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Digital Signal Processing- J. Chitode 2. Bakshi, Ajay V. Bakshi and Mrs. Kshiteeja A. Patranabis, Wheeler publishing. Solid state gas sensors 14 Pneumatic transducer, differential.. Patranabis D. DAY Resistance thermometer. Deoblin E. Sun, 14 Oct. Free Rar. Wed, 14 Nov. Telegraph - telemetry principles by d patranabis. The magnitude of resistance change can be correlated to the concentration of the gas species.

These parameters can be altered to tune the sensitivity toward different gases or classes of gases. Despite many advantages, including low cost, relatively low maintenance, and long operational lifespan, semiconductor gas sensors can lack specificity in mixed gas environments. Thus, gases that are not of interest contribute to the overall signal response, resulting in an inaccurate elevated reading or false positives. To increase the selectivity of the gas sensors, chemical filters can be placed before the sensing material to remove the interfering components in the sample.

These filters can be either passive or active, depending on whether a physical passive or chemical active mechanism is used. Filters can also be classified according to their location in the sensor, that is, internal directly on the sensing element or external in a separate block. External filters such as charcoal are commonly used in commercial gas sensors.

Temperature Sensors Semiconductor temperature sensors are based on the change of voltage across a p-n junction, which exhibits strong thermal dependence. The simplest form of temperature sensor is a silicon diode where the forward bias across the diode has a temperature coefficient of approximately 2. Measurements are made by holding the bias current constant and measuring voltage changes.

For more accurate measurements, diode-connected bipolar transistors are used. Again, a constant current is applied through the base-emitter junction, generating a voltage that is a linear function of the temperature.

An offset may be applied to convert the signal from absolute temperature to Celsius or Fahrenheit. Semiconductor temperature sensors are often categorized by their output signal type, which can be analog voltage and current , logic, or digital Gyorki, The key advantages of this sensor type are ease of integration into a circuit, general ruggedness, and low cost.

Their primary disadvantages are limitations of accuracy and stability, often poor thermal chip design, and slow response time CAPGO, Fraden, Magnetic Sensors Semiconductor magnetic sensors detect changes or disturbances in magnetic fields and convert these changes into a measureable electrical signal.

They can produce information on properties, such as directional movement, position, rotation, angle, or electrical currents in machines or devices. They are used in medical devices such as ventilators to control the extent of movement; in enclosures for consumer electronic devices to detect opening and shutting of a device; and in renewable-energy scenarios, such as solar installations.

For example, in domestic solar installations, magnetic sensors are used in power invertors that convert the electricity generated by the solar panels into usable electrical current for the home. They can also be used to monitor the charge level of batteries used in conjunction with solar panels for energy storage Racz, The most common semiconductor magnetic integrated circuits apply the Hall effect discovered by Edwin Hall in or magnetoresistive principles ansiotropic, giant, or tunnel magnetoresistivity.

Hall-effect sensors comprise a thin layer of p-type or n-type semiconductor material that carries a continuous current. When the device is placed within a magnetic field, the measured voltage difference across the semiconductor depends on the intensity of the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the direction of the current flow. Charge carriers electrons moving through the magnetic field are subjected to Lorentz force the force experienced by a charged particle as it moves through an electromagnetic field at right angles to the direction of motion and the direction of the field.

A voltage called the Hall voltage is generated in response to Lorentz force on the electrons. This voltage is directly proportional to the strength of the magnetic field passing through the semiconductor material. Semiconductor materials that have high electron mobility, such as indium In , indium antimonide InSb , indium arsenide InAs , or gallium arsenide GaAs are commonly used in Hall-effect sensors Eren, The output voltage is often relatively small—no more than a couple of microvolts—which requires amplification and signal conditioning to improve sensitivity and compensate for hysteresis the difference in output between the rising and falling output values for a given input.

In commercial sensors, sensing, signal amplification, voltage regulation, and signal conditioning are contained in a single package.

Hall-effect sensors demonstrate good environmental immunity to problems such as dust, vibration, and moisture. However, they can be affected by other sources of magnetic flux that are in close proximity, such as those generated by electrical wires.

They are robust, having no mechanical contacts for sensing. They are, however, effective only over a limited distance and do not work at distances great than 10cm unless the magnetic field strength is very high.

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Optical Sensors There are a variety of optical semiconductor sensors, the most common of which is the photodiode, a type of photodetector that converts light into either current or voltage.

Photodiodes normally have a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach a p-n or a PIN junction an intrinsic semiconductor region between p-type and n-type semiconductor regions. Photodiodes often use a PIN junction rather than a p-n junction to increase the speed of response.

When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the depletion region of the diode, it may hit an atom with sufficient energy to release an electron, thereby creating a free electron and a positively charged electron hole. Free electrons and holes in the depletion region, or one diffusion length away, are pulled away in an applied electrical field. The holes move toward the anode, and electrons move toward the cathode, resulting in a photocurrent.

This photocurrent is the sum of both the dark current without light and the light current, so the dark current must be minimized to enhance the sensitivity of the device.Microprocessor , Abhishek Yadav Radiation Sensors. Solid state gas sensors 14 Pneumatic transducer, differential.. Fundamentals of Computer Aided Manufacturing- G. Mishra Macmillan India Introduction to Mechatronic Design- J. Robotic Applications in India- A.


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