THE ART AND SCIENCE OF ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN PDF

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EMC for Product Designers. Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and. Personalities. Troubleshooting Analog Circuits. Electronic Circuits, Systems and Standards. Analog circuit design: art, science, and personalities / edited by. Jim Williams. p. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. cm. Part One - Learning How: The Importance of Fixing, Jim Williams; How to Grow Strong, Healthy Engineers, Barry Harvey; We Used to Get Burned a Lot, and We .


The Art And Science Of Analog Circuit Design Pdf

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Analog. Circuit Design. Art, Science, and Personalities. Edited by. Jim Williams. Butterworth-Heinemann. Boston London Oxford Singapore Sydney Toronto. In this companion text to Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities, seventeen contributors present more tutorial, historical, and editorial viewpoints. Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Analog Layout Synthesis: A Survey of Topological Approaches Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science and Personalities.

The output of L2 is a high voltage AC waveform that is partially ballasted by the 15pF capacitor. This rectified current is converted to a voltage by R1 and filtered by R3 and C6. The filtered signal becomes a feedback signal to the LT, which maintains it at 1. Enclosing the cold cathode fluorescent bulb in a feedback loop allows precise control of its operating current and allows microprocessor control of its brightness.

This architecture of a buck converter driving a self-oscillating inverter was chosen because it allows a wide range of input voltages. It is also tolerant of winding ratios on the cold cathode fluorescent transformer. One caution with this circuit is the voltage applied to the bulb terminals is not limited if the feedback loop is broken, so care must be taken to minimize the possibility of power being applied to this circuit with the fluorescent tube removed.

These cells have a long life expectancy when treated properly, but often suffer premature failure because of improper charging. The circuit shown in Figure 3. It has precise nonlinear temperature compensation, constant voltage charging with constant current override, and high efficiency over a wide range of input and battery voltages. The basic charger is a flyback design to allow operation with input voltages above or below battery voltage.

A dual op amp is used to control constant voltage and constant current modes. This current limit is included to prevent excess charge current for heavily discharged batteries. Losses in R7 are kept low because the voltage drop across R7 is kept to several hundred millivolts.

Lead acid batteries have a nonlinear negative temperature coefficient which must be accurately compensated to ensure long battery life and full charge capacity. The combination of R2, R3, and R4 multiply the 1. A2 is used as a buffer to drive the resistor network. This allows large resistors to be used for the cell multiplier string, R9 and R R9 is set at k for each series cell over one.

R9 current is only 12mA, so it can be left permanently connected to the battery. The battery charging circuits shown here for nickel cadmium or nickel metal hydride batteries control the current into the battery but do not detect when full battery charge is reached. This allows the battery voltage to be lower or higher than the input voltage. For example, a 16V battery stack may be charged off of a 12V automobile battery.

The charge current is sensed by R4, a 1. Resistors R5 and R6 limit the peak output voltage when no battery is connected. Diode D3 prevents the battery discharging through the divider network when the charger is off, while transistor Q1 allows electronic shutdown of the charger.

The next two chargers are a high efficiency buck charger configuration. The input voltage must be higher than the battery voltage for charging to occur. No heat sinks are needed on either the switching regulator or diodes because the efficiency is so high. The dual rate battery charger in Figure 3. An LT amplifier senses the current into the battery and drives the feedback pin of an LT switching regulator.

The entire control circuit is bootstrapped to the LT and floats at the switching frequency, so stray capacitance must be minimized. A gain setting transistor changes the gain on the LT by shorting or opening resistor R1.

This changes the charge rate, for the value shown, between 0. The charger in Figure 3. The charging current is directly proportional to the program voltage. A small sense resistor in the bottom side of the battery senses the battery charging current. This is compared with the program voltage and a feedback signal is developed to drive the LT VC pin.

This controls the charging current from the LT and with appropriate control circuits any battery current may be programmed.

Usually, a switching regulator is needed in the system to generate this voltage although it runs at low power. The LT generates the voltage with a minimum parts count. The circuit in Figure 3. This allows the use of a small inductor for the converter rather than a transformer. This ability, coupled with its micropower current demands and protection features, makes it an excellent choice for high side switching applications which previously required more expensive P-channel MOSFETs.

A notebook computer power supply system in Figure 3. A 4cell, NiCad battery pack can be used to power a 5V notebook computer system. The gate drive output, pin 2, generates about 13V of gate drive to fully enhance Q1 and Q2. The voltage drop across Q2 is only 0.

The window comparator also ensures that battery packs which are very cold 5V output when the battery is above 5V. When the battery voltage drops below 5V, Q4 acts as a low resistance switch between the battery and the regulator output. This means that the computer power is taken directly from the AC line while the charger wall unit is connected.

The LT provides regulation for both Q3 and Q4, and maintains a constant 5Vat the regulator output. The diode string made up of diodes D2-D4 ensure that Q3 conducts all the regulator current when the wall unit is plugged in by separating the two gate voltages by about 2V.

R14 acts as a current sense for the regulator. The regulator latches off at 3A when the voltage drop between the second Drain Sense Input, pin-8, and the supply, pin-6, rises above mV. R10 and C3 provide a short delay. The mP can restart the regulator by turning the second input, pin-5, off and then back on. The regulator is switched off by the mP when the battery voltage drops below 4.

The standby current for the 5V, 2A regulator is less than 10mA.

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The regulator is switched on again when the battery voltage rises during charging. The current limited wall unit dissipates the bulk of the power created by quick charging the battery pack. Q2 dissipates less than 0. R9 dissipates about 0. Q4 dissipates about 2W for a very short period of time when the batteries are fully charged and dissipates less than 0.

The three integrated circuits shown are micropower and dissipate virtually no power. Q3, however, can dissipate as much as 7W if the full 2A output current is required while powered from the wall unit. Q3 and Q4 must be heat sinked properly however. This technique is very cost effective and is also very efficient.

Nearly all the battery power is delivered directly to the load to ensure maximum operating time from the batteries. Notebook machines typically use a 9V to 15V NiCad stack for the power source. Palmtop machines, due to their extremely small size, have room for only two or four AA cells.

Power conditioning for notebook and palmtop systems Optimally the current through the tube should be regulated to control its brightness.

To understand the operation of the cold cathode fluorescent display driver in Figure 3. The regulating loop, 2. The regulating loop consists of an LT switching regulator in a buck mode configuration driving constant current into a self-oscillating converter coupled to a high voltage transformer. The architecture of the driver allows a wide input range of battery voltage while maintaining fluorescent tube current constant.

In negative buck mode, the LT periodically connects inductor L1 to ground via the switch pin. This creates a flow of current in L1 which is steered by self-oscillating transistors Q1 and Q2 to the primary of transformer L2.

The output of L2 is a high voltage AC waveform that is partially ballasted by the 15pF capacitor. This rectified current is converted to a voltage by R1 and filtered by R3 and C6.

The filtered signal becomes a feedback signal to the LT, which maintains it at 1. Enclosing the cold cathode fluorescent bulb in a feedback loop allows precise control of its operating current and allows microprocessor control of its brightness. This architecture of a buck converter driving a self-oscillating inverter was chosen because it allows a wide range of input voltages.

It is also tolerant of winding ratios on the cold cathode fluorescent transformer. One caution with this circuit is the voltage applied to the bulb terminals is not limited if the feedback loop is broken, so care must be taken to minimize the possibility of power being applied to this circuit with the fluorescent tube removed.

These cells have a long life expectancy when treated properly, but often suffer premature failure because of improper charging. The circuit shown in Figure 3.

It has precise nonlinear temperature compensation, constant voltage charging with constant current override, and high efficiency over a wide range of input and battery voltages. The basic charger is a flyback design to allow operation with input voltages above or below battery voltage.

A dual op amp is used to control constant voltage and constant current modes. This current limit is included to prevent excess charge current for heavily discharged batteries. Losses in R7 are kept low because the voltage drop across R7 is kept to several hundred millivolts.

Lead acid batteries have a nonlinear negative temperature coefficient which must be accurately compensated to ensure long battery life and full charge capacity. The combination of R2, R3, and R4 multiply the 1. A2 is used as a buffer to drive the resistor network. This allows large resistors to be used for the cell multiplier string, R9 and R R9 is set at k for each series cell over one. R9 current is only 12mA, so it can be left permanently connected to the battery.

The battery charging circuits shown here for nickel cadmium or nickel metal hydride batteries control the current into the battery but do not detect when full battery charge is reached. This allows the battery voltage to be lower or higher than the input voltage. For example, a 16V battery stack may be charged off of a 12V automobile battery.

The charge current is sensed by R4, a 1. Resistors R5 and R6 limit the peak output voltage when no battery is connected. Diode D3 prevents the battery discharging through the divider network when the charger is off, while transistor Q1 allows electronic shutdown of the charger.

Analog Circuit Design

The next two chargers are a high efficiency buck charger configuration. The input voltage must be higher than the battery voltage for charging to occur.

No heat sinks are needed on either the switching regulator or diodes because the efficiency is so high. The dual rate battery charger in Figure 3. An LT amplifier senses the current into the battery and drives the feedback pin of an LT switching regulator. The entire control circuit is bootstrapped to the LT and floats at the switching frequency, so stray capacitance must be minimized. A gain setting transistor changes the gain on the LT by shorting or opening resistor R1.

This changes the charge rate, for the value shown, between 0.

The Art and Science of Analog Circuit Design

The charger in Figure 3. The charging current is directly proportional to the program voltage. A small sense resistor in the bottom side of the battery senses the battery charging current. This is compared with the program voltage and a feedback signal is developed to drive the LT VC pin. This controls the charging current from the LT and with appropriate control circuits any battery current may be programmed.

Usually, a switching regulator is needed in the system to generate this voltage although it runs at low power. The LT generates the voltage with a minimum parts count. The circuit in Figure 3. This allows the use of a small inductor for the converter rather than a transformer. This ability, coupled with its micropower current demands and protection features, makes it an excellent choice for high side switching applications which previously required more expensive P-channel MOSFETs.

A notebook computer power supply system in Figure 3. A 4cell, NiCad battery pack can be used to power a 5V notebook computer system. The gate drive output, pin 2, generates about 13V of gate drive to fully enhance Q1 and Q2. The voltage drop across Q2 is only 0.

The window comparator also ensures that battery packs which are very cold 5V output when the battery is above 5V. When the battery voltage drops below 5V, Q4 acts as a low resistance switch between the battery and the regulator output. This means that the computer power is taken directly from the AC line while the charger wall unit is connected.

The LT provides regulation for both Q3 and Q4, and maintains a constant 5Vat the regulator output.

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The diode string made up of diodes D2-D4 ensure that Q3 conducts all the regulator current when the wall unit is plugged in by separating the two gate voltages by about 2V. R14 acts as a current sense for the regulator. The regulator latches off at 3A when the voltage drop between the second Drain Sense Input, pin-8, and the supply, pin-6, rises above mV.

R10 and C3 provide a short delay. The mP can restart the regulator by turning the second input, pin-5, off and then back on. The regulator is switched off by the mP when the battery voltage drops below 4. The standby current for the 5V, 2A regulator is less than 10mA. The regulator is switched on again when the battery voltage rises during charging.

The current limited wall unit dissipates the bulk of the power created by quick charging the battery pack. Q2 dissipates less than 0. R9 dissipates about 0. Q4 dissipates about 2W for a very short period of time when the batteries are fully charged and dissipates less than 0.The input pin can be reversed up to 20V.

The total load is less than 5mA. Maximum current demands should be carefully considered, with R1 tailored to the individual application to obtain longest possible battery life.

The linear regulator has no current spikes. Previous regulators drew such high input current in this condition that micropower operation was not possible. The charge current is sensed by R4, a 1. Cold cathode fluorescent display driver New backlight systems seem universally to use cold cathode fluorescent tubes. For example, a 16V battery stack may be charged off of a 12V automobile battery.

Connect with: The combination of R2, R3, and R4 multiply the 1.

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