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Without his consent and support, there is no way I could begin this fascinating journey.
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My heartfelt thank also goes to Assoc. Shinichi Koyama. They helped me to open another perspective in researching the field that matters to me the most: This study is dedicated for both of them. I also would like to express my gratitude to the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology MEXT , since without the support in the form of Monbukagusho scholarship; I would not be able to pursue and complete this study. A special thank is dedicated to Dr.
Achmad Syarief, MSD. Irfansyah, M. Ifa Safira Mustikadara, M. Many thanks also for Aldrian Agusta, S. Christine Lukman, M. I would also extend my gratitude to Prof. Naoto Suzuki and Prof. Kiminobu Sato for their critical advises and thoughts upon the evaluation of this thesis, improving it into its current presentation. My gratitude also goes to Prof.
Jaqueline Berndt from Kyoto Seika University for her support and advices during the development of this research. I also benefited to other fellow Ph. Many thanks to many of my friends and colleagues: Dwinita Larasati, Drs. Imam Damar Jati, M. For my family, both in Jakarta and Bandung, whom gave me their relentlessly support through prayers and attentions, this thesis is dedicated for them too.
Most importantly, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my wife, Siti Ainun Saleh and my son, Musa Miraj Ahmad for their patience, continuous moral support and unconditional love through out the completion of my study.
Results showed that manga excels in term of perceived attractiveness compare to non manga and there are significant relationships between perceived attractiveness, perceived easiness and behavioral intention aspects that support the viability of the developed model within manga that leads to the imitating behavior. We also found that manga produces consistent arousal, continually enforcing positive attitude and behavioral intention in imitating its visuals; a feature found lacking within non-manga.
These results explain reasoning behind the aforementioned emerging phenomenon. Impacts of Manga in Indonesia The emerging of manga-inspired visuals. The establishment of female comic readers and artists. Controversies among Indonesian comic communities Manga Studies in Indonesia Initial Research Questions Research Objectives Research Approach and Methodology Stage one: Initial objectives and literature review Stage two: Stage three: Developing theoretical model Stage four: Stage five: Research conclusions Potential Outcome of the Research Organization of the Thesis Defining Manga Visual Style Manga as a Distinctive Visual Style Manga as a Distinctive Visual Storytelling Summary of Part Understanding Manga Visual Attractiveness Reading and Understanding Manga Manga and the Sense of Engagement Influences in the Process of Creation The Social Cognitive Theory The Role of Emotion Introduction of Study Emotional factors in manga acceptance among Indonesian readers Readers and manga visual attractiveness Theoretical Model Design and measurements Experimental study Perceived Attractiveness Comparison between Manga and Non-manga Perceived Easiness Comparison between Manga and Non-manga Additional Analyses Result comparisons between Manga and Non-manga Discussions on additional analyses Limitations and Future Propositions Study One Questionnaire Study Two Questionnaires Questionnaire for Perceived Attractiveness for Manga and Non-manga Questionnaire for Behavioral Intention for Manga and Non-manga Naruto to represent manga and The Adventure of Tintin to represent non-manga comic books …………………………..
Introduction Over the past twenty years since the first official introduction in Indonesia, Japanese manga has produced significant impact among young Indonesians. However, the influence from these comics did not produce the same phenomenon achieved by Japanese manga. The impacts of manga on various countries outside Japan have been generally acknowledged.
Cohn described this distinctiveness as Japanese Visual Language. Ingulsrud and Allen , p. While at the beginning manga was mostly aimed at children and teenagers, beginning in September saw the introduction of manga for adults seinen and josei through the publication of Level Comics imprint Ahmad et al. Mostly observed within undergraduate students of Art and Design, the influence was also noticed among high schools students in Jakarta, through several character design competitions held in to Many online galleries and art community groups such as Deviant Art http: Figure 1.
Reprinted with permission of the authors. The phenomenon also affected the professional area. Some young comic artists even published their comics in uncommon right to left reading format as seen in Splash magazine and Prambanana Another impact of manga in Indonesia was the establishment of a new generation of readers: Controversies among Indonesian comic communities. Moreover, the emergence of visuals of manga as the dominant visual influence had sparked intense debate among Indonesian comic communities between the years to Moreover, several local comic artists also adopted pen-names with quite similarity with Japanese names, such as Anzu Hizawa or Shinju Arisa, which brought further critics on the issues on national identity.
Looking to the scale of impacts described above, it is interesting that one of the main cause is the medium of manga.
Moreover, it could produce such impacts toward a community in which hold the perception that manga and comics in general are just merely medium of entertainment for pastime activities and comics are still widely associated with children-related media.
Manga Studies in Indonesia In Indonesia, the interest toward manga and its subsequent impacts has produced numerous academic studies and popular articles. Studies by Sunyoto and Alexander focused on analyzing visuals similarities among the works of Indonesian comic artists and Japanese original manga, further confirming their significant existence. The increasing influence of Japanese manga however was only explained as the after-effect result of reading manga. They then decided to make manga as their main visual inspirations, without further explanation on the reasons why as it has been taken from granted.
These studies however, were mostly performed based on literature studies, visual observation and comparative visual analysis and put the focus on manga itself. Very few studies has explored on the readers who actually produced the phenomenon. Initial Research Questions Three research questions are at the core of this study: What are the appealing aspects of visuals of manga?
Research Objectives The research objectives are as follows: Research Approach and Methodology 1. Initial objectives and literature review The first stage of research was aimed to set initial objectives and scope of research through extensive literature reviews. The literature review then was conducted to construct theoretical base which could help in explaining the phenomenon. The literature review structure is explained in Figure 1.
Developing theoretical model Stage three discussed the findings obtained from the first two stages in order to propose a model for the experiment on the next stage. An assumed model was adopted using previous studies on behavioral change Bandura, The focus on this stage was to investigate four hypotheses developed from research questions through experiment procedures with self-report questionnaires. MANOVA and T-test analyses were adopted to identify the level of perceived attractiveness, perceived easiness and behavioral intention aspects between the three stimuli.
Research conclusions The objective is to evaluate and draw the conclusions for the final thesis. The general structure of this research is shown in Figure 1. Potential Outcome of the Research Because the aim of this research is to investigate the effects of manga toward its readers through design psychological perspective, the potential outcome of the research proposes a new approach and methodology in manga and comic studies, especially in Indonesia.
On a wider scope, we believe the methodology performed in this research could also be applied toward other visual media, as studies on media users become as important as studies on the media itself. Organization of the Thesis Following the background of study and initial questions from the Introduction, chapter two to three would provide the context through literature studies.
Chapter two: Part two explores issues on perception through visual media and would round up the role of manga in influencing its readers visually and produces the strong sense of emotional engagement.
Chapter three explores on theories on behavior change by analyzing the context of the social cognitive theory, self-efficacy, the role of emotion and influences within the process of creation.
Chapter four discusses the methods, results and discussion of the first study on Indonesian general perception on Japanese manga obtained through online questionnaire. Following this, chapter six explores the methods, participants, design and measurements and stimuli performed on the experiment of the second study.
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Chapter eight concludes the study along with its limitations and future proposals. Defining Manga Visual Style 2. Cohn argued that like sequential units of sound in speech or body motions in sign languages, sequential drawings ordered by a rule system called a grammar, literally comprise a visual language. Many forms of comic elaborate written language and visual language on its presentation format.
It is common to find texts in the form of word balloons and onomatopoeia words to describe sound within comics bearing the language of its origin, adding a cultural aspect of visual language. Odagiri summarized manga as a certain kind of style, certain way of drawing, further showing its specific way in communicating the story. Cohn further explored the term of JVL and proposed three aspects of it. The first is how characters in manga are drawn in a recognizable yet stereotypical pattern.
The second aspect of JVL is the use of iconic representations in the form of graphic signs. The third is the visual grammar used by manga to communicate with its readers through its distinctive content of sequential images. Moreover, this recognizable pattern of visuals of manga could be considered as the standard dialect of JVL, with common model for drawing people shared by many visual speakers. Cohn further argued that the systematic and repetitive nature of this drawing style which is inspired by Osamu Tezuka creates these consistent visual appearances.
Figure 2. The role of Osamu Tezuka in shaping what is commonly describe as manga visual style was also acknowledged by McCloud Since Tezuka himself encompasses such a diversity of styles and genres in his works, it does help in creating a varied yet maintained a consistent and recognizable pattern with strong association to manga.
McCloud referred this circumstance as the Madagascar Effect, in which the relative isolation drives manga to be distinctive , p. The JVL use of iconic representations in the form of graphic signs comes in two forms: The non-conventional visual symbols however require culturally specific understanding to depict the real meaning. Gigantic sweat drop to resemble embarrassment is sample of the representations of non- conventional symbols within JVL.
By treating manga as visual language, its real power comes from its sequence in which the combination of many are bigger that the sums of its parts. The same as verbal language, visual language also develops its own visual grammar. It is a system of how meaning is conveyed to the reader in the content of sequential images Cohn, McCloud , pp.
For analyzing each panel, Cohn suggested to categorize panels into varying types based on how much information they contain. He concluded that JVL tends to focus attention on individual characters almost as often as it does to whole scenes.
Manga as a Distinctive Visual Storytelling All comics basically shared the same aim in putting readers inside the story.
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McCloud , suggested that manga has developed different methods in achieving it by employing different strategies in both visual and storytelling techniques with ones that commonly found in the American and European comics.
He then proposed eight storytelling techniques that are uniquely manga McCloud, , p.
Wordless panels with combination of aspect to aspect transitions prompt readers to assemble scenes from fragmentary visual information. Subjective motion puts the readers to move with the character. Genre maturity refers to wide range of themes and genres provided by manga titles. Broad variety of character designs boasts a wildly different face and body types. Another aspect of that made visuals of manga appears to be distinctive is the cute appearances of its characters.
The kawaii or cute syndrome makes manga characters irresistible, easily being embraced and remembered by readers Ramadin et al. Understanding Manga Visual Attractiveness 2. The Role of Cartoon and Sequential Images in Influencing Its Readers The role of comic as a communication media in influencing its readers has been researched before. While these seem as negative examples, at least they provided arguments that comic and therefore manga did provide a strong impact in influencing its readers.
Manga is a visual-based medium, and conveys its information solely by visual. Since visual information is easier to process than auditory information Basil, , as cited in Lang et al. The easiness in processing visual information is supported by argument that visual encoding is a relatively automatic task and information delivered via the visual channel will be much more likely to be encoded regardless of the overall resource requirement of the message Lang et al.
Furthermore, sequential images comprehension is considered as an unconscious mental process Cohn, How things are represented affect how we read images and the meaning we gain from them. Medley developed the concept of why human prefers less than realistic images by exploring the mechanism of human visual system the brain and eyes.
He found that the eye limitation in physical process in dealing with images presented in the distance or in the silhouette form is equalized by the brain ability to process selected information and to recognize the visual stimuli by other visual criteria, such as posture or gesture.
Because the limited capabilities in human visual system, the brain prefers less than realistic images as the stimuli and then will fill in with its knowledge from previous experiences, causing a more active interaction Medley, Experiments intended to determine which kinds of images are easy for identification prove that the most realistic images are not the most communicative; and line drawing performs better than photograph Fussel and Haaland, , as cited in Medley, Since cartoon emphasizes on amplifying the meaning from simplification Eisner, ; McCloud, , it synergizes with how human process visual information.
Human basically prefers images that are easy to process Bloom, In this regard, manga mostly uses cartoon form, especially in how it depicts its characters. Therefore characters in manga are easily perceived by the readers, acting as their representation inside the story.
Readers would easily identify with the cartoon face rather than the realistic one since it could represent nearly all of the readers Figure 2. Jones found an unexpected conclusion that reading comics produces the higher level of engagement compared with watching movies adapted from comics.
Furthermore, visual permanence creates an active engagement towards the storyline, making the great potential influence of this form of media Potenza et. Since comic uses visual sequence to deliver its message to the readers, it relies on the panel to panel relationship to do so. While the gutter serves as a space between panels, the human ability called closure allows us to connect those panels, allowing reader to fill this information gap mentally by drawing on past experience to produce logical context, connecting the panels to produce single idea.
McCloud argued that this phenomenon is the essence that makes comic a powerful medium, inviting a great degree of participation from the reader and he formalized this finding in the theories of transitions between panels.
To understand the meaning of the sequential images, there has to be an interaction between the meaning on the page and the invisible meaning created in the mind between the panels, which is read in linear order. He argued that the processes guiding sequential image comprehension remain inaccessible to conscious awareness.
It is unconscious process that motivates understanding, while we are aware of meaning of sentences. Therefore, to understand sequence of images by creating a meaningful union of juxtaposed panels must involve mental processing beyond simple one to one juxtapositions. Reading and Understanding Manga According the study by Allen and Ingulsrud , reading process is an interactive process in which readers engage with text to create meaning, a process assess by cognitive psychology which consists of decoding, word recognition and comprehension.
In short, reading is a process leading to comprehension. They applied the same process in defining how to read manga, creating experiments using Japanese children as the subject.
The study found that readers have developed strategies to interact with manga through reading strategies to decode structural features of manga. The most common strategy requires three steps in reading manga.
First is reading the printed text, which is obtained by reading the word balloons within the pages. Second is reading the graphics, which according to the test subjects are their main reason of reading manga and they also enjoy copying the pictures they found in the pages of manga. The ability to read graphics is learned informally, through the experience of regular reading.
The third is managing panel order, since manga has wide variation of panel order for example, shounen manga has a different panel order than shoujo manga and readers have to learn how to interpret them to be able to read the manga.
Ingulsrud and Allen also found the variety pattern of strategies employed by readers when reading manga. Using the eye-movement tracing task, almost all readers focus on the printed text in the form of the speech balloons, before focusing on the faces of characters in order to understand emotions and reactions. Only a few readers focus on background and commentary. When they are facing difficulty while reading the manga, the readers mostly solve this problem by rereading their manga.
Manga and the Sense of Engagement As described in Part 1, manga is argued to provide a much more feeling of participation and engagement by utilizing distinctive visual story telling techniques. Manga implements very realistic backgrounds, which enable the reader to have the higher sense of immersion.
This combination of perceived reality and imagination could transform an experience that is more powerful and interesting than the reality itself Bloom, , p. As study by Ahmad previously suggested, the common utilization of silent scenes within manga further blended readers within its universe. They also allow readers in mentally assembling scenes from direct observations without the all-knowing creator McCloud, Experiencing story or narrative could be performed by acting in two ways: The identification process is mainly supported by subjective perceived similarity between readers and the fictional characters.
Cohen further argued that identification engages the audience during reception. It is defined as an integrative melding of attention, imagery, and feelings, focused on story events Green, If the audiences happen to have relatives with significant characteristics to the main characters, they tend to become transported into the narrative.
Moreover, transportation and perceived realism are strongly related, with individuals who are more transported think that the story is more like a real life.
Busselle and Bilandzic argued that engaging experience with narrative would affect enjoyment and agreement with story-related attitude. Park, Min Lee, Annie Jin, and Kang suggested that the compelling narrative and being involved psychologically with the game characters would motivate player to do well in playing games. Moreover, the visuals within manga provoke a specific temporality within readers, ensuring the feeling of immersion Natsume, Further emphasizing the essence of audience involvement as the main force of manga, McCloud discussed about how shoujo manga puts the emotion as the center of attraction and invites readers to participate in the emotional lives of its character by using expressionistic effects or the exaggerated transformation of entire bodies to suggest emotion.
The commonly utilized visual distortion of expressionism shows inner states through outer appearances. Montage techniques are also used to depict inner conflicts by de-emphasizing the physical positions of characters in the scene to portray emotion McCloud, The genre also features the sense of participation that gives visceral thrills to the readers by using subjective motion and extreme point of view framing, generating excitement. The drawing style also suggests emotion, by emphasizing on the orb-like eyes of characters that emotes gentleness and femininity, acting as window of the soul, and one of the first place emotions are physically manifested.
Study by Yuki, Maddux and Masuda revealed that in cultures where emotional subduction is the norm such as Japan , individuals tend to rely more on the eye than the mouth to express and interpret emotions. The choice of fashions and hairstyle wore by characters are also meticulously drawn, becoming another important part of shoujo manga genre.
Shoujo manga also adopts an unstated rule that all characters must be physically beautiful and the subjects are depicted with delicacy Schodt, , p. These features of shoujo manga emphasize its relation with emotion and psychology. Audience involvement within particular story could be achieved through the methods of transportation, identification and immersion. Manga is argued to have more abilities in providing these three methods through its specific storytelling techniques.
Influences in the Process of Creation According to McCloud, the creation of any work in any medium always follows the path of creation, which consists of six steps , pp. Form describes the form of the work will take, such as comic books. Idiom represents the vocabulary of styles, gesture, subject matters or genres. Structure is how to put it all together, in arranging and composing the work. Craft refers to constructing the work which is strongly related to the skill or craftsmanship.
Finally, surface is the production values, the final appearance of the work seen by its audiences, therefore the most easily to be appreciated. While at the beginning the readers only experiencing the characters, ideas, events and emotions of the story; they begin to aware of the form of comic. They realize that making it only require certain skills which can be learned and develop the idea by choosing comic as their form of expressions.
If they are following the six steps of creation, the next step should be the idiom, where they start developing their own way of expressions through comic medium. The notion of taking shortcuts in order to achieve desired outcomes is further emphasized within the education area.
In art education, copying or imitating process is a usual way to learn various drawing styles. Therefore it is also a natural way to start drawing by first imitating the style of our favorite artists McCloud, , p. Based on theories on post-modernism, multiculturalism and constructivism, Chen n. By analyzing the content from more than drawings of year-old Taiwanese students, Chen concluded that the images of popular culture are the main subject matter because: Comparing between American and Japanese children, the study showed that there are strong influence of cartoon characters especially from manga throughout Japanese drawing in figures and movements.
However, these are not simple imitations, because they will lead to their own originality, developing drawings in their original ways. Interestingly, the strong influence of manga comes from informal interaction with pop-culture, rather than through formal art education Toku, b.
Figure 3. Japanese children continue to read manga through their teens and adult time because manga is faster and easier to read than novels, providing an important source of entertainment and relaxation in a highly disciplined society. Manga allows readers to be in their imaginative world, releasing them from the tough reality of everyday life.
This way, manga becomes an integral part of Japanese culture due to its capability in response to Japanese needs and it shows in their drawings. However, this practice is not as popular as collecting manga, with type of gender played an important role.
Female readers are found in bigger number in creating their own manga compared to male as amateur activities. However, the study did not explore the reason on why these readers decide to create their own manga. The Social Cognitive Theory The phenomenon of imitating the visual commonly found within Japanese manga is strongly related to human behavior, in which visuals of manga act as the main stimuli in persuading readers to imitate them.
Since manga itself is a media of communication, it also relates to the theory on media influence. Bandura suggested that the mass media provide the best access to the public to their strong drawing power. He further argued that media influence works through dual paths of influence to give effect in a large scale changes: In direct pathway, media promotes changes directly to the participants.
And in socially mediated pathway, media connects the participants to the social systems which consist of social networks and community settings. The approach from theory of media influence is supported by the social cognitive theory, which provides the base theory to investigate the phenomenon.
In this theory, Bandura argued that human behavior is shaped and controlled either by environmental influences or by internal disposition, which means there are inner and outer factors in behavior change. It also argues that the change of behavior is guided by cognitive processes rather than by reinforced practice.
Unless people believe that they can achieve desired effects and hinder the opposite by their actions, they will have little intentions to take action. Those who lack of self esteem and self confidence are more prone to adopt the behavior of others, while those who have are high in confidence in their own behavior.
Furthermore, self-efficacy is the most important factor in promoting changes in behavior because it affects every phase of personal change.
Self-efficacy determines the choice of activities to engage, how much energy to spend on the activities and how to maintain it. Another factor strongly complements to self-efficacy is outcome expectancy. Outcome expectancy could be treated like incentives in doing a task.
Both of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy produce separate impacts on behavior and effect, with self-efficacy typically generates larger effect than outcome expectancy. Baker-Eveleth and Stone argued that generally, self-efficacy has a direct impact on outcome expectancy.
Bandura identified four major sources of self-efficacy which consists of performance accomplishments; vicarious experiences; verbal persuasion and emotional arousal. He further developed these four aspects into mastery experience; social modeling; social persuasion and psychological response Bandura, , which directly impact self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. From this four major sources, the mastery experiences, in which a direct experience of being successful in performing a task provides the most powerful source.
Social modeling refers to witnessing other successful attempt in performing a task. Modeling affects the adoption of new social practices and behavioral pattern by instructs people through informative description or demonstration.
Social persuasion provides a belief to accomplish a task after being persuaded by others, while psychological response relates to our own responses and emotional situations such as mood or stress level in performing a task. An elaborate model could be constructed as follow Figure 3.
This model relates the antecedents of psychological responses, mastery experience, social persuasion and social modeling to both self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Self-efficacy is also predicted by the model to impact behavioral intention in performing a task through attitude toward the task itself. When the attitudes are the result of personal experience and a favorable outcome is expected, people tend to behave according to their attitude. The Role of Emotion Developing further from the self-efficacy theory through the psychological response, it strongly relates to emotion in which emotion plays an important part in human acceptance for an entity.
Norman argued that human decision making is dependent on both cognition and affect conscious or subconscious emotion. According to Norman, emotional connection would establish between user and an object if the object appeals to him. Human reaction to design exists on three levels: This explains the approach of emotional design that attractive things work better pp. Moreover, there are three steps to maintain a long lasting experience: People are easily aroused by the emotional expressions of others Bandura, Seeing others react emotionally toward certain conditions activates emotion-arousing thoughts and imagery in observers.
This could be further explored whether people would produce higher level of arousal when interact with emotionally expressive media contents. Tan suggested that people appear to engage in entertainment whenever they attracted to it based on indiviually right conditions. Media psychologists have also accounted the relationship between media mostly entertainment media with emotion.
Therefore, people tend to arouse more when interact with emotionally expressive media contents. Another factor is the outcome expectancy, which complement self-efficacy. Therefore, we conducted study one: Methodology 4. Respondents Respondents were young Indonesian manga readers 52 male and 75 female, age range The majority of respondents were university students Procedure Respondents were recruited through social networking site Facebook and assisted by colleagues from Faculty of Art and Design, Bandung Institute of Technology ITB through various mailing lists.
The questionnaire was created using web-based online survey application, Survey Monkey http: A final respondents were then selected based on their range of age 15 — 24 years old since the purpose of the study is to investigate the phenomenon among young Indonesians. The range age represents students from junior high school to university undergraduate, in which the behavior in imitating visuals of manga is mostly observed.
All of the respondents were informed that the purpose of the questionnaire is to obtain their personal opinion regarding Japanese manga. Completed responses means the respondents had browsed through all questions. They, however, were not obliged to answer all questions, resulting in fluctuating number of responses for each question. The result for every question, otherwise noted, was responded by all respondents.
Each part of the questionnaire is not openly categorized but is arranged to create a certain flow for easiness in filling it out. The language used in the questionnaire is Indonesian. This part consisted of a total nine questions. There are a total of 26 questions in this part. The level of immersion is measured through specific questions developed from Jones They are designed to measure three dimensions related to immersion level: Each question is accompanied by relevant manga scenes since they are intended to measure the level of immersion the readers feel while reading manga and are assessed through seven points Likert scale.
For understand ability purpose, all manga scenes used in this part were translated into Indonesian language. Each expression is accompanied by its equivalent English word placed within bracket, such as kagum amazed or terinspirasi inspired to minimize biased responses. The translated version of the questionnaire is included in the Appendix A. Results 4. In term of number of time they read manga each week, the majority of respondents Moreover, Respondents did not exclusively reading manga, and This result was further confirmed with Figure 4.
This result corresponded with their favorite manga titles, which put action adventure stories of One Piece and Naruto in the top places Table 4. The detective story of Case Closed, science fiction adventure of Doraemon, mystery drama of Death Note and the slice of life story of Yotsuba followed closely. Shounen genre dominated the top rank list with only two shoujo titles Hai! Miiko and Sailor Moon listed within. In total, respondents mentioned titles, with each respondent listed an average of seven titles as their favorite manga.
Manga titles Manga artist s Count Percentage 1. One Piece Eichiro Oda 41 Naruto Masashi Kishimoto 34 Doraemon Fujiko F. Fujio 28 Death Note Takeshi Obata 21 Kiyohiko Azuma 6. Bakuman Takeshi Obata 16 Bleach Tite Kubo 14 Miiko Eriko Ono 8. Sailor Moon Naoko Takeuchi 12 9. Multiple titles within the same rank indicated they obtained the same number of counts. Furthermore, Strong sense of place Most respondents In response on feelings after reading manga, respondents generally acknowledged the expressions that described positive feelings Figure 4.
Respondents mostly felt being inspired The highest negative expression was melancholy on 12th spot with Table 4. Manga artist Manga title s Count Percentage 1. Takeshi Obata Death Note, Bakuman 12 Eichiro Oda One Piece 11 Masashi Kishimoto Naruto 8 Naoto Takeuchi Sailor Moon 7 Akira Toriyama Dragon Ball, Dr. Slump 3 4. Multiple names within the same rank indicated they obtained the same number of counts.
American comic artists were the majority Discussion 4. While the readers turn out to interact irregularly, both in term of number of times and titles they read during particular time, they show intimate experience with manga. This is evidenced in which the readers produced such a vast number of favorite manga titles and detailed explanation in expressing their experience with manga.
Another aspect that emerges from the results is the support of social peers. Most of readers acknowledged the role of people around them in their introduction toward manga While the majority of respondents are female Action adventure theme provides high adrenalin experience by putting the readers inside the action; comedy gives comic relief for relaxing feeling; fantasy serves as an outlet into land of imagination; while slice of life provides a window to the ordinary life in Japan. Moreover, manga has the ability to mix all of these seems unconnected themes into one comprehensive story.
These features enable manga to attract a wide range of Indonesian readers, since one title could fulfill the liking of so many readers. These would fulfill the curiosity of young Indonesians about Japan as an extra ordinary country of unique culture and traditions. Moreover, the slice of life provides abundant details and real facts of Japan-related things, even when the setting is still a made-up one.
While the story did not specify the actual place or setting, all the contents within each story described the ordinary things that the Japanese encounter every day in vivid details.
Several studies had shown that reading a fact in a story increases the likelihood to believe the fact to be true, since stories are mostly true Bloom, , p. Moreover, people tend to accept information that confirmed their belief than the one that does not Iyengar, , p. Many main protagonists in manga stories came from ordinary people, which readers find it easy to connect to.
It is usual to find stories that begin with novice characters and readers would then follow them faithfully as they developed into maturity, as thought as they grow up together Ahmad et al. Study by Ahmad, Zpalanzani and Maulana , p. In addition, a number of respondents even agreed that manga had a significant impact on their life, as important as helping them deciding their future path.
For example, manga had triggered their aspiration in becoming illustrators, designers or manga artists. They also accurate in perceiving relationship between events and believe that they could improve their selves through hard work. Detailed and factual references related to the stories also interest readers. This result shows that manga has affected readers emotionally because developing the feeling of being inspired requires a close relationship and strong emotional engagement.
From visual aspects of manga, emotionally expressive effects also become the decisive factor in attracting readers. Highly emotional scenes tended to trigger relevant emotional feelings. Furthermore, detailed backgrounds along with small details further enhance the vivid experiences of being in the same environment. Measurement results of immersion show significant effect with high average ratings. They also support the studies by Cohen , Konijn and Hoorn , Jones , Green and Brock and Busselle and Bilandzic about the importance of immersion in influencing audiences.
Summarizing, manga has a strong tendency in providing emotional engagement toward its readers. Readers and manga visual attractiveness Besides confirming emotional expressive effects as the major factor of manga visual attractiveness, Indonesian readers also acknowledged iconic characters, small world details and broad variety of character designs as the other significant factors. While not all of them are exclusively inspired by visuals of manga, with less than half respondents Respondents just mentioned that visuals of manga somehow are suitable to their own preferences and they enjoy in drawing with that kind of visuals.
Admiration toward favorite manga artists gives the biggest contribution in the imitating behavior Manga artists with the biggest influence among the readers seem to match up with their favorite manga titles. The results also suggest that readers tend to combine influences from various manga artists to improve their drawing skills.
This kind of admiration feeling provides them with satisfaction feeling whenever they could create similar visuals. This suggests that imitating visuals of manga only acts as a point of entry in developing their own drawing skills. They feel that manga is a suitable form in developing their basic drawing skills and after mastering it, they continue to open up for wider influences to pursue their own identity.
This strongly corresponds to the six steps of creation McCloud, , p. McCloud , p. In the case of manga, the manga-influenced Indonesian readers would adopt its visuals and storytelling techniques as the foundation to convey their own stories, using the people they know, the places they live in and the emotion they truly feel and sense.
Several works of current Indonesian comic artists, such as Is Yuniarto Garudayana, , http: They refused to only become imitators, but to seek further to develop their own visual style and identity, perhaps by opening themselves up to broader visual influences.
However, this assumption still needs further investigation. Perceived attractiveness. Readers are emotionally attracted toward manga through its distinctive visuals and emotional contents.
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Perceived easiness in imitating its visuals. The slightly distorted proportions of human characters made a general assumption that drawing manga does not require extensive knowledge on human anatomy as American and European comics do, therefore easier to imitate.
Readers also found that manga stories and themes closely resemble their life, further enforcing the relationship.
Perceived factuality. Through its vast available themes, manga always features believable factual references. These features enable readers in gaining knowledge while being entertained and act as logical attraction. Moreover, one of the reasons in reading manga is the interest toward Japan which is widely provided through various facts within manga. Theoretical Model The study investigates the impacts of visuals of manga toward psychological and behavioral reactions of Indonesian readers.
One of the observed behaviors is their way of drawing by imitating the style commonly found in the Japanese manga. In this regard, we begin with interaction between manga and Indonesian readers. The other aspect of manga that attracts readers is the simple and distinctive style of visualization in the character design. Moreover, the style is easy to study since manga uses simple lines to form the characters.
Through the interaction, readers would produce positive psychological response in two forms. First, they perceive manga as attractive and arousing media, in which they establish strong emotional attachment.
Second, they perceive the simple yet fascinating visual of manga as easy to imitate. Moreover, their attractions toward particular manga artists further strengthen the intention to draw similar visuals. Results from study one see previous chapter confirmed this initial conception.
Figure 5. The model also predicts that self-efficacy and outcome expectancy would impact behavioral intention in performing a task through attitude toward the task itself. Based on the literature and the context of this investigation, a model is constructed by integrating the diagrammatic process and the model of self-efficacy and expectancy theory Figure 5.
Perceived attractiveness Self-efficacy Attitude Behavioral toward intention in imitating imitating visuals of visuals of Outcome manga manga Perceived easiness expectancy Figure 5. The relationships between each construct are assumed as positive; therefore improvement in one construct would affect positively toward the other ones. The easier a task is to perform, the more likely an individual will maintain the behavior.
Previous experience in successfully performing the task mastery experience would further improve the perceived easiness, thus produces higher self-efficacy and expectations. Perceived attractiveness refers to emotional arousal developed through media interaction. Because manga is argued in producing a high level feeling of immersion and participation, the measurement of perceived attractiveness should cover a complete emotional experience.
In this regards, the perceived attractiveness would include four aspects which represents arousal, representation and participation, inspiration and emotional responses.
Representation and participation aspect consists of four sub-aspects: Hypotheses Based on the theoretical model and the three research questions see chapter one , four hypotheses were then proposed. First, it is proposed that the perceived attractiveness produced by reading manga is the key factor in its wide acceptance among Indonesians, which subsequently affected their behaviors in imitating its visuals.
Thus we provided the first hypothesis: Second, it tried to explore whether visuals of manga produces higher perceived easiness in imitating its visuals.
Perceived easiness here also refers to the believe that based on the previous experience, readers have the confidence to masterfully produce similar visuals. This served as the second hypothesis: Third, it tried to investigate whether manga also produces higher level of behavioral intention aspects in imitating the visuals compare to non-manga comic books.
This argument serves as the reason why many readers tend to choose visuals of manga than the non-manga, proposing the third hypothesis: Therefore the fourth hypothesis: Introduction of Study The experiment tried to investigate further by addressing the four hypotheses developed from the research questions and initial discussions, utilizing an experiment model. The model Figure 6. The model constructs the path of positive relationship between perceived attractiveness, perceived easiness in drawing similar visuals, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, attitude and behavioral intention in imitating visuals of manga.
Figure 6. Methodology 6. Participants University students of Art and Design program from three universities located in Bandung: The participants were selected based on suggestion that most of them are still in the middle of art education process and still developing their drawing technique, therefore are open for external visual influences.
Participants mostly have a long relation with comics. From responses, Small number of participants 5. Results showed that these readers mostly interested in manga with action adventure theme and acknowledged that emotionally expressive effects as the most attractive visuals. Therefore, the stimulus utilized for the study should represent these characteristics: Non-manga stimulus was also chosen with consideration in representing relatively similar features. This particular issue focuses on the meeting between Naruto and his departed mother, who told him the story of his birth and how both of his parents sacrificed their life for him.
It has been listed as the best selling manga for the last four years from Elexmedia Komputindo, the biggest manga publisher in Indonesia. Tintin is also well-known among Indonesian comic readers for its sophisticated visuals and straight adventure story Ahmad et al. It was also voted as the most read non-manga comics from previous study. Tintin visuals offered detailed background drawings which were based on factual settings.
This should enable them to produce genuine accuracy in measuring their intention in imitating the visuals from each stimulus. Regardless of the comic book condition, all participants read completed storyline. Naruto to represent manga left and The Adventure of Tintin right to represent non-manga comic books. Copyright and by Copyright Holders. The third stimulus was obtained through the third questionnaire by asking participants about what kind of visuals that become their main visual inspiration and references in their drawings.
They were free to choose whether the visuals came from American comics, European comics, Japanese comics, other comics or non-comics such as illustrators or animators.
Then they were asked to mention the name of the artists. While the participants were requested to name one of the most inspired visual references, numerous of them produced multiple answers. From participants, American and European comics scored lower with Design and measurements The experiment utilized within-subjects designs with every participant took part in all conditions. Within-subject design was chosen because it is important to obtain results from the same participant for two to three different stimuli.
Precautions were made to minimize the problems commonly found with this type of design, by randomizing the stimuli for each participant.
For each experiment session, it had been arranged that the number of participants who began with manga and non-manga stimuli were relatively equal. At the beginning of each session, the participants were briefed that the experiment was aimed to rate their responses toward certain comics and whether those comics affected their behavioral intention in shaping their drawing style.
The participants then were informed about three phases in this experiment Figure 6. The first phase required the participants to read the stimulus, before filing out the first perceived attractiveness and behavioral intention questionnaire. Reading the complete stimulus was necessary to produce a reading experience since the study took from the argument that the habit of reading manga has shaped the behavior of imitating its visuals.
If the participants first began with manga, he then read non-manga comic book on the second phase; and vice versa. The participants then were offered small gifts for their participation then were dismissed.
The average time needed to complete the whole experiment was ninety minutes. Participants were allowed to perform their usual manner in reading comics without time limitation. The experiments were mostly performed in a room with normal condition in the one of the meeting room at the Visual Communication Design program of ITB.
Each session allocated an average of six to seven participants. Only in the last three sessions, the experiments were carried out with larger number of participants 14 to 24 persons , since they were carried out in different locations. Questionnaire Perceived attractiveness questionnaire The self-report questionnaire measured seven aspects of perceived attractiveness: Items for emotional response utilized semantic differential which were based on the results of expressions feeling from the questionnaire stage see chapter four.
Each selected adjective was accompanied by its bipolar expression. This study utilized simpler methods in which the participants were asked to compare their perceived attractiveness between reading manga and non manga. The questionnaire for experimental study had fewer items with 25 items for perceived attractiveness and 15 items for behavioral intention.
Therefore further analysis was not performed due to lack of available data. These results showed that the measurement for perceived attractiveness was highly reliable, while the measurement for behavioral intention needed further improvements, both in the developing the items and procedure. For those familiar with the Naruto series, This could suggest that many of the participants are regular readers of Naruto series. Both values suggested a high level of internal consistency for the scale.
However, the storyline of the stimulus Naruto vol. These would support the argument that one story of manga could produced a wider range of emotion. The same measurement on non-manga produced normal score. Therefore, the item was kept for analysis. These values also suggested a high level of internal consistency for the scale.
Therefore, this item was removed from analysis. Table 7. The missing values were replaced by the scale mean. Perceived Attractiveness Comparison between Manga and Non-manga 7. The highest mean differences were scored on engagement and parasocial interaction with the lowest one on spatial presence. Figure 7. The lowest value was scored on Happy-Sad, with manga was perceived to produce relatively sad feeling compare to non-manga. Discussions The results supported the argument that manga with its distinctive visual and storytelling has the advantage in being perceived as more attractive by its readers.
From the seven aspects of perceived attractiveness, manga excelled in all aspects compared to non-manga. It is suggested that Indonesian readers found them selves more related with manga visual storytelling techniques, especially toward emotional-related visuals. Inspiration dimensions also scored large means differences, which confirmed the result obtained from previous study that reading manga enacted the feeling of inspiration among its readers.
This is not out of concern for others, but because he does not enjoy drawing such things. Toriyama was not concerned about consistency with the color of characters' clothes for the occasional color pages, having sometimes used different ones than he had before. The editor said his concerns were unfounded, as readers accepted the change without complaint.
These new illustrations were initially drawn in ink, scanned into a computer and colored using Corel Painter. Midway through, Toriyama changed to drawing them on a graphics tablet and coloring them with Adobe Photoshop.
Viz originally published the first chapters as Dragon Ball and chapters over as Dragon Ball Z to mimic the names of the anime series, feeling it would reduce the potential for confusion by its readers. In , while releasing Dragon Ball in the monthly format, Viz began to censor the manga in response to parental complaints about sexual innuendos. They have slightly smaller dimensions. Dragon Ball was published in five volumes between June 3, , and August 18, ,   while Dragon Ball Z was published in nine volumes between June 3, , and November 9, This version uses some Japanese kanzenban covers and marks the first time in English that the entire series was released under the Dragon Ball name, though it is still censored.
It also leaves the Japanese sound effects and word bubbles unaltered.
Free Naruto manga 653 download ita
In November , Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son. Napier determined the ban as a difference in culture due to Japan having tolerance for sexuality in manga while other countries not feeling the same way.Part two explores issues on perception through visual media and would round up the role of manga in influencing its readers visually and produces the strong sense of emotional engagement.
Contrasts and post hoc analyses using Bonferroni correction however showed that there were no significant differences between manga and non-manga in all dimensions, while personal preferences scored significantly higher from both of them. Download the free trial version below to get started. Japanese children continue to read manga through their teens and adult time because manga is faster and easier to read than novels, providing an important source of entertainment and relaxation in a highly disciplined society.
Gramedia Pustaka Utama. The information is needed solely for analyzing purposes and would be kept strictly confidential.
Join the online community, create your anime and manga list, read reviews, explore the forums, follow news, and so much more! Based on the literature and the context of this investigation, a model is constructed by integrating the diagrammatic process and the model of self-efficacy and expectancy theory Figure 5. I'm Always Watching is chapter of the original Naruto manga.
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