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Although I stopped short of this salutary good-Catholic-practice, literal self-flagellation, I psychically indulged in it.
I whipped myself for my misery. I was miserable, and the pinnacle of that misery was my shame and sense of inadequacy at my incapacity for a joyful holiday experience.
Not only was I miserable, but I was miserable about being miserable! The moment one enters a process with a group of people, where each confesses his or her personal misery to the group, the relief that washes over everyone present is visible.
The liberating insight that suffering is part of the human condition and one is not alienated by it, cut off from his fellow man, but through this connected to a the other as brother to brother, and sister to sister. Over time and armed with this knowledge and, frankly speaking, permission, it dawned on me that it was not only holidays I hate. The thing of it is though, the rub, is that for many years, decades of my adult life, I lacked this inestimably valuable insight.
This is an example of how the drive-desire dissonance operates. At the conscious explicit level, I believed that the experience was desirable, that it would be the source of joy. Simultaneously, the actual experience was of an absence of the anticipated pleasure. This gap or void is what Lacan speaks of in his work on desire. Desire circumnavigates an empty space. If we consider this as more than merely a commentary of the human condition, a kind of brokenness which does not lend itself to repair but only acceptance, how might we proceed.
What this situation exposes, as mentioned earlier, is a certain insincerity. The drive -desire dissonance reflects a lack of internal transparency, honesty and cohesion. This is indicative of the split between the conscious and unconscious registers of the psyche.
Whilst we may aspire to honesty, what we usually mean by this and is limited to the conscious register. Psychoanalysis is the science of identifying this lack of internal cohesion, understanding it and attempting to create synthesis between this pre-existing conscious-unconscious polarity and dissonance. To put this in a nutshell, psychoanalysis is the science of honesty. Taking the aspiration of honesty and applying a self-reflective method to its realisation.
The desire-drive dissonance is a case in point. Treating honesty as a North Star, one approach is to give up the pretence of the stated desire. To stop playing the drive-desire game.
The drive and the ongoing behaviour, self-recrimination and compulsion associated with the drive, have enrolled your stated desire as a part of the psychic drama that is acted out. Without this unfulfilled desire, the inner tension and conflict subside. The drive no longer realises the affective response that sustains it. You, the subject, in this case, will experience relief and liberation. Of course, to realise this relief and enact this technique comes as a high price — you need to let go of your desire!
And we do not choose our desires, they choose us. Meaning that they are not easy to let go of. Often all that sustains us are our desires. In that sense, hope is a tyrannising impulse, it enslaves you.
Without considering the merits of this aspiration i. Nevertheless, it is a sustaining fiction. Freud pushed these assumptions of the biogenetic theory to the extreme, inferring that if an organism in its development is forced to recross phases of a distant evolution, this implies that an aspect inherent in organic life itself and of the drive in particular is that of restoring the previous state of things.
In this new theory, the sexual drives no longer conflicted with the instincts of self-preservation, but both are part of the Life drives except, however, aggression.
It was removed from the instincts of self-preservation and inserted into the Death instincts, but with a peculiarity. Only after the combination of Death instincts with libidinal ones aimed at the outside world, the disintegrating tendency inherent in the Death instincts becomes aggression turned toward the objects of the external world. The Second drive theory and the concept of the Death instincts, therefore, show how Freud thought, while affirming the primacy of the psychological dimension for psychoanalysis, concealing intellectual binary tracks constituted by biological interests and constructs, such as that represented by the biogenetic law Sulloway, The problem was that these biological assumptions at the base of these last works of Freud not only constitute a kind of cryptobiology Sulloway, , but also above all they were not shared by the biological sciences contemporary to him.
Aggression in Post-Freudians The problem of aggression has become, as considered above, ever more important in psychoanalytic thinking, as more and more complex mental operations were described, and so more problematic psychopathologies were treated.
Klein identified, in the preoedipal and preverbal stages of development, the central moments for the future functioning of the mind, that is the developmental phases in which the importance of the dynamics of the aggressive drive is paramount. This Kleinian and post-Kleinian revolution in considering the aggressive drive from a developmental point of view has allowed, at the same time, a developmental conceptualization of the psychotic states of the mind connected to these very early stages of mental development and therefore the possibility of elaborating hypotheses of cure.
Aggression has, therefore, been identified as a drive with its developmental and interactive dynamic, implicitly recognizing it as being the manifestation of a biological substrate, without, however, following it with an interest in deepening the knowledge that the natural sciences were supplying about it.
One of the consequences of this conceptualization was the progressive sclerosis of the developmental hypothesis, which led to a rigid pathogenic ideology that saw in the relational events of early childhood the causes of mental disorders, looking for the causes of serious discomfort in a problem of aggression placed in a mythical initial period of mental life.
Currently, this approach is combined with researches that highlight the peculiar contribution of the later developmental moments see, e. In recent decades, research on the etiopathogenesis of psychopathology has directed its attention to the motivational system of attachment, which has shown a high correlation between insecure and disorganized attachments and subsequent mental disorders, in particular, personality disorders Fonagy, The massive effort given to research on attachment in recent decades has allowed psychoanalysis to benefit from basic empirical research, but has simultaneously overshadowed the problem of aggression.
The latter has become a secondary problem regarding the regulation of emotions, which is implicitly considered to be a function of the dynamics of attachment.
Der Sex Instinkt Das Geheimnis, Wie Sie Attraktive Frauen Zum Sex Verführen
As a consequence, a sort of theoretical vacuum has been created, in which the blanket of attachment theory has been extended to explain the onset of psychopathology Cowan and Cowan, , especially in adolescence.
The discovery of the attachment motivational system has shown that the human species, similar to the other mammalian species, are born with biologically innate system that regulates the interactions between parents and offspring. But, there is another biologically innate system, whose function is to regulate interactions among the adults in the mammalian groups, including human species, called Inter-male aggression or Agonistic behavior Scott and Fredericson, This type of aggression becomes mature with puberty and replaces the attachment system in the primacy of the regulation of the emotional states in the subject Stevens and Price , even if the attachment system will stay in function for all the life, for example, in the romantic love or in the adult health difficult moments.
The research area that substantiates this theory is, as we will see, widely interdisciplinary and allows us to reframe the broad observations of clinical psychoanalysis on psychopathology with basic research data. Aggression as a Regulator of Relationships Briefly we will outline the theoretical scientific area of reference for a deepening of the problem of aggression.
Evolutionism, identifying the possibility of reconstructing generative lines among different animal species including the human ones LeDoux, , is responsible for the comparative study of somatic, neurophysiological, behavioral, and emotional functioning Lorenz, ; Panksepp and Biven, Paul MacLean developed an evolutionary model of the human nervous system of great heuristic significance which was greatly but not completely shared by the scientific community Cory, ; Panksepp and Northoff, The oldest phylogenetical part of the triune brain is located in the deepest part of the human brain called the striatal system and the brainstem, that MacLean calls Complex R or reptilian brain MacLean, a , b.
Reptiles are characterized by the prevalence of this neuroanatomical structure, which show typical behaviors related to intraspecific communication: territorial marking, challenge behavior, courtship, and submission behavior.
MacLean identifies these behaviors as Paleomentation MacLean, a , b , p. In fact, the four types of behavior have their meaning only among individuals of the same species, including human species, as we will consider. MacLean identifies, therefore, in the phylogenetically oldest part of the brain, the R complex, the oldest structures of the regulation of intra-species aggression, which is the territorial agonism, from which the agonism for the formation of rank hierarchies will subsequently evolve.
Over the neuronal organization of the reptilian brain, a structure called the limbic system was evolving and characterized by the presence of cingulum gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, parts of the hypothalamus, area of the septum, and nucleus accumbens part of the striatum. The evolution of the limbic system MacLean, , a , b allows the offspring to recognize their caregiver. This individual recognition is central, as we will see below, for the formation of dominance hierarchies that structures the group.
Finally, a third organization has been increasingly evolving in the course of phylogenesis, consisting of the neocortex MacLean, a , b , of which particular interest is the cortical midline structures CMS that have intimate functional relationships with the lower structures of the subcortical-cortical midline structures SCMS Northoff and Panksepp, ; Panksepp and Northoff, in the development of the selfhood.
There is now the knowledge of the neuronal circuits, the neuromediators, and the hormone components involved in these systems Panksepp, These systems can be divided into two large groups. Then, we can speak synthetically of Dominance and Submissive motivational system, which regard the same behaviors and has the same functions of Inter-male aggression or Agonistic behavior Scott and Fredericson, , and which have the function of regulating access to food and sexual resources among sexually mature conspecifics, including human species.
So, the Dominance and Submissive system is characterized by the complementarity of two systems. The Submissive behaviors and emotions are described as Social defeat, which generate persistent stress Tidey and Miczek, Predatory aggression does not imply activation of the autonomic nervous system, and in fact, it is called a quiet-biting attack. This brain system is confluent with another prime emotional system, the mesolimbic dopamine circuit the SEEKING system of Panksepp , which runs from the ventral tegmental area through the lateral hypothalamus to the nucleus accumbens and other forebrain zones.
It is interesting what neurobiology discovered about predatory aggression, namely that the stimulation of the center of the system that triggers the behavior of predation in felines, the dorsolateral hypothalamus, which activates in a noncarnivorous species looking for food or foraging Panksepp, ; Panksepp and Zellner, ; Siegel and Victoroff, Of particular interest is defensive rage, the second type of aggression of RAGE system.
Defensive rage, in contrast to predatory aggression, is characterized by a massive activation of the autonomic nervous system, whose effect is the rapid increase in energy availability to allow a rapid strengthening of muscle energy.
The defensive aggressiveness is, in fact, activated by situations in which the individual suffers a strong coercion by external agents, but also powerful frustrations of their own motivational purpose Panksepp, ; Panksepp and Zellner, ; Siegel and Victoroff, The third type of aggression of RAGE system is inter-male aggression and is aimed at comparing two contenders in order to establish a priority of access to both food and sexual resources Bjorkqvist, ; Rohde, ; Allen and Badcock, The neural pathways involved in this type of aggression run from medial amygdala, through the preoptic, anterior hypothalamus area, until the periaqueductal gray PAG; Panksepp, ; Panksepp and Biven, The arousability of this system is controlled by testosterone receptors, of which this circuit is very rich.
The first is activated when the object is far away and avoidable, and in this situation, the animal shows an escape behavior. The other behavior manifests itself when the frightening stimulus is not avoidable and is characterized by immobility, by freezing.
The FEAR system is the expression of a neuronal circuit composed of the lateral and central nuclei of the amygdala and the anterior and medial hypothalamus down to the periaqueductal gray LeDoux, ; Panksepp, ; Weisfeld, The two ancient systems of FEAR and defensive RAGE are closely interconnected at the level of the hypothalamus and the periaqueductal gray, interconnectedness that is maintained at the level of the amygdala Panksepp and Biven, , where they give rise to well-organized distinct circuits see below.
The two circuits thus become functionally interconnected in intra-species aggression, therefore becoming complementary. In this way, the behavioral expressions of aggression have acquired the social function of determining in the adversary an emotional state of fear, and the behavioral manifestations of fear have acquired the social function of reducing the activation of the emotional system of anger in the adversary that threatens, pacifying the contender Price and Sloman, ; Gilbert, The complementarity of RAGE and FEAR systems is an important stage of phylogeny, made possible by the evolution of the limbic system, of which the amygdala is one of the parts Behrendt, Species that have this extremely rudimentary structure amygdala , like the most ancient reptiles, do not have the ability to have social life; therefore, the regulation of access to food and sexual resources takes place through a rudimentary territorial agonism Behrendt, The characteristic of this competitive system is that the competition between two members of the same species ends with one fleeing from the territory on which the other will dominate Behrendt, The evolution of the limbic system allowed the individualized recognition of conspecifics among mammal groups.
This evolutionary acquisition allowed the two contenders to share the same territory, without one having to flee, but continuing to cooperate for the common defense from predators and to hunt: Territorial agonism has turned into a ritual agonism. The behaviors of fear manifested by the contender have become the signal of recognition of the superiority of the adversary, the submissive behavior, in order to put an end to hostilities.
For this purpose, the FEAR system has coopted behavior from other behavioral and emotional systems, for example, the loser shows his willingness to offer himself as a sexual object to the winner as a submissive behavior with which to pacify the adversary Eibl-Eibesfeldt, The fundamental point is that between mammals and birds, in which the ritual agonistic system has evolved, the elimination of the opponent is not foreseen Lorenz, The defeated, therefore, manifests his own recognition of the greater power of the adversary and this gives rise to the structuring of what is called Dominance rank.
The dominance hierarchy implies that high-ranking animals have preferred access to food and mate. The Dominance hierarchy has therefore become the central regulator of the relations between adult individuals in the group of mammals. This structure, to be such and to maintain itself in time, implies that there is a continuous exchange of signs among the members of the group, aimed at maintaining the structural organization of the group.
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The Second drive theory and the concept of the Death instincts, therefore, show how Freud thought, while affirming the primacy of the psychological dimension for psychoanalysis, concealing intellectual binary tracks constituted by biological interests and constructs, such as that represented by the biogenetic law Sulloway, What are the implications?
Let me illustrate this idea by way of a personal example. We soon fall back into our state of wanting, chronic anxiety and perennial anticipation. I whipped myself for my misery. As soon as the good Lord would permit such a character building mini-crucifixion to be over, that is.