilers with many automated optimizations provided out of the box.
As compilers add optimizations over time, the compiled output gets smaller and faster over time. Notice that CDNs can serve and offload dynamic content as well. So, restricting your CDN to static assets is not necessary. Double-check whether your CDN performs compression and conversion e.
Assets Optimizations Use Brotli or Zopfli for plain text compression. In , Google introduced Brotli , a new open-source lossless data format, which is now supported in all modern browsers. In practice, Brotli appears to be much more effective than Gzip and Deflate. It might be very slow to compress, depending on the settings, but slower compression will ultimately lead to higher compression rates.
Still, it decompresses fast. You can also estimate Brotli compression savings for your site. At the highest level of compression, Brotli is so slow that any potential gains in file size could be nullified by the amount of time it takes for the server to begin sending the response as it waits to dynamically compress the asset.
With static compression, however, higher compression settings are preferred. The catch is that files will take around 80 times longer to compress. Buildings Instrument of Change: Library in Tingbjerg.
Swimming Pool by Enota.
Buildings Indoor Outdoor: Buildings Aging with a View of the Rhine: Buildings In Dialogue: Buildings A Rendezvous of Brick Walls: Municipal Library in Aalst. Buildings Grey on Grey: Buildings La Marseillaise: A High-Rise as an Ode to Light.
Stay tuned! Future-oriented Approaches for Architecture Schools. Living architecture. Trade Events Futurebuild Exhibitions Constructions of Collective Memory: Glass lamination plays a decisive role in functional and safety-related aspects of glazing and facade construction. The glass and the interlayers are bonded in a pressure chamber autoclave. Particularly in comparison to conventional PVB, the safety glass interlayer SG has considerably higher shear strength and facilitates production of very large glass laminates.
The advantage is a significantly higher load-bearing capacity and the potential to reduce — for the same load — thickness and weight. Moreover, metallic connecting pieces can be in positioned between the sheets of glass or laminated to the surface. These metal fittings enable optically minimized force-locking connections of glass elements that can, in contrast to pure glass-adhesive connections, be taken apart again if necessary.
The progress that has been made in the lamination technique for larger formats and. TVG , with a maximum glass panel length of 6. Therefore it was necessary to butt-join the laminated glass to arrive at the required length of 10 metres. In the newer design , 5-glassply laminated safety glass panels measuring At the same time, the number of components in the flexurally rigid self-supporting roof structure was reduced from 36 to just three.
In the realization of this project, titanium connecting pieces have been incorporated in the laminate assembly for the first time. These connectors nearly invisibly fasten the vertical seams of the outer panes to the glass fins. By employing state-of-the-art glass technology with far fewer connection points, a greater degree of transparency was attained ills.
In the production of such glass, one must distinguish between hot-forming and so-called lamination bending also known as coldbending.
In hot forming the pane is heated and formed with the help of a mould or gravity. When the pane cools, it retains its form.
Aside from curved float glass, with this process, thermally pre-stressed glass, laminated glass and insulated glazing units can also be shaped. In the meantime, automated processes are available for single curvature 4.
Lamination bending cold-bending , on the other hand, is based on the principle of glass lamination with synthetic interlayers. In form-supporting lamination, the glass is laminated using interlayers PVB that have low shear strength, and it is then given the desired geometry by applying pressure during installation.
In form-giving lamination, in contrast, prior to the lamination process the stack of panes is mechanically fixed in the desired shape in the autoclave. On account of its high shear strength, the resultant structural behaviour of the laminate approaches that of its monolithic counterpart. It is possible to use standardized toughened glass as well as imprinted and coated glazing.
Manufacturing panes with complex, double-. A look at a variety of current developments and architectural realizations will make clear the specific advantages of the respective processes and what these glasses are capable of. By combining maximum transparency and high functionality or complex geometries they open up new possibilities for architectural designs.
The glass roof above an atrium at Aria Hotel in Budapest has the largest insulated glazing units employing lamination bent glass ever to be installed. Each of the five elements is 3. The highly transparent roof supported by four laminated glass beams along the edge of the roof impressively demonstrates the present state of the art in the application of overhead insulated glazing units ill.
The design of the metre-tall glass structures of the Bombay Sapphire Headquarters, which was prepared by Heatherwick Studio , ills. The pleated building envelopes of the central, publicly accessible greenhouses consists of curved stainless steel beams, tension cables of stainless steel and glass panels shaped in a twostage process.
The vertical loads are distributed via stainless steel beams, while the glass panes are utilized for lateral bracing.
By employing tension cables at the glass seams the width of the beams could be held to a minimum. In the first step, the single curvature cylindrical panels with a radius measuring less than Panes with a radius greater than For double-curvature glass segments the final form was attained on site by fastening the glass in the desired shape.
The increased stability of slightly curved glass is advantageous to a recently presented development: Generally speaking, panels in formats up to 2 metres wide and 5 to 8 metres high lengths of up to 12 metres are in preparation are only supported on their upper and lower edges ill. Owing to their lensshaped geometry they can be used in free spans without vertical supporting structure.
The centre pane of partially pre-stressed glass provides additional stability and residual stability in case of a total failure of the remaining system. The assembly possesses a Ug-value of about 0.
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Further advantages are its low weight and the high degree of transparency due to the thinness of the panes. The geometry of this glass presents new opportunities in the design of transparent facades. In Kolbenmoor, 5 km west of Rosenheim, Germany, a cotton mill closed in provided the community with opportunity for an enviable urban development. Along the canal, spaces were created for industrial, office, gastronomic and residential use with an intriguing mix of redeveloped buildings in historical brick architecture and selective new buildings in modern architectural language.
The loft houses are twelve terrace houses whose clever terraced arrangement opened up many opportunities for an individual and flexible layout design.
In terms of the urban landscape, the ensemble extends the development axis along the Mangfall Canal and merges into a nearby park. The width and height of the loft houses is based on that of the existing buildings east of the Rosengarten event site. This reference to the surrounding area represented a key as-.
Thus, the residential units were allocated a private garden to the south, a landscaped entrance area to the north, and differing roof terraces. Due to the staggered height and alternating building edges, the ensemble appears varied and enlivened. For the layout design, flexibility was the core consideration.
Four different types of three- and four-storey buildings were designed to provide the appropriate space for individual life stages and concepts.
A classic cross-wall construction ensures that the floor plan is as free as possible. Depending on requirements, space can be divided and adapted using light partition walls. In addition, non-standard elements such as an additional bathroom or a lift for senior-friendly living were included. The openness of the floor plans also continues vertically.
An elegant staircase, a gallery in. Daylight enters through a circular skylight and a glass ceiling opening above the patio, penetrating as far down as the ground floor. The 2. The skylight supplies it not only with light but also with fresh air.
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It thus acts as a buffer space that enlivens and divides the depth of the narrow floor plan. In addition, in winter it allows the use of passive solar gains, and in summer ensures good ventilation. KR 1 Layout plan Scale 1: The spatial feel of a conventional apartment building is thus eradicated. Project participants Developer: KG, D—Kolbermoor Architect: Behnisch Architekten, D—Munich Responsible partner:RAIL , a user-centric performance model.
Les images, acteurs majeurs de la connaissance. All the articles emphasise the important role in society played by civil and structural engineers.
Strukturelle Extravaganz: WRAP Haus
The latter is useful for long-term maintenance as it will help you understand your performance bottlenecks as they are happening live — when users actually access the site. Use responsive images and WebP. Magdalena Czolnowska Implementation planning and site supervision: