1. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language. Focus on The Focus on Vocabulary series consists of two books: Bridging Vocabulary and. Focus on Vocabulary - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Focus on Vocabulary 1: Bridging Vocabulary is a research-based vocabulary textbook that gives intermediate to high-intermediate students hands-on.

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Staff credits: The people who made up the Focus on Vocabulary 1 team, 6 Focus on Vocabulary 1 Student Book Answer Key .. Adobe (pdf) Reader. 8. Update Daily .. Focus on Vocabulary 1: Bridging Vocabulary is a research- based vocabulary textbook that gives intermediate to high-intermediate students . The research-based Focus on Vocabulary series breaks down vocabulary acquisition tasks into achievable, Focus on Vocabulary 1

If the task is too difficult.. This information is particularly useful because it enables you to select the appropriate word form to fit your sentence and therefore improve the overall accuracy of your written work. Notice in the image below the useful word form and word family information provided in the entries. These patterns comprise much of speech and writing.

Use the table to record your results. Use your dictionary to look up the target words. Motivation has been done for you. A sound knowledge of collocations not only will improve the overall accuracy of your speaking and writing. Then write a sentence of your own that imitates some of the word order. Write them. This is the entry for engagement.

Notice that a model sentence or phrase is provided for each meaning sense and that common collocations are highlighted in bold. One section of your vocabulary card should be set aside for model sentences that use the target word.

Yesterday he complained about the color of the paper clips I had ordered. Add model sentences with "tell" and "show" parts where necessary. Compare sentences with a partner. The second part should "show" what the word means. Check the model sentences you wrote for each word to make sure you have included a "tell" and "show" part for each one.

The first part should "tell" you something about using the target word. Adapted from Kinsella. Instructions Select ten vocabulary cards for target words from Chapters that you scored as a 1 or 2. Good model sentences should include two parts.

So it is useful to add your own model sentence as well.

TESOL presentation. Look at the example. Although dictionaries provide excellent model seritences. Can you think about something without having the language to describe it? I I understand this word when I see it or hear it in a sentence. Most languages use between twenty-five and thirty sounds. They also Although monkeys can put paint on a piece began to have a growing presence on other of paper.

If ancient humans had the development is. Fossil bones tell us that in early humans. Animals whose larynx voice box is placed high in their throats are unable to produce the variety of sounds necessary for speech.

We actually start doing so? Estimates range from know that our ancestors split from those of the This suggests that the first works of art can be However. This lowering provided a larger sound chamber the space in the throat and the mouth in which passing air could be controlled by the tongue. English uses more than forty. But with no chimpanzee our closest biological relative physical evidence of ancient language use.

Reading The passage looks at the development of human thought. By about Henshilwood had youtube. What is a physical requirement for the ability to speak? It will be interesting to more intriguing were the 8. These were not indiscriminate knife marks. What do you think pushed humankind to develop thinking and language in the first place? Was it a better chance for survival. Henshilwood's breakthrough came in when he found an ochre piece with words unmistakable etchings on it.

Why is it particularly difficult to investigate early development of thought and language? Anthropologist Chris Henshilwood 8 Based on Henshilwood's discovery. How might art. Give some examples using famous artworks. When did humans begin to think critically. Think of ways that art represents critical thinking. It can also be written as two words common sense. X uniquely B. English literature.

X rhythm starvation 1. X X deliberate explore 1. The child's articulation was not very clear. The university was looking for students who had studied a range of subjects in high school-for example. Regular practice of comfortable. Although the queen holds little political power. The firefighters were concerned that the fire had been set deliberately. Amundsen's party arrived on December The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences offers awards for both best original screenplay and best adaptation from another source.

Example 1 Example 2 1. The normal rhythm of the heart is 60 to beats per minute. Roald Amundsen. Each person's fingerprints are unique. During the s. At first. Early humans also were coming to grips with language. Read the original text and match with the paraphrases on page Advantages such as this suggest that language was one of the most important reasons for the survival of early humans. Language allowed information to be passed from one generation to the next.

They had learned how to make stone knives and other cutting instruments to help them hunt and make clothes. These sounds then became matched with objects and ideas from the real world.

The use of language provided humans with important advantages over other animals. But eventually humans learned to control the movement of air through the throat and mouth by moving the parts of this passage. There is the stereotype that early humans lived a very basic life and were not very intelligent. It also must have helped strengthen group identity.

But is this the way our ancestors really lived? Language also made it possible to work more efficiently as a team. They lived in holes in rocks and weren't able to communicate. They also cut a variety of artistic patterns into stones. They also had art. This correspondence of sounds and particular meanings was the foundation of language. Paraphrase the following sentences. The area above the larynx can be opened. The human throat. This makes it logical to assume that the development of different languages must have started in very early times.

This open area can be manipulated to change the air flow and the sounds this air makes as it passes. If partially closed. But is this true? Humankind was also moving from making indiscriminate sounds toward using language. It is estimated that there are approximately 4. Early humans learned how to manipulate their tongues and other vocal organs to produce a range of sounds that came to be connected symbolically with unique meanings.

Many people have the impression that early humans were crude people. These languages belong to the Khoisan language family. The tongue can make other sounds as well.

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The air passage can be manipulated in a number of ways by the tongue. The ability to use language must have been one of the primary reasons why early humans were so successful. One of the most distinctive is the "clicking" sounds typical of some languages in southern Africa. They made useful tools out of stone. I am still not sure of the meaning of this word even after studying it.

Summarize the reading passage in to words. Revisiting the Target Word Now that you have completed this chapter. Use paraphrasing to help you meet this reduced word limit. FJ1 have seen or heard this word before. When you look at abstract paintings.

Think of some examples of color symbolism in your culture. IJ1 know this word and can use it in my own speaking and writing. II understand this word when I see it or hear it in a sentence.

Someone who hears on the page. One young synesthete synesthesia comes from the Greek words syn blogger reports how disillusioned she felt when meaning together and aesthesis meaning she saw a famous singer for the first time and perception and means "joined perception.

Cytowic was convinced he should take a deeper look when less than two weeks later he encountered a colleague who saw the sound of his hospital pager as red lightning bolts. Cytowic and other scientists believe that synesthesia is not an abnormality. Another hearing. The sensations are also unique to there is a group of people who do not see the individuals. Professor Simon Baron to another sense such as sight. So 6 Thus. Synesthesia of two or more senses is considered a form of synesthesia.

It is only when our brain develops that the boundaries between each of our senses become more refined. People with synesthesia. Synesthete's experience 2 According to neuroscientists. This combination-an often use their condition as a means to enhance auditory stimulation accompanied by a memory or as a source of inspiration.

This is not surprising given that the buzz of a bee as purple will always see it ink in most publications is black. Reading The passage discusses the remarkable way that some people experience the senses. The visual sensation-is the most common type of prominent Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky's synesthesia. Instead they as yellow and another see it as green. Others might say that the pain senses and other ideas or objects through the from a headache is orange.

One person may see the word table words in front of them as black. The word any conscious thought. This may be because many people for several centuries. What advantage do you think there is for senses that are clearly separated?

The passage relates how metaphors often combine the essence of different senses [feeling blue depressed. Many or most babies have some degree of synesthesia. In what ways might people with synesthesia benefit from this condition? List some of the possible sensory combinations of synesthesia from the examples in the reading passage. How is synesthesia related to the brain? Give a short definition of synesthesia. Can you think of other metaphors that mix senses?

We now know has a name. As the cost of gasoline goes ever higher. Airlines offer flyer miles to their best customers to keep repeated. X abnormality abnormal abnormally disillusion disillusionment disillusioned X flavor 1. List the patterns in the space below the table. Verb Noun Adjective. It's unlike anything they have released before. Then match the collocation to its definition.

Focus on Vocabulary 1. Bridging Vocabulary

Column A Column B bee table indelible portrayal personality translation accurate sting prominent clash rose ink simultaneous citizen wobbly garden 1. What related words does it make you think of? Most people would say words such as moon.

Most words are related to many other words through meaning links. Take the word sun as an example. All of these words have some meaning link to sun and are called associations.

Association Meaning Link nose People and animals sniff with their noses. Look at the two target words and their five associations. See how the associations have meaning links to the target words. Thinking about association links to a word is useful because associations often elicit words that are used together with the original word Then explain the meaning links. Now add your own associations to the following target words. Match each box of associations to a target word. Each of the word boxes has associations that belong to one of the target words.

Choose one of these people. After doing some background research. A number of famous people have been identified as synesthetes. If teens are forced to get up at the same time as everyone else.

Without This is often a source of conflict and enough sleep. Researchers have found that the body's sleep-wake cycle is governed by something called our circadian clock. Researchers speculate that this school. This determines when our body is ready to fall asleep and when it is ready to wake up..

During your brain was playing havoc with your life. Did you have trouble getting up in the sleep deprivation may provide one explanation morning? Did your teachers think you were for why teens feel unable to concentrate at moody?

Did your parents think you had turned home or stay alert at school and are generally into an alien? These changes in your behavior bad-tempered. This change puts teens' sleep cycles out of sync with the sleep habits of the rest of their family. Lack of sleep also has serious were probably-because you were a teenager and consequences with respect to learning. The Teenage Brain case. During the teenage years. This trimming of brain the same way as the adult brain could provide cells has prompted scientists to propose a clues to understanding adolescent behavior.

Do you think teenagers should be treated like adults by their parents or in the eyes of the law? The fact that the teen brain during the teenage years. The researchers development in their children is to spend loving.

Teen brains too. Why do teenagers have such difficulty waking up in the morning? The brain development. What practices could parents or schools put in place. Describe how the brain grows and develops. Jay Giedd and colleagues at the National brain. Teens and adults agree on is that the most constructive were asked to view a series of pictures showing thing adults can do to ensure healthy brain a variety of facial expressions.

We know that the brain researchers speculate that this area regulates grows like a tree. Just before puberty. Why did the teenagers in the Boston study react to facial expressions differently from adults?

Until recently. This area is responsible for the executive Institute for Mental Health. One point that all researchers processes facial expressions. What are some consequences of not getting enough sleep?

The noise from the roadwork was causing so much aggravation for nearby residents that they made a formal complaint to the city council. One stage in confidence building is to prepare. Read the sentences and choose the phrase that best matches the meaning of the target word. At this early stage in the semester. Eat more carbohydrates than protein if you are nervous and want to be more relaxed or eat more protein than carbohydrates if you are tired and wish to be more alert.

The government's plan to trim spending included cuts to the higher education budget. Watching movies is one of my favorite habits. My sister is always happy. A poor diet can have a negative effect on children's energy levels. You can improve the second draft of your essay if you pay attention to the constructive feedback from your teacher on your first draft.

The international space station is essentially a laboratory that orbits Earth to allow researchers to carry out specialized experiments in space. Putting good sleep habits into practice is particularly difficult for teenagers. The actress played a moody. She has a habit of biting her lip when she is concentrating on something. If exercise bores you but you still want to be healthy. The crowd showed little enthusiasm for the speaker.

I try to go to the movies every weekend. Children who become caretakers of other family members often feel satisfied and proud of the contribution they are making to their family's livelihood. We had to call a free specialist to come in and prune our oak tree because the neighbors complained it blocked their sun. The police refused to speculate on a motive for the crime at this early stage in the investigation. The life coach advised her to prune her schedule to make more time to do things that she really enjoyed.

My sister is very sensitive and easily loses her temper if she thinks she has been wronged. Meeting the doctor who became her husband was a welcome consequence of breaking her ankle. Healthy eating doesn't have to be about deprivation. The small town offered much in the way of social deprivation-a community center.

I had a high temper all through my classes today. Puzzles became very popular at the time of the Industrial Revolution because workers had more time available for leisure activities.

You need to control your temper. The consequences of her mistake were far more serious than she could have imagined. Babe Didrikson's success as a female athlete and golfer opened up many consequences for the women who followed her in these sports. That lawyer speculates in cases involving workplace problems and employee rights.

You can include anything in your diet as long as it isn't eaten to excess. Researchers have found that even short-term sensory deprivation quickly leads to a reduced ability to carry out even simple tasks.

I really shouldn't speculate. Airlines often offer discounted fares to leisure travelers in order to fill extra seats. The city's public leisure facilities need upgrading so that all residents can easily and economically travel around the town.

The company decided to prune off its most successful hotels by addlng fitness centers and other leisure facilities. Doctors caution that everyone should eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day in order to maintain a healthy diet. Ordinary people are hoping that the recent economic recovery will translate into more jobs. There was only one electricity outlet in the bedroom. The executive functions of the company were carried out by a group of managers who set plans and policies for all of the employees.

The kings and queens of Norway. The directions for operating the machines were written out in executive detail to avoid any accidents. If all of the connections in a circuit are not intact. The cake recipe stated it was okay to translate honey for sugar.

Brain experts caution that the training gains made from playing computerized brain games rarely lead to improved performance in everyday life. The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that processes all information in the computer. X habit X 1. After breaking her leg skiing last winter. We had a very enthusiasm and knowledgeable guide for our tour of Istanbul.

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb aggravation 1. I habit get a stiff back from spending too much time sitting in front of the computer. A first child sometimes feels deprivation of his or her mother's attention when a new baby comes into the home.

Although the food at that restaurant is excellent. X X provisional rehearse X speculate translate X B. This translates to a The massive population loss in North and South America after the arrival of Columbus was a direct consequence of the introduction of European diseases.

The football game has provision been rescheduled for November 1. Science fiction books and films fuel our imaginations by introducing us to a wide range of superhuman heroes.

When teachers introduce peer editing into writing classrooms. The Special Olympics clearly show that leading a limited life is not an inevitable consequence of disability.

When the radio play War of the Worlds was first aired in The cast members of the play were very nervous because their final rehearse h'1. Close Encounters of the Third Kind is one of the most famous Hollywood movies focusing on the topic of alien abduction. Her moodiness almost ruined our whole vacation because we could never be sure whether she was going to want to join in any of our activities.

Regional differences between language users is a natural consequence of humans' ability to use language creatively. After the exam was finished. Improving the public transport system may offer a more constructive approach to dealing with traffic problems than building more roads. A survey of Indian workers shows that employees spend an average of one hour per day on various social networking sites.

The negotiators were hoping for a constructive dialogue between the company and union representatives in order to avoid a strike. It is a n National emergencies such as floods. My little brother had strange eating habits. The reformation of the rock band after so many years prompted the question "Why did they break up in the first place? I've noticed that my boss tugs at his moustache whenever he is asked a difficult question.

According to the U. Although the applicant lacked some basic skills. He would only eat one food at a time. Alison has the nervous habit of repeatedly clearing her throat whenever she has to give a presentation or speak at a meeting. My math teacher had such an infectious enthusiasm for his subject that even the most uninterested learners began to see its usefulness.

The physical and mental health problems experienced by retired NFL football players has prompted a congressional investigation into football brain injuries.

My wife has the annoying habit of setting her alarm clock to go off early and then hitting the snooze button about ten times before getting up. In some countries. My father travels a lot for his job. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The city hopes to regenerate the industrial area along the river by bringing in more restaurants.

In England. Concerns about pedestrian safety prompted the city council's decision to put up new traffic lights at the corner of Lincoln Avenue and Broad Street. For many people. Susan wasn't willing to wait for the others to make up their minds. True False The caretakers of pets are generally both physically and psychologically healthier than people who do not have pets. True False There is evidence that yawning helps your brain be more alert. There are about 1 billion neurons in a human brain.

True False Some things you can do to promote mental health include daydreaming. True False High blood pressure can directly cause bad temper. True False The speech production area of the brain was first identified in a laboratory experiment in Write a word essay expressing your views. Be sure to provide supporting evidence. True False Trimming one's weight can lead to better mental health.

True False Circuits in the brain are links between brain cells called neurons. Given that the research reported here indicates that the teen brain is clearly different from the adult brain. True False The number of neurons babies have has been pruned back by 20 percent by the time they are adults.

Expanding the Topic Try to answer the trivia questions about the brain and mental health. Without looking back at the chapters. This vocabulary is presented in the following sections. Writing is a great way to practice vocabulary. Most essays have the following structure: Introduction In order to demonstrate a clear essay structure. This chapter presents a variety of useful vocabulary designed to help you with these tasks and future essay assignments. Focusing on Skills: The idea of topic..

Look back at the three writing tasks from Unit The example phrases in the box can be used to do that. I will argue that. Most scientists agree that.. For each task. Functions a. It is a fact that Some say that.. Match the functions with the example phrases in the table. An introduction usually includes three key elements: They are divided into groups according to their specific function..

For each task The final element of an essay introduction usually tells the reader how you are. This essay This paper I 2. It This 3. Example phrases are listed in the box.

Then identify what part of the essay introduction the sentence is 1. Use the phrases in the box to complete the table.. It is important that you pay attention to word order and word form when adding your own words to these useful phrases. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in parentheses.. Before I. In addition to.

Example in the reading: Red, yellow, and green symbols on food packaging are used indicate whether the food is healthy or not. Focusing on Vocabulary Word Meaning page 93 A. Consumers People report that attractive designs are easier to use.

Positive feelings aid learning because we are more creative. When we have negative feelings, creativity is blocked. Modern designers try to build in features that elicit positive feelings. Nokia and Google are two examples.

Synonyms page l. Reading Identifying Links page A. Attractive people generally earn more money, get smaller fines and shorter prison sentences, and are perceived as being friendlier. Focusing on Vocabulary Word Meaning page A.

Fertile 5. Humans may have used makeup for as long as , years. The original use was to avoid having light reflect into their eyes. The mass-production of cosmetics lowered their cost so that all segments of society could afford to use them.

The passage is a historical overview, so the information is organized chronologically i. Empire 8.

This is an estimated 2 percent of the global population. We need to see the whole face to recognize it, and this happens in three steps: The cuddle chemical seems to link the recognition of familiar faces with emotional responses. In the case of mothers and babies, this response is positive and so leads to bonding. Yes, to some extent. Police do use facial recognition and matching software, but it is not yet as fast or reliable as shown on TV.

Synonyms page A. Thaler and Sunstein say that it is not necessary for governments to enact laws that require people to adopt healthier lifestyle—for example, smoking bans and trans fats boycotts. Thaler and Sunstein say that it is not necessary for governments to enact laws aimed at making people adopt healthier lifestyles—for example, smoking bans and trans fats boycotts.

Focus on Vocabulary

Answers will vary, but should include the idea of gaining an unfair advantage in sports through the use of technology. The high costs of competitive sports means that only athletes with sponsorship can compete successfully.

The same high costs mean that only wealthier households are more able to afford the cost of participating in competitive sports. The increased padding of a boxing glove allows boxers to hit as hard as they can without risking breaking their hands.

Chapter 18 Reading Reading Comprehension page 1. Likewise, children are tired of the constant distractions when adults have to cut into family time to attend to e-mail and cell phone calls. These people may simply have a wider network of friends to draw a core partner from.

If a large number of people refuse to engage in discussion e. Isolationism 7. Humans now populate most of Earth and are very mobile, which dilutes the systematic mutation necessary for evolution to occur. The merging might allow evolution to continue by using technological advances to supplement biological advances.

There are also cases now where mechanical implants and additions have helped people with injuries computerized legs and handicaps blindness. If intelligent machines start building even smarter machines, then they may reach a point where humans can no longer control them.

This group may be able to predict the effects of AI in the future, much as the DNA group did for genetic engineering and genetic crops. Human error 2. Paperback novels 3. Chapter 20 Learning More about Words: Metaphorical Meaning page A.

Words in parentheses indicates usage in reading. Reading Main and Supporting Ideas page Introduction First claim Support for first claim Second claim Support for second claim Third claim Support for third claim Fourth claim Support for fourth claim Fifth claim Support for fifth claim Sixth claim Support for sixth claim Conclusion Highlights controversies in sports and introduces techno-doping for further focus Technology enhances athletic performance beyond the natural ability of any athlete.

Enhanced swimsuit technology has led to an extraordinary number of world records being broken. Technology has made some sports more dangerous. Boxing gloves and head guards lead to more brain injuries. The expense of high technology equipment means that athletes who cannot afford it cannot compete. Technology has improved safety for sportspeople and spectators. The motorsports driver, Felipe Massa, was saved from serious brain injury by his helmet.

Technology has increased access to sports. Technology has increased fairness in sports. Although there will always be some controversy, sports have been improved by technological developments. China North Korea 8.

Native 6. Chapter 22 Reading Reading Comprehension page 1. Differences Japanese manga comics generally smaller in size, but thicker longer generally black and white several stories often written by one individual younger, more naive heroes non-Japanese contexts sales still booming wide readership Similarities large expressive eyes heroes have a weakness appeared at the start of the twentieth century, but become popular after WWII 2.

Manga writers have much more control because they do all of the production process. The readership of American comics is quite limited, while both men and women in Japan read manga. Manga appeals to readers of most ages in Japan. American comics larger in size, but thinner shorter full color one story and hero written by a team strong superheroes American contexts declining sales narrower readership, mainly teenage boys Focus on Vocabulary 1 Student Book Answer Key 33 4.

There are now many movies and computer games of comic heroes, which brings them to a wide audience 5. Unlike 5. Superman; c. Batman; k. Aquaman; 1. Unlike 4. Green Lantern; e. Wonder Woman; d. Focus on Vocabulary 1 Student Book Answer Key 37 Originally published in the early s, Tintin in the Congo follows the courageous boy reporter to the Belgian Congo in what was seen as deepest, darkest Africaat the time a Belgian colony.

So far, so normal for an explorer. But its the language and imagery used in the comic that has caused outrage in those critical of it. And the views adopted are racist and colonialist. The Belgian writer and illustrator Herg later said he regretted writing ita style that reected the intolerant outlook of the time. But thats not Bienvenu Mbutus perception of it.

Hes a Congolese national living in Belgium, and hes asking the courts to ban the book, although he says he would be satised if it was sold with a warning about the content.

Fast fashion produces a constant stream of fashion to download, which is based on the most current trends, and is relatively inexpensive.How is synesthesia related to the brain? Focusing on Vocabulary Word Meaning page A. The questions' main purpose is to activate students' prior knowledge about the topic before they read the passage.

True - A range of studies have shown the benefits of pet ownership. Write them.

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