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Green roof or more specifically, vegetative roof designers design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm water management, evapo-transpirative cooling, sustainable architecture , aesthetics, and habitat creation.
Frederick Law Olmsted used the term 'landscape architecture' using the word as a profession for the first time when designing the Central Park. Through the 19th century, urban planning became a focal point and central issue in cities.
The combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and the emerging field of urban planning offered landscape architecture an opportunity to serve these needs. Jens Jensen designed sophisticated and naturalistic urban and regional parks for Chicago , Illinois , and private estates for the Ford family including Fair Lane and Gaukler Point.
Her numerous private estate projects include the landmark Dumbarton Oaks in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. Since this period urban planning has developed into a separate independent profession that has incorporated important contributions from other fields such as civil engineering , architecture and public administration.
Urban Planners are qualified to perform tasks independent of landscape architects, and in general, the curriculum of landscape architecture programs do not prepare students to become urban planners.
Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. Roberto Burle Marx in Brazil combined the International style and native Brazilian plants and culture for a new aesthetic. Innovation continues today solving challenging problems with contemporary design solutions for master planning, landscapes, and gardens. Ian McHarg was known for introducing environmental concerns in landscape architecture. McHarg would give every qualitative aspect of the site a layer, such as the history, hydrology, topography, vegetation, etc.
GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the Earth's surface and is similarly used by urban planners, geographers, forestry and natural resources professionals, etc. Main article: Landscape architect In many countries, a professional institute , comprising members of the professional community, exists in order to protect the standing of the profession and promote its interests, and sometimes also regulate the practice of landscape architecture.
The standard and strength of legal regulations governing landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation, with some requiring licensure in order to practice; and some having little or no regulation. Australia[ edit ] The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects AILA provides accreditation of university degrees and non statutory professional registration for landscape architects. To apply for AILA Registration, an applicant usually needs to satisfy a number of pre-requisites, including university qualification, a minimum number years of practice and a record of professional experience.
From specialist design services for government and private sector developments through to specialist professional advice as an expert witness. Canada[ edit ] In Canada, landscape architecture, like law and medicine, is a self-regulating profession pursuant to provincial statute. Landscape architects in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta must complete the specified components of L. E Landscape Architecture Registration Examination as a prerequisite to full professional standing.
AIAPP is in the process of contesting this new law which has given the Architects' Association the new title of Architects, Landscape Architects, Planners and Conservationists whether or not they have had any training or experience in any of these fields other than Architecture.
Agrarian Experts and Graduated Agrarian experts. The World Congress is an international conference where Landscape Architects from all around the globe meet to share ideas around a particular topic. NZILA provides an education policy and an accreditation process to review education programme providers; currently there are three accredited undergraduate Landscape Architecture programmes in New Zealand.
Lincoln University also has an accredited masters programme in landscape architecture. The Institute currently October has a total membership of approx. In the absence of state regulation of the profession or title 'landscape architect', ILI is self-regulating, as for example in its adoption of the trade-marked title, 'Registered Landscape Architect', that is solely permissible for use by corporate members. These instances point to landscapes inextricable bond with cultural ideas and images; it is thus a gross reduction to consider landscape simply as a scenic object, a subjugated resource, or a scientistic ecosystem.
To consider landscape in solely visual, formal, ecological, or economic terms fails to embrace the complex richness of association and social structures that are inherent to it. From a James Corner specifically landscape-architectural point of view, it is crucial to understand how cultural ideas condition construction and how construction, in turn, conditions the play of landscape ideas in a larger cultural imagination.
The implications of reciprocity between ways of seeing and ways of acting are immense and point toward the means by which the landscape project may be critically revised and reformulated. With regard to design, how one maps, draws, conceptualizes, imagines, and projects inevitably conditions what is built and what effects that construction may exercise in time. Techniques of representation are central to any critical act in design.
If it is true that there can be no concept of landscape without prior imaging and not 8 just perspective but also maps, plans, and other modes of representation , then innovations in image projection are necessary for the virtual to be both conceived and actualized. Essays in this volume by Denis Cosgrove on liminal geometry, Charles Waldheim on aerial representation, Stanislaus Fung on cross-cultural shuttling, David Leatherbarrow on topography, Christophe Girot on site description, Bart Lootsma on mapping, and myself on eidetic imaging each address the topic of representation as the primary basis for innovative design.
Landscape in the Twentieth Century It is perhaps inevitable that the landscape project will wax and wane with time. The degree to which the life of a particular view of landscape remains with a given society historically has been subject to periods of great cultural significanceas in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europeand declineas in much of the twentieth century, during which landscape has been largely neglected by progressive art movements and modernist culture in general, with the significant exception of the land-art experiments by artists such as Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, and Richard Long.
As is widely prevalent in painting, film, communications media, and tourist marketing campaigns, contemporary representations of landscape typically invoke idealized images of countryside devoid of modern technology, urbanization, and change. Laura Ashley, Ralph Lauren, and various automobile corporations are obvious examples in this regard, but so too are the preservation and heritage groups that use pastoral, premodern images to promote their goals.
Introduction Landscape is presented as a place of escape from the ills of the present and anxieties about the future.
This cycle of sentimental aestheticization compounds the difficulty of forging a critical and fresh landscape.
Instead, the tendency today is to treat landscape as a giant commodity. The built result in much of Europe and the United States is typically not only of experientially deadening effectyour local corporate park, theme park, or the new housing development down the lane or along the winding way, for instancebut also of a depressing cultural atrophy whereby all hope for the future is replaced by too high a regard for past accomplishments.
The subsequent re-creations of previous worlds might not offend anyone were it not for their absolute absence of hope and invention; that they might also conceal and compensate for some of the more problematic aspects of modern life ought to be further cause for skeptical reflection. For all of their apparently innocent effect, landscapes without portent sound a death knell for any form ofand perhaps desire fora truly modern and enterprising landscape.
Whether one has romantic or radical ends in mind, however, to hope for a recovery of landscape requires looking beyond the confines of strictly professional interests to see how pervasively and persuasively cultural the landscape phenomenon actually is.
As earlier described, the practice of building landscapes will only become more marginal and irrelevant in the face of time if the culturally critical dimensions of the craft are forgotten or ignored. Making landscapes entails cultural vision that cannot be reduced to formal or ecological procedures.
Thus, this book speaks as much to the rise in popular demand for and interest in landscape in gardening, tourism, education, and outdoor recreation, for example as it does to the resurgence of intellectual critiques and practices of landscape particularly within the architectural arts, but also within geography, film, and literature.
Such a multidisciplinary perspective is crucial for any understanding of the contemporary landscape phenomenon, not least because the shifting of ideas across disciplines has traditionally affected design practice, modes of representation, and the way the built environment looks. Consider the effects of painting on the subsequent landscape architectural work of eighteenth-century Europe, especially England,14 for instance, or the evolution of twentieth-century ecology and its impact on current planning and design practices.
These effects go both ways, of course, for the building of new landscapes and their subsequent representation in art can also affect the evolution, value, and meaning of larger landscape ideas as well as other cultural practices. Central Park, for example, helped to solidify an urban communitys view of itself and its relation to the natural world, just as the rectilinear surveying, delineation, and settlement of Americas heartland, with its relentless, nonhierarchical grid pattern, helped to make manifest a collective ideal of equity, freedom, and accessibility.
The largely domestic practices of modern-day landscaping simply fail to take the leap into the more interventionist ground of cultural and artistic production. The Dark Side of Landscape The term recovery implies that something once lost, devalued, forgotten, or misplaced has been found again, retrieved, and brought forward with renewed vitality.
Also implied are repossession, taking control, and the regaining of health and normalcy, as in a rightful return. Such meanings have been associated with land disputes and the marking of territory since antiquity.
Recovery carries with it, therefore, an inevitable double connotation. On the one side, optimism and hope are attached to the reemergence of a precious cultural treasureone looks toward new and exhilarating prospects.
On the other side, recovery implies a degree of sentimentality nostalgia and power possession , both of which are inextricably interrelated with regard to landscape and point toward a more insidious side of landscape formation. This condition was described by the geographer John Barrell as landscapes dark side, a moral darkness that derives from landscape being used by power interests to veil and perpetuate their effects.
As Raymond Williams remarked, A Introduction working country is hardly ever a landscape,19 a claim echoed by Jean-Franois Lyotard: To have a feeling for landscape, you have to lose your feeling of place. In the former, the subjects are fully immersed within their milieu, active and distracted; in the latter, they are placed at a distance, passive and gazing.
As a distancing device, landscape can be used or deployed by those in power to conceal, consolidate, and represent certain interests whether of the aristocracy, the state, or corporate sector. Landscape is particularly effective in this regard because it so beautifully conceals its artifice, naturalizing or rendering invisible its construction and effects in time. This condition led Lyotard to conclude that it is not estrangement that procures landscape.
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It is the other way around. And the estrangement that landscape procuresis absolute. Mitchell has written: We have known since Ruskin that the appreciation of landscape as an aesthetic object can not be an occasion for complacency or untroubled contemplation; rather, it must be the focus of a historical, political, and yes aesthetic alertness to the violence and evil written on the land, projected there by the gazing eye.
We have known since Turnerperhaps since Miltonthat the violence of this evil eye is inextricably connected with imperialism and nationalism. What we know now is that landscape itself is the medium by which this evil is veiled and naturalized. Inasmuch as landscape objectifies the worldin the form of scenery, resource, or ecosystem, for exampleit sets up hierarchical orders among social groups, and among 11 James Corner humans and nature more generally.
One is always an outsider as far as the beholding of manufactured landscape goes, for to be inside entails the evaporation of landscape into everyday place or milieu. It is in this deeper sense that landscape as place and milieu may provide a more substantial image than that of the distanced scenic veil, for the structures of place help a community to establish collective identity and meaning.
This is the constructive aspect of landscape, its capacity to enrich the cultural imagination and provide a basis for rootedness and connection, for home and belonging.
The former view grounds a project in the social practices and physical conditions of a locality while the latter brings a new and broader range of ideas to bear upon the site. Christophe Girot characterizes this distinction as the intuitive the unalienated inside sense and the empirical the synoptic, factual analysis. This formulation echoes Augustin Berques call for a new synthesis of environmental facts and landscape sensibilities.
Recovering Landscape The essays are less occupied with describing or accounting for any recovery of landscape than they are with expanding the scope and efficacy of the landscape project. They look forward rather than describe past and current conditions. As already inferred, landscape is not given but made and remade; it is an inheritance that demands to be recovered, cultivated, and projected toward new ends.
A topic of particular importance to landscape architecture with regard to these theories of recovery is the specificity of site. Landscape architecture has traditionally sought to recover sites and places, employing site phenomena as generative devices for new forms and programs.
In recent years, the recovery of sites has not only assumed mnemonic and temporal significance but also bio- Introduction logical importance, as lost or impoverished ecologies are restored and diversified. Thus, the reclaiming of sites might be measured in three ways: first, in terms of the retrieval of memory and the cultural enrichment of place and time; second, in terms of social program and utility, as new uses and activities are developed; and, third, in terms of ecological diversification and succession.
In this threefold way, the inventive traditions of landscape architecture actively renew the significance of those cultural and natural processes that undergird the richness of all life on earth.
Following the failures of universal and utopian trends in late modernist architectural and urban planning and design, the attention paid to landscape and site is gaining increased currency today. A significant reason for this relates to the abovementioned failing of planning and design approaches that ignored local characteristics and values.
Landscape is instead seen as a means to resist the homogenization of the environment while also heightening local attributes and a collective sense of place. As David Lowenthal describes, the presence of the past offers a sense of completion, of stability, of permanence in resistance to the rapid pace of contemporary life. Of course, as earlier noted, there are more creative reasons to reclaim sites and places than the merely nostalgic and compensatoryreasons that see invention as an essential ingredient of reclamation, engendering new kinds of landscape for public enjoyment and use.
A second aspect of recovering landscape concerns ecology and environment. Landscape is often equated with the expression of ecological phenomena. These expressions are found not only in preserved natural vistas but, more significantly, in the regional and global ecosystems depicted in aerial photography and satellite imagingperspectives discussed by both Denis Cosgrove and Charles Waldheim in this collection. The remarkable images of Earth revealed through the windows of the first space flights allowed the idea of nature in landscape to escape the boundaries of the scenic frame.
Suddenly, landscape became planetary, embracing and expressing the interrelational tenets of ecology. The effects of local events on regional, continental, and global ecologies was made emphatically clear, as the fluidity of water, air, and even movements of the earths crust were revealed for all to see.
Increased satellite imaging, combined with massive media coverage of natural disasters and the rise of environmental activist groups, has increased public 13 awareness of and concern for environmental issues. These range in scale from local problems of waste, pollution, and decreased diversity of habitat to global trends of ozone depletion, deforestation, extinction of species, nuclear waste, and resource depletion.
In each case, landscape provides the idea around which such concerns are made visible and subsequently contested and engaged. In the environmental sphere, the idea of landscape plays a double role, however.
On the one side, landscape provides the most visible expression and measure of environmental atrophyit is both victim and indicatorwhereas, on the other side, it provides the ideal, arcadian image of a profoundly green, harmonious world, a world both lost and desired again.
Consequently, as 14 already described, landscape exists as a sign of the good and virtuous, a figure that is both victimized by technological evils and appropriated by competing interests. As a simulacrum of environment, landscape has been fought over in recent years by advocates of radically divergent and competing ecologies from the resourcists and preservationists to the deep ecologists and ecofeminists.
As earlier described, those who continue to assert unreflective, sentimental ideas of nature and landscape simply suppress cultural experimentation and the development of alternative modes of landscape practice. Clearly, an ecology of human creativityas exemplified in adaptive, cosmographic, and artistic practiceshas yet to be developed in resistance to an increasingly uncritical, scientistic ecology that refers to an increasingly abstract environment.
These changes have stressed both urban centers and rural areas, perhaps even collapsing their differences. Huge and complex postindustrial sectors of cities have presented new challenges for landscape architects and urban designers in the past few years.
Any innovative response to these developments will most likely come from a creative appreciation for how todays space and time are phenomena radically different from their historical antecedents. We are surrounded by a space-time landscape of electronic media, images, internets, information superhighways, transglobal commutes, and rapid exchange of materials both visible and invisible.
It is a world of infinite communication. The geographical coordinates of ones place in the world are no longer simply spatial but deeply folded into the processes of speed and exchange. Authors as divergent as J. Jackson and Jean Baudrillard have shown how the modern landscapeat least in Americais no longer one of place, hierarchy, and center but one of transience, mobility, circulation, and exchange.
Sbastien Marot more subtly situates landscape as a sub-urban art, where the peripheral and in-between sites are those that ought to be of primary concern to contemporary landscape architects. And the nomadic blankness of the maidans, large tracts of open land in the center of Indian cities, as discussed by Anuradha Mathur, point to another form of indeterminate space and time, flexible and transient.
Associated with topics of site, environment, and new technologies, are a number of other factors that have promoted landscape in recent years. The unprecedented rise in recreation and tourism during the postwar years, for instance, precipitated not only a renewed interest in landscape but alsofor capitalists, hedonists, and sentimentalists at leasta renewed value.
At the level of both consumer public demand and producer regional economic development interests , landscape is increasingly sought for its unique and intrinsic characteristicsits scenery, history, and ecology. Whether as theme park, wilderness area, or scenic drive, landscape has become a huge, exotic attraction unto itself, a place of entertainment, fantasy, escape, and refuge. This continues to draw attention to landscape, this time as visceral and elemental art form.
Here, landscape is both the venue site and material medium of artistic expression. Bound into the passage of time and natural process, the uniqueness of site and material circumstances makes landscape a more engaging and ephemeral phenomenon than that of distant scenery or pictures.
In the hands of artists such as Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, Walter deMaria, Christo, Robert Morris, Herbert Bayer, and James Turrell, landscape is less a scene for contemplation and more a shifting, material field of natural processes engaged through motion and time.
Together, these activities have precipitated an increase in intellectual and artistic reflection on landscape, even to the point of demanding new forms of landscape comprehension, design, and typology.
As a consequence, the landscape recovered here is less that of the art historian, the descriptive analyst, or even the speculative hermeneutician, and more the physical ground itself. Here, both the site and materiality of landscape provides an experimental labo16 ratory, a cultural testing ground to be directly engaged and experienced. These physical and conceptual bases of landscape led to a resurgence of interest in landscape topics in leading architecture schools during the s.
It was not long ago that architects drew the plans and elevations of their buildings without topographic features, trees, and larger horizons. Today, at least in the better schools of architecture, place and context permeate not only drawings and models but also the conceptual and material formation of the projects themselves. At their best, building projects are conceived less in terms of isolated objects and more as site-specific constructs that are intimately bound into larger contexts and processes.
The significance of the landscape context for the architectural and environmental arts lies not only in the deeply sensuous and experiential dimensions of the land but also its semiotic, ecological, and political content.
Thus, as Marc Treibs essay, Nature Recalled, argues, landscape can no longer be considered solely as decoration around the base of buildings; rather, it has come to assume deeper roles of contextualization, heightening experiences, and embedding time and nature in the built world. It is increasingly recognized that landscape harbors a profound environmental and existential promise for architecture and urbanism, provoking new forms of experience, meaning, and value.
The stillemerging architectural conception of landscape, then, is less that of scenery, greenery, wilderness, and arcadia and more that of a pervasive milieu, a rich imbroglio of ecological, experiential, poetic, and expressively living dimensions. Perhaps the single most significant project in terms of forging a new architecture of the landscape was Bernard Tschumis Parc de la Villette in Paris, Similar urban design projects in Paris, Barcelona, Stuttgart, and Lille have also promoted landscape as a means of injecting social and institutional vibrancy into the city.
For smaller-scale architects as diverse as Alvaro Siza, Enric Miralles, Antoine Predock, Glenn Murcutt, and Georges Descombes, a formative attitude toward site and landscape deeply informs design and construction, albeit in markedly different ways. While architects have gathered renewed interest in landscape topics, professional landscape architects have not been without voice and effect. In the United States, contemporary landscape architectures contribution to the revitalization of landscape and urban public space has perhaps been most graphically demonstrated in the work of Peter Walker and Martha Schwartz, both of whom continue to relentlessly promote the visual and formal aspects of modernist landscape design.
The tension between artistic and ecological approaches to landscape formation has perhaps been most effectively bridged in the remarkably plastic and complex work of George Hargreaves. Drawing inspiration from the great earthwork artists while applying technical and scientific knowledge, Hargreaves has built a range of large and surreal environments atop landfills, old dredgings, and along once polluted, flood-prone rivers.
Both Latz and Hargreaves demonstrate not only the effort to revitalize the derelict and polluted lands that surround the fringes of so many European and American cities but also to bridge the gap between artistic expression and ecological technique.
Recovered in Geuzes work is the unequivocal constructedness of the Dutch landscape, its ecology, and its agency in advancing a modern society and affording new forms of public space. The ecological and 18 programmatic ingenuity that Geuze brings to these projects elevates them to a level of significance beyond that of empty, graphic formalism. The cockle- and mussel-shell stripes in the Schelpen Project, for example, are both a source of food and a field of camouflage and sighting strips for coastal birds Fig.
Examples abound; my point is to show how landscape has been seized by creative professionals in recent years as a critical and exciting medium of cultural expression and transformation.
There is still much to be done, and a major motivation behind this book is that it might provide theoretical and eidetic frameworks to both provoke and guide even more adventurous future practices.
The Essays The book is arranged in three parts. The first, Reclaiming Place and Time, addresses landscape architecture as a practice of reclamation, recovering memories, places, sites, ecologies, and potential futures. The second, Constructing and Representing Landscape, discusses the role of geometry, ideation, imaging, and technique in forging material landscapes. The third, Urbanizing Landscape, reorients the landscape project toward issues of instrumentality, urbanism, infrastructure, and program.
Marc Treib begins the first section by outlining the development of landscape architecture in the United States throughout the twentieth century, lamenting the loss of opportunities due to a dominant view in modernist architecture of landscape as background or trim around the base of buildings.
Consequently, Treib argues, many landscape architects shifted to more environmental and social disciplines at the expense of training in design, form, and space. He Introduction concludes that any recovery of landscape must derive from the artistry and poetics of the mediumthe passages and rhythms of time, seasons, weather, and occupancy. Sbastien Marot follows on from this by accounting for a general atrophy in landscape practices in France between the s and s.
He then describes why and how landscape has come to gain new authority in France, emphasizing the role of the landscape architect in working creatively with sites. Marot posits 19 Fig. Zeeland, Netherlands. West 8, Landscape Architects, Photo: Hans Werlemann. James Corner the suburb as the traditional laboratory and future ground for landscape architectural investment, describing how experiments in peripheral sites both precede and mediate new, larger urban forms.
These are identified as landing, grounding, finding, and founding, each a cumulative process of interpreting and reconstructing sites.
Girot emphasizes the need for direct engagement with sites, experiencing places intuitively and privileging phenomena that are unique to that place. Like Marot and Girot, Hyer identifies phenomenal characteristics of the Danish landscape and how these may be formative in designing future landscapes.
Georges Descombes follows with a description of his own approach to working with sites, elaborating his ideas with a project for a path in a glacial valley in Switzerland. Like the preceding authors, Descombes argues for more restrained and sensitive modifications of what is already given in a site than the single-minded determinism of modernist imposition.
As Hyer does, Descombes identifies the subtleties of temporal and habitual experience as the basis for all significant design. Alan Balfours Octagon closes this section and describes the series of transformations the Leipzeger and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin have undergone over the past hundred years.Denis Cosgroves Liminal Geometry and Elemental Landscape begins the second section on constructing and representing landscape.
East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Her numerous private estate projects include the landmark Dumbarton Oaks in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. These expressions are found not only in preserved natural vistas but, more significantly, in the regional and global ecosystems depicted in aerial photography and satellite imagingperspectives discussed by both Denis Cosgrove and Charles Waldheim in this collection. My own essay, Eidetic Operations, discusses the role of imagesboth graphic and cognitivein transforming landscape.
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