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See all 7 reviews. Its terminal part is dilated to form endolymphatic sac which lies between the two layers of dura on the posterior surface of the petrous bone. Endolymphatic sac is surgically important.

It is exposed for drainage or shunt operation in Menieres disease. Hyrtles ssure: Hyrtles ssure also called tympanomeningeal hiatus; it is an embryonic remnant that connects CSF space to middle ear just anterior and inferior to the round window. It runs parallel to cochlear aqueduct. It can be the source of congenital CSF otorrhoea or meningitis from middle ear infections.

Normally it gets obliterated. Claw hand 2. Horners syndrome 3. Vasomotor changes 4. Trophic changes 5. The ANS is responsible for regulation of internal organs and glands, which occurs unconsciously.

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Functions: To be specic, the parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of rest-and-digest activities that occur when the body is at rest, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation tears , urination, digestion, and defecation. Its action is described as being complementary to that of one of the other main branches of the ANS, the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the ght-or-ight response.

A useful acronym to summarize the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system is SLUDG salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, and gastric emptying Physical location: Parasympathetic nerve bers arise from the central nervous system with the S2, S3, and S4 spinal nerves and from the third, seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves. Because of its location, the parasympathetic system is commonly referred to as having craniosacral outow, which stands in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, which is said to have thoracolumbar outow.

The parasympathetic nerves that arise from the S2, S3, and S4 spinal nerves are commonly referred to as the pelvic splanchnic nerves or the nervi erigentes.

Pelvic Splanchnic Control: The pelvic splanchnic nerves, S, work in tandem to innervate the pelvic viscera.

Unlike in the cranium, where one PSN was in charge of one particular tissue or region, for the most part the pelvic splanchnics each contribute bers to pelvic viscera by rst travelling to one or more plexuses before being dispersed to the target tissue. These plexuses are composed of mixed autonomic nerve bers PSN and SN and include the vesical, prostatic, rectal, uterovaginal, and inferior hypogastric plexus.

The preganglionic neurons in the neurons do not synapse in named ganglion as in the cranium but rather in the walls of the tissues or organs that they innervate. About a third of the supercial palmar arches are formed by the ulnar alone; a further third are completed by the supercial palmar branch of the radial artery; and a third by the arteria radialis indicis, a branch of arteria princeps pollicis or the median artery.

If one were to fully extend the thumb, the supercial palmar arch would lie approximately at the level of a line drawn from the distal border of the thumb across the palm.

The supercial palmar arch is more distal than the deep palmar arch.

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They are located in several small chemoreceptor organs about 2 millimeters in size two carotid bodies, one of which lies in the bifurcation of each common carotid artery, and usually one to three aortic bodies adjacent to the aorta. Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in oxygen. They also sense increases in CO2 partial pressure and decreases in arterial pH, but to a lesser degree than for O2. Oligodendrocytes may enclose up to 50 axons in separate myelin sheaths: the largest calibre axons are usually ensheathed on a basis.

During the middle trimester of gestation, the liver is the main organ for production of red blood cells, but reasonable numbers are also produced in the spleen and lymph nodes. Then, during the last month or so of gestation and after birth, red blood cells are produced exclusively in the bone marrow.

By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is replaced by adipose fat tissue. Nevertheless, residual T lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life.

The thymus reaches maximum weight 20 to 37 grams by the time of puberty. Age birth puberty twenty-ve years sixty years seventy years Mass about 15 grams; about 35 grams 25 grams less than 15 grams as low as 5 grams 44 DNB CET Review Histology: Histologically, the thymus can be divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex which is surrounded by an outer capsule.

Cortex: The cortical portion is mainly composed of lymphoid cells, supported by a network of nelybranched epithelial reticular cells.

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The cortex is the location of the earliest events in thymocyte development, where T cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection takes place. Medulla: In the medullary portion, the reticulum is coarser than in the cortex, the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in number, and there are found peculiar nest-like bodies, the concentric corpuscles of Hassall.

These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells 26 C Plasma cells REF: Vasudevan Biochemistry page , Ganongs 22nd ed chapter 27 On the basis of electrophoresis Globulins are classied as: Alpha 1 and 2 globulins: e.

Talwar and I. Srivastava page La xit de milieu interior, was coined by Claude Bernard and it means that in spite of ever changing external environment the internal environment remains same.

In our body cells are bathed in the interstitial uid which constitutes the internal milieu.

The enigmatic protein amyloid beta builds up over time in the brain and is correlated with Alzheimers disease.

The recent research shows that amyloid beta expression rises during the day and falls during the night, and that this is controlled by orexin.

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Orexin increases the craving for food Orexin-A OXA has been recently demonstrated to have direct eect on a part of the lipid metabolism. OXA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that increased energy uptake is stored as lipids triacylglycerol. OXA thus increases lipogenesis. It should be performed under cardiac monitoring in recumbent position.

It is the bifurcation where carotid sinus is located. Carotid sinus pressure will produce increased baroreceptor discharge inhibits the tonic discharge of the vasoconstrictor nerves and excites the vagal innervation of the heart, producing vasodilation, venodilation, a drop in blood pressure, bradycardia, and a decrease in cardiac output Carotid pressure is applied gently and constantly using both middle and index nger.

The maneuver canbe repeated several times until the response is elicited but should never exceeds more than 5 seconds It is contraindicated in carotid stenosis 33 ANSWER: B Rheobase REF: Electrotherapy Simplied by Nanda page The terms chronaxie and rheobase were coined in by the French physiologist Louis Lapicque Chronaxie or chronaxy is the minimum time over which an electric current, double the strength of the rheobase, needs to be applied, in order to stimulate a muscle ber or nerve cell.

Rheobase is the minimal current amplitude of indenite duration practically, a few hundred milliseconds that results in the depolarization threshold of the cell membranes being reached i. In the case of a nerve or single muscle cell, rheobase is half the current that needs to be applied for the duration of chronaxie to result in an action potential or muscle twitch. Phosphate is the most abundant intracellular anion.

Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation. Chloride is the most abundant extracellular anion. Principal glands: Located in body and fundus In the walls of the gland are at least ve distinct cell types: chief, parietal, mucous neck, stem and neuroendocrine Chief cells: source of pepsinogen, rennin and lipase.

Contain zymogens , contain abundant RNA and hence intensely basophilic Parietal oxyntic cells: are the source of gastric acid and of intrinsic factor Neuroendocrine cells: These cells synthesize a number of biogenic amines and polypeptides important in the control of motility and glandular secretion.Due to the risk of dangerously low blood pressure hypotension and loss of consciousness.

Registered candidates whose admission got cancelled due to the change of category. Registered candidates who were not allotted a seat in the first round of counselling. The test involves the intradermal injection of 0.

The first and second portions of Mullerian duct forms the fimbriae and the fallopian tubes while distal segment forms the uterus and upper vagina. Cell surface bound II.

Staphylococcus aureus. Medulla: In the medullary portion, the reticulum is coarser than in the cortex, the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in number, and there are found peculiar nest-like bodies, the concentric corpuscles of Hassall.

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